Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-3: Equipment and Application - Adhesion materials

This document is limited to specifying the requirements when applying adhesion material to the interface between the wheel tread and the crown of the rail, and includes both trainborne and trackside solutions. This standard only covers the equipment and application of adhesion material to the active interface.
This document defines:
- the characteristics that systems of adhesion materials of the wheel/rail interface shall achieve, together with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;
- all relevant terminology which is specific to the adhesion materials of the wheel/rail interface.
This document only applies to the mainline railway.
NOTE 1   This document can also be used for other railways, e.g urban rail.
NOTE 2   Although technologies used to influence the wheel/ rail interface, other than the application of a material, are out of scope of this document, it can be used as guidance.

Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-3: Vorrichtungen und Anwendung - Kraftschlussmaterialien

Dieses Dokument beschränkt sich darauf, die Anforderungen bei der Anwendung von kraftschlusserhöhenden Materialien auf die Kontaktfläche zwischen Radlauffläche und Fahrfläche der Schiene festzulegen, und umfasst sowohl fahrzeugseitige als auch gleisseitige Lösungen.
Dieses Dokument deckt nur die Vorrichtungen und Anwendung von kraftschlusserhöhenden Materialien auf die aktive Kontaktfläche ab.
Dieses Dokument definiert
- die Eigenschaften, die Systeme bei der Applikation von kraftschlusserhöhenden Materialien an der Kontaktfläche zwischen Rad und Schiene erfüllen müssen, zusammen mit geeigneten Inspektions- und Prüfverfahren, die zur Verifikation durchzuführen sind,
- alle relevanten Begriffe, die spezifisch für kraftschlusserhöhenden Materialien für die Kontaktfläche zwischen Rad und Schiene sind.
Dieses Dokument ist nur für Vollbahnen anzuwenden.
ANMERKUNG 1 Dieses Dokument kann auch für andere Schienennetze verwendet werden, z. B. städtische Schienenbahnen.
ANMERKUNG 2 Wo andere Technologien als die Anwendung von kraftschlusserhöhenden Materialien zur Beeinflussung der Kontaktfläche zwischen Rad und Schiene verwendet werden, liegen diese nicht im Anwendungsbereich dieses Dokuments, es kann jedoch als Leitlinie verwendet werden.

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion du Frottement Roue/Rail - Parte 1-3: Équipement et Application - Matériau d'Adhésion

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 1-3. del: Oprema in uporaba - Lepilni materiali

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
25-Nov-2020
Publication Date
16-Mar-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Mar-2021
Due Date
15-May-2021
Completion Date
17-Mar-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
01-maj-2021

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 1-3. del: Oprema in uporaba -

Lepilni materiali
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-3: Equipment and
Application - Adhesion materials
Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-3:
Vorrichtungen und Anwendung - Kraftschlussmaterialien

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion du Frottement Roue/Rail - Parte 1-3: Équipement et

Application - Matériau d'Adhésion
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-3
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
March 2021
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 45.040
English Version
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management -
Part 1-3: Equipment and Application - Adhesion materials

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion du Frottement Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen

Roue/Rail - Parte 1-3: Équipement et Application - Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-3: Vorrichtungen und

Matériau d'Adhésion Anwendung - Kraftschlussmaterialien

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 27 December 2020 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7

4.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Application ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

5 Requirements for trainborne equipment .............................................................................................. 8

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.2 Design of trainborne equipment ............................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment ...................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance .............................................................................................. 9

5.5 Application ..................................................................................................................................................... 10

5.6 Verification ..................................................................................................................................................... 10

6 Requirements for trackside equipment .............................................................................................. 11

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.2 Design of trackside equipment ............................................................................................................... 11

6.3 Installation of trackside equipment ...................................................................................................... 12

6.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance ........................................................................................... 12

6.5 Application ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

6.6 Verification ..................................................................................................................................................... 13

Annex A (informative) Types of trainborne equipment ............................................................................. 14

Annex B (informative) Guidance on approvals testing and verification ............................................... 15

Annex C (informative) Guideline braking tests for Adhesion Materials (trainborne and

trackside equipment) ................................................................................................................................. 17

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 20

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway Applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document is part of the series EN 15427, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management,

which consists of the following parts:
— Part 1-1: Equipment and Application - Flange Lubrication
— Part 1-2: Equipment and Application - Top of Rail materials
— Part 1-3: Equipment and Application - Adhesion materials
— Part 2-1: Properties and Characteristics - Flange lubricants
— Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail materials
— Part 2-3: Properties and Characteristics - Adhesion materials
— Part 3: Rationale for requirements and further background information

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 (E)
Introduction

Friction management using solid or fluid (oil, grease, etc.) substances at the wheel-rail interface is a

complex subject and includes:

— lubrication of the wheel flange/ rail gauge corner interface, commonly referred to as “flange or rail

lubrication”;

— lubrication of the back of flange/ check rail interface; commonly referred to as “check rail

lubrication”;

— altering the level of friction at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread, commonly

referred to as “top of rail friction management”;

— applying materials to the wheel rail contact to increase (improve/ enhance/ recover) adhesion.

