Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas - Design and testing of marine transfer systems - Part 2: Design and testing of transfer hoses

This European Standard gives general guidelines for the design, material selection, qualification, certification, and testing details for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) transfer hoses for offshore transfer or on coastal weather-exposed facilities for aerial, floating and submerged configurations or a combination of these. Whilst this European Standard is applicable to all LNG hoses, it is acknowledged that there may be further specific requirements for floating and submerged hoses.
The transfer hoses will be designed to be part of transfer systems (it means that they will be fitted with ERS, QCDC, handling systems, hydraulic and electric components etc.) To avoid unnecessary repetition, cross-references to EN 1474-1 and EN 1474-3, are made for all compatible items, and for references, definitions and abbreviations. Where additional references, definitions and abbreviations are required specifically for LNG hoses, they are listed in this European Standard.
Transfer hoses need to be durable when operating in the marine environment and to be flexible with a minimum bending radius compatible with handling and the operating requirements of the transfer system.

Anlagen und Ausrüstung für Flüssigerdgas - Auslegung und Prüfung von Schiffsübergabesystemen - Teil 2: Auslegung und Prüfung von Übergabeschläuchen

Dieses Dokument gibt generelle Leitlinien für die Auslegung, Werkstoffauswahl, Eignung, Zertifizierung und Prüfdetails für Schlauchleitungen für Flüssigerdgas (LNG, en: liquified natural gas) für die Übergabe auf See.
Die Übergabeschlauchleitungen werden als Teil eines Übergabesystems ausgelegt (d. h., sie können mit ERS [en: emergency release system], QCDC [en: quick connect disconnect coupler], Handhabungssystemen, hydraulischen und elektrischen Bauteilen usw. ausgerüstet sein). Zur Vermeidung von unnötigen Wiederholungen wird für alle vergleichbaren Gegenstände, für Definitionen und Abkürzungen auf EN ISO 16904 und EN 1474 3 verwiesen. Sofern zusätzliche Verweise, Definitionen und Abkürzungen für LNG-Schlauchleitungen benötigt werden, sind sie in dieser Europäischen Norm aufgeführt.

Installations et équipements de gaz naturel liquéfié - Conception et essais des systèmes de transfert marins - Partie 2: Conception et essais des tuyaux de transfert

Le présent document fournit des lignes directrices générales relatives à la conception, au choix des matériaux, à la qualification, à la certification et aux détails des essais concernant les flexibles destinés aux applications de transfert marin de gaz naturel liquéfié (GNL).
Les flexibles de transfert font partie intégrante des systèmes de transfert (ce qui signifie qu’ils peuvent être équipés d’ERS, de QCDC, de systèmes de manutention, de composants hydrauliques et électriques, etc.). Afin d’éviter toute répétition inutile, les références à l’EN ISO 16904 et à l’EN 1474-3 sont valables pour tous les éléments compatibles, ainsi que pour les références, définitions et abréviations. Si des références, des définitions et des abréviations supplémentaires sont spécifiquement nécessaires pour les tuyaux flexibles de GNL, elles sont énumérées dans la présente Norme européenne.

Napeljave in oprema za utekočinjeni zemeljski plin - Načrtovanje in preskušanje obalnih pretakališč - 2. del: Načrtovanje in preskušanje cevi za pretakanje

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
03-Aug-2019
Publication Date
01-Nov-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
28-Oct-2020
Due Date
02-Jan-2021
Completion Date
02-Nov-2020

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN 1474-2:2020 - BARVE na PDF-str 25,26,29,32,34,35,38,57,61,62
English language
64 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
01-december-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 1474-2:2009
Napeljave in oprema za utekočinjeni zemeljski plin - Načrtovanje in preskušanje
obalnih pretakališč - 2. del: Načrtovanje in preskušanje cevi za pretakanje

Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas - Design and testing of marine

transfer systems - Part 2: Design and testing of transfer hoses
Anlagen und Ausrüstung für Flüssigerdgas - Auslegung und Prüfung von
Schiffsübergabesystemen - Teil 2: Auslegung und Prüfung von Übergabeschläuchen

Installations et équipements de gaz naturel liquéfié - Conception et essais des systèmes

de transfert marins - Partie 2: Conception et essais des tuyaux de transfert
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1474-2:2020
ICS:
75.200 Oprema za skladiščenje Petroleum products and
nafte, naftnih proizvodov in natural gas handling
zemeljskega plina equipment
SIST EN 1474-2:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.200 Supersedes EN 1474-2:2008
English Version
Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas -
Design and testing of marine transfer systems - Part 2:
Design and testing of transfer hoses

