Building information modelling and other digital processes used in construction - Methodology to describe, author and maintain properties in interconnected data dictionaries (ISO 23386:2020)

This European standard establishes the rules for defining properties used in construction and a methodology for authoring and maintaining them, for a confident and seamless digital share between stakeholders.
Regarding definition of properties, it provides:
•   rules of definitions of properties
•   definition of property’s attributes
Regarding authoring and maintaining process, it provides:
•   definition of request’s attributes
•   definition and role of experts;
•   a governance model through the establishment of steering committee;
•   management rules to interconnect dictionaries through properties mapping process.

Bauwerksinformationsmodellierung und andere digitale Prozesse im Bauwesen - Methodik zur Beschreibung, Erstellung und Pflege von Merkmalen in miteinander verbundenen Datenkatalogen (ISO 23386:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt die Regeln für die Definition von im Bauwesen verwendeten Merkmalen und eine Methodik für die Erstellung und Pflege solcher Merkmale fest, um einen sicheren und nahtlosen digitalen Austausch unter den Beteiligten, die einem BIM Prozess folgen, zu ermöglichen.
Hinsichtlich der Definition von Merkmalen und Merkmalsgruppen stellt dieses Dokument Folgendes bereit:
- Definitionen von Merkmalen und Merkmalsgruppen als Liste von Attributen;
- Definitionen aller bereitgestellten Attribute.
Hinsichtlich des Prozesses der Erstellung und Pflege stellt dieses Dokument Folgendes bereit:
- Definitionen und Rollen von Antragstellern;
- Definitionen und Rollen von Sachverständigen und der Sachverständigenkommission;
- Definitionen von Attributen von Anfragen;
- Definitionen von Attributen von Sachverständigen;
- Anforderungen zur Festlegung der Managementregeln für die Verknüpfung von Datenkatalogen durch den Abbildungsprozess von Merkmalen und Merkmalsgruppen.
Um die Methodik dieses Dokumentes anzuwenden, wird vorausgesetzt, dass Folgendes vorhanden ist:
- ein etabliertes Steuerungsmodell für einen Datenkatalog;
- ein Rahmen für ein Netzwerk von Datenkatalogen.
Es liegt nicht im Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokumentes, den Inhalt der miteinander verbundenen Datenkataloge bereitzustellen.

Propriétés des produits et systèmes utilisés en construction — Définition des propriétés, méthodologie de création et de gestion des propriétés (ISO 23386:2020)

Le présent document établit les règles de définition des propriétés utilisées dans la construction, ainsi qu'une méthodologie pour leur création et leur gestion, en vue d'un partage numérique fluide et fiable entre les parties intéressées selon un processus BIM.
Concernant la définition des propriétés et des groupes de propriétés, le présent document fournit:
— les définitions des propriétés et groupes de propriétés sous forme de listes d'attributs;
— les définitions de tous les attributs spécifiés.
Pour le processus de création et de gestion, le présent document fournit:
— les définitions des demandeurs et leurs rôles;
— les définitions des experts et collèges d'experts et leurs rôles;
— les définitions des attributs des demandes;
— les définitions des attributs des experts;
— des exigences visant à établir les règles de gestion pour interconnecter les dictionnaires de données à l'aide d'un processus de mise en correspondance des propriétés et des groupes de propriétés.
Pour appliquer la méthodologie du présent document, il est présumé qu'il a été mis en place ce qui suit:
— un modèle de gouvernance établi pour un dictionnaire de données;
— le cadre d'un réseau de dictionnaires de données.
Fournir le contenu des dictionnaires de données interconnectés n'entre pas dans le domaine d'application du présent document.

Informacijsko modeliranje gradenj in drugi digitalni procesi v gradbeništvu - Metodologija za opisovanje, vzpostavitev in vzdrževanje atributov v medsebojno povezanih podatkovnih slovarjih (ISO 23386:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Mar-2019
Publication Date
23-Apr-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Apr-2020
Due Date
13-Jun-2020
Completion Date
24-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
01-junij-2020
Informacijsko modeliranje gradenj in drugi digitalni procesi v gradbeništvu -
Metodologija za opisovanje, vzpostavitev in vzdrževanje atributov v medsebojno
povezanih podatkovnih slovarjih (ISO 23386:2020)

Building information modelling and other digital processes used in construction -

Methodology to describe, author and maintain properties in interconnected data
dictionaries (ISO 23386:2020)
Bauwerksinformationsmodellierung und andere digitale Prozesse im Bauwesen -
Methodik zur Beschreibung, Erstellung und Pflege von Merkmalen in miteinander
verbundenen Datenkatalogen (ISO 23386:2020)