This document sets out requirements for the application for the adhesion materials. It describes systems

fitted on board trains and on the track, as both systems may need to be employed to achieve effective

adhesion.

Managing the wheel-rail interface effectively will reduce wear of both wheel and rail and ensure reliable

braking performance. When friction is managed effectively, noise levels, wear levels and the risk of flange

climbing are reduced. Conversely, where not managed effectively, assets may require replacement

prematurely before reaching their full economic potential.

There needs to be control in the application of adhesion materials such that there is:

— no loss of traction or braking performance;
— no adverse effect on signalling systems or track circuits;
— no harmful environmental effect;

— no incompatibility between the different lubricants/materials in use, particularly, between solid and

fluid systems;
— no effect on the performance of the infrastructure.
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document is limited to specifying the requirements when applying adhesion material to the interface

between the wheel tread and the crown of the rail, and includes both trainborne and trackside solutions.

This document only covers the equipment and application of adhesion material to the active interface.

This document defines:

— the characteristics that systems for the application of adhesion materials of the wheel-rail interface

shall achieve, together with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;

— all relevant terminology which is specific to the adhesion materials of the wheel-rail interface.

This document only applies to the mainline railway.
NOTE 1 This document can also be used for other railways, e.g urban rail.

NOTE 2 Where technologies are used to influence the wheel/rail interface, other than the application of a

material, this document is out of scope but can be used as guidance.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 13749, Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Method of specifying the structural requirements

of bogie frames

CEN/TS 15427-2-3:2021, Railway application – Wheel/ Rail friction management – Part 2-3: Properties

and Characteristics – Adhesion materials
EN 16834:2019, Railway applications - Braking - Brake performance

EN 50121-1, Railway applications - Electromagnetic compatibility - Part 1: General

EN 50125-1, Railway applications - Environmental conditions for equipment - Part 1: Rolling stock and on-

board equipment

EN 50238-1, Railway applications - Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems - Part

1: General

EN 61373, Railway applications - Rolling stock equipment - Shock and vibration tests

EN 62621, Railway applications - Fixed installations - Electric traction - Specific requirements for composite

insulators used for overhead contact line systems
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SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 (E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
active interface
contact area between wheel tread and the crown of the rail
3.2
applicator

part of trackside/trainborne equipment that delivers the adhesion material to the active interface

EXAMPLE Nozzles or pipes.
3.3
trainborne equipment

system carried on the train that consists of one or more applicators, a storage unit and a means of control

3.4
trackside equipment

system installed on or adjacent to the track that consists of one or more applicators, storage containers

and a means of control
3.5
supplier
organisation responsible for supplying the equipment/adhesion material
3.6
adhesion material
substance used to alter friction at the wheel/rail active interface
EXAMPLE Sand.
3.7
technical specification
document outlining agreement between the client and the supplier
3.8
low adhesion
conditions where the wheel/rail adhesion is in the range 0,08 to 0,05
3.9
very low adhesion
conditions where the wheel/rail adhesion is in the range 0,05 to 0,02
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 (E)
3.10
extremely low adhesion
conditions where the wheel/rail adhesion is below 0,02

Note 1 to entry: low, very low and extremely low will be referred to as low adhesion throughout the document.

3.11
Wheel Slide Protection
WSP

system designed to make the best use of available wheel-rail adhesion (where this is less than the wheel-

rail adhesion demanded), and in some cases improve wheel-rail adhesion, by a controlled reduction and

restoration of the brake force to prevent wheelsets from locking and uncontrolled sliding, thereby

minimizing the extension of stopping or slowing distances and possible wheel damage

3.12
reactive application

application of the adhesion material when there is the demand from the relevant system

3.13
preventative application

planned application of adhesion material to reduce the risk of a low adhesion event

4 General
4.1 Purpose

Where a low adhesion event is encountered, the application of adhesion material to the active interface

shall enhance/recover the adhesion without compromising the safe operation of the railway.