Installations et équipements de gaz naturel liquéfié - Anlagen und Ausrüstung für Flüssigerdgas - Auslegung

Conception et essais des systèmes de transfert marins - und Prüfung von Schiffsübergabesystemen - Teil 2:

Partie 2 : Conception et essais des flexibles de transfert Auslegung und Prüfung von Übergabeschläuchen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 19 July 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1474-2:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ..................................................................................................... 5

3.1 Terms and Definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 10

4 Applications and Qualification Categories .......................................................................................... 10

4.1 Applications ................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Qualification Categories ............................................................................................................................ 10

5 Description of typical LNG transfer hose assembly designs and accessories ........................ 11

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Mandatory components ............................................................................................................................. 11

5.3 Optional components .................................................................................................................................. 12

5.4 Typical construction of LNG transfer hose assemblies .................................................................. 12

5.4.1 Main hose categories .................................................................................................................................. 12

5.4.2 Corrugated metal hose assemblies ........................................................................................................ 13

5.4.3 Thermoplastic multi-layer (non-vulcanized) hose assemblies (Composite hose

assemblies) ..................................................................................................................................................... 15

5.4.4 Hose-in-hose with annular space ........................................................................................................... 16

6 Design features of the LNG transfer hoses assemblies ................................................................... 17

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 17

6.2 Transfer Hose Assembly technology design parameters .............................................................. 17

6.3 Project Specific Design Parameters ....................................................................................................... 18

6.3.1 Selection of hose assembly length .......................................................................................................... 18

6.3.2 Service life ....................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.3.3 Selection of buoyancy and submersion ................................................................................................ 18

6.3.4 Selection of insulation ................................................................................................................................ 18

6.3.5 Selection of external protection ............................................................................................................. 19

6.3.6 Selection of leak detection ........................................................................................................................ 19

6.4 Component details – End fitting .............................................................................................................. 19

6.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

6.4.2 Termination ................................................................................................................................................... 20

6.4.3 Connector ........................................................................................................................................................ 20

6.4.4 Bending stiffener/restrictor (optional) ............................................................................................... 20

6.5 Hose assembly handling / lifting device .............................................................................................. 20

6.6 Safety systems ............................................................................................................................................... 20

6.6.1 Leak detection (optional) .......................................................................................................................... 20

6.6.2 Fire safety requirements ........................................................................................................................... 21

6.6.3 Electrical safety requirements ................................................................................................................ 21

6.7 Connection to the ship ................................................................................................................................ 21

6.8 Hydraulic and electric control systems ................................................................................................ 21

7 Qualification Requirements ..................................................................................................................... 21

7.1 Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................... 21

7.2 Qualification process .................................................................................................................................. 22

7.2.1 General Principle ......................................................................................................................................... 22

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)

7.2.2 Qualification Levels Specific Requirements ........................................................................................ 22

7.2.3 Certification range definition from a tested hose assembly ......................................................... 24

7.2.4 Certification extension and update ........................................................................................................ 25

7.3 Hose Assembly tests .................................................................................................................................... 25

7.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25

7.3.2 Hose assembly property characterization tests ................................................................................ 26

7.3.3 Qualification tests with acceptance criteria ....................................................................................... 34

8 Quality assurance and control ................................................................................................................. 44

8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 44

8.2 Material selection ......................................................................................................................................... 44

8.3 Manufacturing................................................................................................................................................ 45

8.3.1 Manufacturing basics .................................................................................................................................. 45

8.3.2 Traceability ..................................................................................................................................................... 45

8.3.3 Marking ............................................................................................................................................................ 45

8.3.4 Packing and Preservation .......................................................................................................................... 46

8.4 Factory acceptance tests ............................................................................................................................ 46

8.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 46

8.4.2 Tests to be performed on every hose assembly ................................................................................ 46

9 Documentation .............................................................................................................................................. 46

9.1 Purchasing Guidelines ................................................................................................................................ 46

9.2 Design, Qualification and Manufacturing Documentation ............................................................ 46

9.3 As-built documentation/Manufacturing Data Book ........................................................................ 47

9.4 Operation manual ......................................................................................................................................... 47

Annex A (informative) Purchasing guidelines table ..................................................................................... 49

Annex B (informative) Guidelines for additional testing program ......................................................... 52

Annex C (Informative) Guidelines for Hose Qualification Categories (HQCs) Selection .................. 59

Annex D (informative) Surge pressure considerations for LNG hose assemblies .............................. 61

Annex E (Informative) Pressure Leak Tests - justification about maximum allowed permeability

rate and leak detection value ................................................................................................................... 62

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 64

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 1474-2:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 282 “Installation and

equipment for LNG”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2020, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by March 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1474-2:2008.