Propriétés des produits et systèmes utilisés en construction Définition des propriétés,

méthodologie de création et de gestion des propriétés (ISO 23386:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 23386:2020
ICS:
35.240.67 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in building
gradbeništvu and construction industry
91.010.01 Gradbeništvo na splošno Construction industry in
general
SIST EN ISO 23386:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
EN ISO 23386
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 35.240.67
English Version
Building information modelling and other digital processes
used in construction - Methodology to describe, author
and maintain properties in interconnected data
dictionaries (ISO 23386:2020)

Modélisation des informations de la construction et Bauwerksinformationsmodellierung und andere

autres processus numériques utilisés en construction - digitale Prozesse im Bauwesen - Methodik zur

Méthodologie de description, de création et de gestion Beschreibung, Erstellung und Pflege von Merkmalen in

des propriétés dans les dictionnaires de données miteinander verbundenen Datenkatalogen (ISO

interconnectés (ISO 23386:2020) 23386:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 4 March 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 23386:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
EN ISO 23386:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
EN ISO 23386:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 23386:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 59 "Buildings

and civil engineering works" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 442 “Building

Information Modelling (BIM)” the secretariat of which is held by SN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2020, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 23386:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 23386:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23386
First edition
2020-03
Building information modelling
and other digital processes used
in construction — Methodology
to describe, author and maintain
properties in interconnected data
dictionaries
Modélisation des informations de la construction et autres processus
numériques utilisés en construction — Méthodologie de description,
de création et de gestion des propriétés dans les dictionnaires de
données interconnectés
Reference number
ISO 23386:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
ISO 23386:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
ISO 23386:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Rules to define properties and groups of properties ..................................................................................................... 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Property ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.3 Group of properties ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

4.4 Attributes list ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.4.1 Attributes of a property ............................................................................................................................................. 6

4.4.2 Attributes of a group of properties ...............................................................................................................18

5 Management rules to author and maintain properties and groups of properties .......................24

5.1 Interactions amongst users, experts and data dictionaries ..........................................................................24

5.2 Description of actions ....................................................................................................................................................................26

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................26

5.2.2 Requests ...............................................................................................................................................................................27

5.2.3 Management of duplicates ...................................................................................................................................28

5.3 Naming of reference documents ...........................................................................................................................................28

5.3.1 Standardization documents ................................................................................................................................28

5.3.2 Regulation documents .............................................................................................................................................28

5.3.3 Other documents ..........................................................................................................................................................29

5.4 List of request attributes .............................................................................................................................................................29

5.5 Connection between data dictionaries, sharing and mapping properties and

groups of properties ........................................................................................................................................................................31

5.6 Data dictionaries interconnection .......................................................................................................................................31

6 Governance of a data dictionary........................................................................................................................................................31

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................31

6.2 Experts' management structure ...........................................................................................................................................31

6.3 Commissions of experts ...............................................................................................................................................................32

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................32

6.3.2 Missions of the commissions of experts ...................................................................................................32

6.3.3 Opinions of the commissions of experts ..................................................................................................32

7 Governance of a network of data dictionaries ....................................................................................................................32

Annex A (informative) Implementation of the process for a manufacturer searching for

product properties related to fire regulations ...................................................................................................................33

Annex B (informative) Examples of composition of a management structure ......................................................35

Annex C (informative) Example of base and derived quantities ...........................................................................................37

Annex D (informative) Example of composition of a commission of experts..........................................................39

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................40

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
ISO 23386:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical

Committee CEN/TC 442, Building Information Modelling (BIM), in collaboration with ISO Technical

Committee ISO/TC 59, Buildings and civil engineering works, Subcommittee SC 13, Organization and

digitization of information about buildings and civil engineering works, including building information

modelling (BIM), in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN

(Vienna Agreement).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
ISO 23386:2020(E)
Introduction

In the digital built environment, there will not be a single data dictionary which comprises all the

definitions which are needed in all BIM domains. Different groups, possibly in different countries, will

create or have created separate data dictionaries, specialized for their needs, based on the legislation

and culture. We are, and will be faced with, various separated data dictionaries. They may even reside

on the same platform yet logically they are detached.

For the future of BIM, it is important to ensure that these data dictionaries can be interoperable in tools

and applications.

— The elements of the data dictionaries need to be described by the same attributes. If this is agreed

and done by all data dictionary providers, it becomes possible to map properties in one data

dictionary to properties in other data dictionaries. This can lead to reuse of properties and to the

harmonization of properties across data dictionaries. In addition, this is an important step to allow

BIM applications to use multiple data dictionaries consistently.