Where adhesion materials are applied as a preventative measure, the adhesion material shall reduce the

risk of a low adhesion event occurring.

The specific purpose for the use of adhesion materials and its equipment shall be understood before

deployment in order to achieve the desired outcome. (e.g. improved braking performance).

NOTE See CEN/TS 15427-2-3:2021, Wheel/Rail friction management – Properties and Characteristics -

Adhesion materials.
4.2 Application

The adhesion material application equipment shall apply adhesion material to take effect in the active

interface.

The adhesion material application equipment shall be designed to limit contamination of any other part

of the train or infrastructure.

Build-up of excess adhesion material on the train or infrastructure shall be avoided.

Where it is likely that adhesion material will come into contact with other materials when applied,

possible incompatibilities shall be considered.

The applicator shall be adjustable such that it can be returned to its correct working position following

wheel or rail reprofiling or other maintenance changes.

When changing to an alternative adhesion material in the equipment it shall be ensured that the

performance of the adhesion material application equipment meets the original requirements of the

client/the technical specification.
A method to determine when refilling is required shall be provided.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 (E)

A method by which the equipment can be checked to ensure its functional status shall be provided.

Ensure the adhesion material being applied to the active interface, has been approved for use by the

relevant authorizing bodies (see Annex B).
5 Requirements for trainborne equipment
5.1 General
When applying to the active interface, the following shall be considered:
— method of braking (e.g. tread, disk or other);
— position and number of applicator(s) on the vehicle;
— direction of travel;
— proximity of applicator to the wheel and the rail;
— speed of train;
— amount of application.
The position and alignment of each applicator shall take into account:

— suspension movements to ensure application of the adhesion material to the active interface in all

conditions;
— the need to gain access for maintenance.

Affected parties shall be engaged and relevant approvals shall be gained upon introduction of trainborne

equipment.
NOTE A description of generic types of applicators is given in Annex A.
5.2 Design of trainborne equipment

General consideration when designing and installing trainborne equipment shall include:

— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions (see EN 50125-1);
— equipment positioning and alignment;
— protection of the adhesion material from contamination (water, dust, etc.);
— space constraints (e.g. static and dynamic);
— availability of necessary supplies (e.g. electrical, air, hydraulic, etc.);
— options for system control and adhesion material regulation;
— interface with other on-board systems (e.g. braking);
— the type of adhesion material;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021
CEN/TS 15427-1-3:2021 (E)
— length/type of train;
— interface with infrastructure systems;
— intended design life and sustainability;
— safety and reliability requirements;

— vibration and shock loads requirements of EN 61373 and EN 13749 relevant to the position on the

vehicle;
— protection of the equipment from flying objects (e.g. track ballast);
— EMC standard (see EN 50121-1);

— aerodynamic effects (e.g. wind turbulence may affect the performance and may be optimized by use

of a windbreak);
— electronic equipment used on rolling stock (see EN 62621);

— EN 50238-1, Railway applications - Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems.

Part 1: General;
— noise emissions;
— volume of the storage.
5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment

The supplier of the trainborne equipment shall produce instructions for the installation and us

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020
01-november-2020

Železniške naprave - Trenje na stiku kolo-tirnica - 1-3. del: Oprema in uporaba -

Lepilni materiali
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management - Part 1-3: Equipment and
Application - Adhesion materials
Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-3:
Vorrichtungen und Anwendung - Kraftschlussmaterialien

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion du Frottement Roue/Rail - Parte 1-3: Équipement et

Application - Matériau d'Adhésion
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3
ICS:
45.040 Materiali in deli za železniško Materials and components
tehniko for railway engineering
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020
FINAL DRAFT
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
September 2020
ICS 45.040
English Version
Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management -
Part 1-3: Equipment and Application - Adhesion materials

Applications ferroviaries - Gestion du Frottement Bahnanwendungen - Reibungsmanagement zwischen

Roue/Rail - Parte 1-3: Équipement et Application - Rad und Schiene - Teil 1-3: Vorrichtungen und

Matériau d'Adhésion Anwendung - Kraftschlussmaterialien

This draft Technical Specification is submitted to CEN members for Vote. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 256.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a Technical Specification. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change

without notice and shall not be referred to as a Technical Specification.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020
FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.1 Purpose ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Application ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

5 Requirements for trainborne equipment .............................................................................................. 9

5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.2 Design of trainborne equipment ............................................................................................................... 9

5.3 Installation of trainborne equipment ................................................................................................... 10

5.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance ........................................................................................... 10