— The governance of the data dictionaries needs to follow the same rules with respect to the building

and development of the data dictionaries’ content.

The assumption is that the data dictionaries are independent from each other, they are connected in

a coordinated network of data dictionaries (again, there may exist several of these networks). Within

the network, the data dictionaries are related, which is visible, for instance, using a specific attribute

which maps properties and groups of properties of different data dictionaries to each other. Any data

dictionary in the network of coordinated data dictionaries is independent, i.e. it has its own processes

and committees to control the development and evolution of the data dictionary; meanwhile, they all

follow the same description and governance rules described in this document.

This document specifies the attributes to define properties and groups of properties of a single data

dictionary as well as the processes and commissions/roles for the governance of a single data dictionary

in a network of coordinated data dictionaries. In the governance processes, it is described how the

single data dictionary deals with queries and change requests and the extension of queries to other

connected data dictionaries; information of other connected data dictionaries regarding change is an

integral part of this process.

This document contributes to ensuring the quality and the unicity of property descriptions and avoiding

the creation of duplicates.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 23386:2020(E)
Building information modelling and other digital
processes used in construction — Methodology to describe,
author and maintain properties in interconnected data
dictionaries
1 Scope

This document establishes the rules for defining properties used in construction and a methodology

for authoring and maintaining them, for a confident and seamless digital share among stakeholders

following a BIM process.

Regarding the definition of properties and groups of properties, this document provides:

— definitions of properties and groups of properties as a list of attributes;
— definitions of all the provided attributes.
Regarding the authoring and maintaining process, this document provides:
— definitions and roles of applicants;
— definitions and roles of experts and the commission of experts;
— definitions of request’s attributes;
— definitions of expert’s attributes;

— requirements to establish the management rules to interconnect data dictionaries through the

mapping process for properties and groups of properties.

To apply the methodology of this document, it is presupposed that the following are in place:

— an established governance model for a data dictionary;
— a framework for a network of data dictionaries.

It is not in the scope of this document to provide the content of the interconnected data dictionaries.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 639-1, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country codes

ISO 3166-2, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 2: Country

subdivision code
ISO 4217, Codes for the representation of currencies

ISO 8601 (all parts), Date and time — Representations for information interchange

ISO/IEC 11404, Information technology — General-Purpose Datatypes (GPD)
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
ISO 23386:2020(E)

ISO 12006-3, Building construction — Organization of information about construction works — Part 3:

Framework for object-oriented information
ISO 80000 (all parts), Quantities and units
IETF https:// www .ietf .org/
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
alternative use

category of group of properties (3.14) not corresponding to class (3.7), domain (3.11), reference document

(3.18) or composed property (3.8)

Note 1 to entry: This category of group of properties shall be used only after having considered the possible use

of all the other categories.
3.2
applicant

user (3.21) formulating a request for the creation, modification or deactivation of a property (3.17) or a

group of properties (3.14)
3.3
area of competence

area of an expert’s (3.12) proficiency and knowledge associated to one or several groups of properties (3.14)

EXAMPLE An area of competence could be:
— domain (3.11);
— class (3.7);
— reference document (3.18).
3.4
attribute

data element for the computer-sensible description of a property (3.17), a group of properties (3.14), etc.

Note 1 to entry: An attribute describes only one single detail of a property or a group of properties.

EXAMPLE The name of a property, the definition of a group of properties.

[SOURCE: ISO 13584-42:2010, 3.3, modified — In the definition and Note 1 to entry, references to "a

relation or a class" have been replaced with "a group of properties"; the EXAMPLE has been updated.]

3.5
base quantity

quantity in a conventionally chosen subset of a given system of quantities, where no quantity (3.16) in

the subset can be expressed in terms of the other quantities within that subset
[SOURCE: ISO 80000-1:2009, 3.4, modified — NOTEs 1 to 4 have been removed.]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
ISO 23386:2020(E)
3.6
building information modelling
BIM

use of a shared digital representation of an asset to facilitate design, construction and operation

processes to form a reliable basis for decisions

[SOURCE: ISO 19650-1:2018, 3.3.14, modified — The wording "a built asset" has been changed to "an

asset"; Note 1 to entry has been removed.]
3.7
class
description of a set of objects that share the same characteristics

Note 1 to entry: The characteristics may be embodied by the use of properties, operations, methods, relations,

semantics, etc.
Note 2 to entry: Each class is a hierarchical element of a classification.
[SOURCE: ISO 22274:2013, 3.4, modified — Note 2 to entry has been added.]
3.8
composed property

category of group of properties (3.14) corresponding to a feature needing multiple properties to be defined

Note 1 to entry: Using this category of group of properties requires to fill all the properties part of the composed

property. There is no value (3.20) attached to the group of properties.

EXAMPLE To describe the characteristic “concrete facing quality” it is mandatory to describe 3 properties:

concrete planarity, concrete hue, concrete texture.
3.9
data dictionary

centralized repository of information about data such as meaning, relationships to other data, origin,

usage and format
[15]
Note 1 to entry: The definition is from IBM Dictionary of Computing .
3.10
derived quantity

quantity (3.16), in a system of quantities, defined in terms of the base quantities (3.5) of that system

EXAMPLE In a system of quantities having the base quantities length and mass, mass density is a derived

quantity defined as the quotient of mass and volume (length to the power three).
[SOURCE: ISO 80000-1:2009, 3.5, modified — The NOTE has been removed.]
3.11
domain
area of activity covering a science, a technique, a material, etc.

Note 1 to entry: A domain can be associated with a group to which the property (3.17) applies.

3.12
expert

person who, through knowledge or experience, has competence to give an opinion in the fields about

which he/she is consulted

[SOURCE: ISO 13302:2003, 3.10, modified — The domain "" has been removed; the

NOTE has been removed.]
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
ISO 23386:2020(E)
3.13
globally unique identifier
GUID
unique identifier generated using an algorithm

Note 1 to entry: In ISO 16739-1 and ISO 12006-3 the compressed version of GUID is used.

3.14
group of properties
collection enabling the properties (3.17) to be prearranged or organized

Note 1 to entry: A Property Set as defined in ISO 16739-1 is a group of properties, but a group of properties is not

necessarily a Property Set.

Note 2 to entry: There are five categories of possible groups of properties: class (3.7), domain (3.11), reference

document (3.18), composed property (3.8), alternative use (3.1).

Note 3 to entry: The category of group of properties alternative use shall be used only after having considered

the possible use of all the other categories.

Note 4 to entry: A property (3.17) can be member of several groups of properties. A property cannot be member

of several Property Sets as defined in ISO 16739-1.
3.15
interconnected data dictionaries

set of data dictionaries (3.9) following this document and connected using specific attributes (3.4)

3.16
quantity

property (3.17) of a phenomenon, body, or substance, where the property has a magnitude that can be

expressed by means of a number and a reference

Note 1 to entry: Quantities can appear as base quantities (3.5) or derived quantities (3.10).

EXAMPLE 1 Length, mass, electric current (ISQ base quantities).
EXAMPLE 2 Plane angle, force, power (derived quantities).

[SOURCE: ISO 80000-1:2009, 3.1, modified — NOTEs 1 to 6 have been removed; new Note 1 to entry and

two EXAMPLEs have been added.]
3.17
property
inherent or acquired feature of an item

EXAMPLE Thermal efficiency, heat flow, sound reduction index, sound power level, colour.

[SOURCE: ISO 6707-1:2017, 3.7.1.3, modified — The EXAMPLE has been added.]
3.18
reference document

publication that is consulted to find specific information, particularly in a technical or scientific

domain (3.11)

Note 1 to entry: A reference document can be associated with any data present in a data dictionary (3.9).

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 23386:2020
ISO 23386:2020(E)
3.19
unit
unit of measurement
measurement unit

real scalar quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which any other quantity of the same

kind can be compared to express the ratio of the second quantity to the first one as a number

[SOURCE: ISO 80000-1:2009, 3.9, modified — NOTEs 1 to 5 have been removed; "unit" has been changed

to be a preferred term and "unit of measurement" an admitted term.]
3.20
value
quantity value
value of a quantity
number and reference together expressing magnitude of a quantity
EXAMPLE 1 Length of a given rod: 5,34 m or 534 cm.
EXAMPLE 2 Mass of a given body: 0,152 kg or 152 g.
EXAMPLE 3 Curvature of a given arc: 112 m .
EXAMPLE 4 Celsius temperature of a given sample: −5 °C.

EXAMPLE 5 Electric impedance of a given circuit element at a given frequency, where j is the imaginary unit

(3.19): (7 + 3j) Ω.
EXAMPLE 6 Refractive index of a given sample of glass: 1,32.

EXAMPLE 7 Rockwell C hardness of a given sample (150 kg load): 43,5 HRC (150 kg).

EXAMPLE 8 Mass fraction of cadmium in a given sample of copper: 3 µg/kg or 3 × 10 .

EXAMPLE 9 Molality of Pb2+ in a given sample of water: 1,76 µmol/kg.
EXAMPLE 10 Amount-of-substance concentration of lutropin in a gi
...

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