5.5 Application ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

5.6 Verification ..................................................................................................................................................... 12

6 Requirements for trackside equipment .............................................................................................. 12

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 Design of trackside equipment ............................................................................................................... 13

6.3 Installation of trackside equipment ...................................................................................................... 14

6.4 Operations, Inspection and maintenance ........................................................................................... 14

6.5 Application ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.6 Verification ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

Annex A (informative) Types of trainborne equipment ............................................................................. 16

A.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 16

A.2 Trainborne equipment ............................................................................................................................... 16

Annex B (informative) Guidance on approvals testing and verification ............................................... 17

B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

B.2 Trials ................................................................................................................................................................. 18

Annex C (informative) Guideline braking tests for Adhesion Materials (trainborne and

trackside equipment) ................................................................................................................................. 19

C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

C.2 Choosing the right test vehicle: ............................................................................................................... 19

C.3 Trainborne equipment ............................................................................................................................... 20

C.4 Test track ........................................................................................................................................................ 20

C.5 Test conditions .............................................................................................................................................. 20

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kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020
FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020 (E)

C.6 Conducted tests ............................................................................................................................................. 20

C.7 Testing proactive adhesion material ..................................................................................................... 20

C.8 Testing reactive adhesion material: ...................................................................................................... 21

C.9 Effect on break blocks and MTB .............................................................................................................. 21

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 22

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020
FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256

“Railway Applications”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the Vote on TS.

This document is part of the series EN 15427, Railway applications - Wheel/Rail friction management,

which consists of the following parts:
— Part 1-1: Equipment and Application - Flange Lubrication
— Part 1-2: Equipment and Application - Top of Rail materials
— Part 1-3: Equipment and Application - Adhesion materials
— Part 2-1: Properties and Characteristics - Flange lubricants
— Part 2-2: Properties and Characteristics - Top of Rail materials
— Part 2-3: Properties and Characteristics - Adhesion materials
— Part 3: Rationale for requirements and further background information
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020
FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020 (E)
Introduction

Friction management using solid or fluid (oil, grease, etc) substances at the wheel-rail interface is a

complex subject and includes:

— lubrication of the wheel flange / rail gauge corner interface, commonly referred to as “flange or rail

lubrication”;

— lubrication of the back of flange/ check rail interface; commonly referred to as “check rail lubrication”

— altering the level of friction at the interface between the top of rail and the wheel tread, commonly

referred to as “top of rail friction management”;

— applying materials to the wheel rail contact to increase (improve/ enhance/ recover) adhesion.

This document sets out requirements for the application for the adhesion materials. It describes systems

fitted on board trains and on the track, as both systems may need to be employed to achieve effective

adhesion.

Managing the wheel-rail interface effectively will reduce wear of both wheel and rail and ensure reliable

braking performance. When friction is managed effectively, noise levels, wear levels and the risk of flange

climbing are reduced. Conversely, where not managed effectively, assets may require replacement

prematurely before reaching their full economic potential.

There needs to be control in the application of adhesion materials such that there is:

— no loss of traction or braking performance;
— no adverse effect on signalling systems or track circuits;
— no harmful environmental effect;

— no incompatibility between the different lubricants/ materials in use, particularly, between solid and

fluid systems;
— no effect on the performance of the infrastructure.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
kSIST-TS FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020
FprCEN/TS 15427-1-3:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document is limited to specifying the requirements when applying adhesion material to the interface

between the wheel tread and the crown of the rail, and includes both trainborne and trackside solutions.

This document only covers the equipment and application of adhesion material to the active interface.

This document defines:

— the characteristics that systems for the application of adhesion materials of the wheel-rail interface

shall achieve, together with applicable inspection and test methods to be carried out for verification;

— all relevant terminology which is specific to the adhesion materials of the wheel-rail interface.

This document only applies to the mainline railway
NOTE 1 This document can also be used for other railways, e.g urban rail.

NOTE 2 Where technologies are used to influence the wheel/ rail interface, other than the application of a

material, this document is out of scope but can be used as guidance.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 13749, Railway applications - Wheelsets and bogies - Method of specifying the structural requirements

of bogie frames

FprCEN/TS 15427-2-3, Railway application – Wheel/ Rail friction management – Part 2-3: Properties and

Characteristics – Adhesion materials
EN 16834:2019, Railway applications - Braking - Brake performance

EN 50121-1, Railway applications - Electromagnetic compatibility - Part 1: General

EN 50125-1, Railway applications - Environmental conditions for equipment - Part 1: Rolling stock and on-

board equipment

EN 50238-1, Railway applications - Compatibility between rolling stock and train detection systems - Part

1: General

EN 61373, Railway applications - Rolling stock equipment - Shock and vibration tests

EN 62621, Railway applications - Fixed installations - Electric traction - Specific requirements for composite

insulators used for overhead contact line systems
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3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
active interface
contact area between wheel tread and the crown of the rail
3.2
applicator

part of trackside/trainborne equipment that delivers the adhesion material to the active interface

EXAMPLE Nozzles or pipes.
3.3
trainborne equipment

system carried on the train that consists of one or more applicators, a storage unit and a means of control

3.4
trackside equipment

system installed on or adjacent to the track that consists of one or more applicators, storage containers

and a means of control
3.5
supplier
organisation responsible for supplying the equipment/ adhesion material
3.6
adhesion material
substance used to alter friction at the wheel/rail active interface
EXAMPLE Sand.
3.7
technical specification
document outlining agreement between the client and the supplier
3.8
low adhesion

conditions where the wheel/rail adhesion is in the range 0,08 to 0,05 (reference the WSP standard)

3.9
very low adhesion
conditions where the wheel/rail adhesion is in the range 0,05 to 0,02
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3.10
extremely low adhesion
conditions where the wheel/rail adhesion is below 0,02

Note 1 to entry: low, very low and extremely low will be referred to as low adhesion throughout the document.

3.11
Wheel Slide Protection (WSP)

system designed to make the best use of available wheel-rail adhesion (where this is less than the wheel-

rail adhesion demanded), and in some cases improve wheel-rail adhesion, by a controlled reduction and

restoration of the brake force to prevent wheelsets from locking and uncontrolled sliding, thereby

minimizing the extension of stopping or slowing distances and possible wheel damage

3.12
reactive application

application of the adhesion material when there is the demand from the relevant system

3.13
preventative application

planned application of adhesion material to reduce the risk of a low adhesion event

4 General
4.1 Purpose

Where a low adhesion event is encountered, the application of adhesion material to the active interface

shall enhance/ recover the adhesion without compromising the safe operation of the railway.

Where adhesion materials are applied as a preventative measure, the adhesion material shall reduce the

risk of a low adhesion event occurring.

The specific purpose for the use of adhesion materials and its equipment shall be understood before

deployment in order to achieve the desired outcome. (e.g improved braking performance).

NOTE See FprCEN/TS 15427-2-3:2020, Wheel/Rail friction management – Properties and Characteristics -

Adhesion materials.
4.2 Application

The adhesion material application equipment shall apply adhesion material to take effect in the active

interface.

The adhesion material application equipment shall be designed to limit contamination of any other part

of the train or infrastructure.

Build-up of excess adhesion material on the train or infrastructure shall be avoided.

Where it is likely that adhesion material will come into contact with other materials when applied,

possible incompatibilities shall be considered.

The applicator shall be adjustable such that it can be returned to its correct working position following

wheel or rail reprofiling or other maintenance changes.

When changing to an alternative adhesion material in the equipment you shall ensure that the

performance of the adhesion material application equipment meets the original requirements of the

client/ standard.
A method to determine when refilling is required shall be provided.
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A method by which the equipment can be checked to ensure its functional status shall be provided.

Ensure the adhesion material being applied to the active interface, has been approved for use by the

relevant authorizing bodies. (see Annex B).
5 Requirements for trainborne equipment
5.1 General
When applying to the active interface, the following shall be considered:
— method of braking (e.g. tread, disk or other);
— position and number of applicator(s) on the vehicle;
— direction of travel;
— proximity of applicator to the wheel and the rail;
— speed of train;
— amount of application.
The position and alignment of each applicator shall take into account:

— suspension movements to ensure application of the adhesion material to the active interface in all

conditions;
— the need to gain access for maintenance.

Affected parties shall be engaged and relevant approvals shall be gained upon introduction of trainborne

equipment.
NOTE A description of generic types of applicators is given in Annex A.
5.2 Design of trainborne equipment

General consideration when designing and installing trainborne equipment shall include:

— ambient temperature range and climatic conditions (see EN 50125-1);
— equipment positioning and alignment;
— protection of the adhesion material from contamination (water, dust, etc…);
— space constraints (e.g. static and dynamic);
— availability of necessary supplies (e.g. electrical, air, hydraulic, etc..);
— options for system control and adhesion material regulation;
— interface with other on-board systems (e.g. braking);
— the type of adhesion material;
— total life cycle cost and maintainability;
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