In comparison with the previous edition, the following technical modifications have been made:

— Update of the scope
— Review of Application and introduction of Hose Qualification Categories
— Revision of hose assembly categories
— Review of design features
— Review of qualification requirements
— Review of Quality assurance and control
— Review of documentation
— Review of annexes
This series consists of 3 parts:

— EN 1474-1: Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas — Design and testing of marine transfer

systems — Part 1: Design and testing of transfer arms

(This standard has been superseded by EN ISO 16904 - Petroleum and natural gas industries - Design and

testing of LNG marine transfer arms for conventional onshore terminals)

— EN 1474-2: Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas — Design and testing of marine transfer

systems — Part 2: Design and testing of transfer hoses

— EN 1474-3, Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas — Design and testing of marine transfer

systems — Part 3: Offshore transfer systems

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia,

Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)
1 Scope

This document gives general guidelines for the design, material selection, qualification, certification, and

testing details of hose assemblies for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) marine transfer applications.

The transfer hose assemblies are part of transfer systems (it means that they may be fitted with ERS, QCDC,

handling systems, hydraulic and electric components etc.) To avoid unnecessary repetition, cross-references

to EN ISO 16904 and EN 1474-3 are made for all compatible items, and for references, definitions and

abbreviations. Where additional references, definitions and abbreviations are required specifically for LNG

hose assemblies, they are listed in this European Standard.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes

requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1474-1:2008, Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas — Design and testing of marine transfer

systems — Part 1: Design and testing of transfer arms

EN 1474-3:2008, Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas - Design and testing of marine transfer

systems - Part 3: Offshore transfer systems

EN ISO 7369:2004, Pipework - Metal hoses and hose assemblies - Vocabulary (ISO 7369:2004)

EN ISO 8330:2014, Rubber and plastics hoses and hose assemblies - Vocabulary (ISO 8330:2014)

EN ISO 10012:2003, Measurement management systems - Requirements for measurement processes and

measuring equipment (ISO 10012:2003)

EN ISO 10619-1:2018, Rubber and plastics hoses and tubing - Measurement of flexibility and stiffness - Part 1:

Bending tests at ambient temperature (ISO 10619-1:2017)

EN ISO 16904:2016, Petroleum and natural gas industries - Design and testing of LNG marine transfer arms for

conventional onshore terminals (ISO 16904:2016)
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Terms and Definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 7369:2004 and

EN ISO 8330:2014 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1.1
annular space

space between the inner fluid carrying layer and a second layer which can be used for insulation and/or safety

purposes
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)
3.1.2
armour layer

either a braid made of wires (see braid) or strips of metal or plastic used to provide pressure strength and/or

external protection
3.1.3
axial stiffness

extent to which a hose assembly resists tensile deformation in response to an applied axial force

3.1.4
bend stiffness

ability of a flexible pipe to resist deflection when subjected to bending loads at constant tension, pressure and

temperature
3.1.5
bend restrictor
device for limiting the bend radius by mechanical means

NOTE 1 to entry: A bend restrictor typically comprises a series of interlocking metallic or moulded rings, applied over

the outer surface
3.1.6
bending stiffener

ancillary conical shaped component, which locally supports the pipe to limit bending stresses and curvature

of the pipe to acceptance levels

NOTE 1 to entry: Bend stiffeners may be either attached to an end fitting or a support structure where the flexible pipe

passes through the bend stiffener
3.1.7
boil-off gas
BOG
natural evaporation from liquefied natural gas due to vaporization
3.1.8
burst test
test conducted on a hose sample until it failed by internal pressurization
3.1.9
buoyancy

degree, to which the hose assembly has buoyancy capabilities calculated according to 7.3.2.6

3.1.10
connector

part of the end fitting used to provide a leak-tight structural connection between the end fitting and adjacent

piping
3.1.11
crush test

application of a vertical load through a beam placed laterally across the hose assembly

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)
3.1.12
double-envelope

layer or set of layers effecting the enclosure, and thus the isolation from the environment, of those structures,

systems and components whose failure can lead to an unacceptable release of LNG
3.1.13
dynamic load

loads to flexible hose assembly or hose assembly configuration which vary in time, or whose deflections or

boundary conditions vary in time, while hose is connected
3.1.14
emergency release system
ERS

system that provides a positive means of quick release of transfer system and safe isolation of LNG carrier and

transfer system

NOTE 1 to entry: The ERS consists of an emergency release coupling (ERC) and interlocked isolating valves which

automatically close on both sides, thereby containing the LNG or vapour in the lines (dry disconnect), and, if applicable,

associated control system
3.1.15
end termination

mechanical device which forms the transition between the flexible pipe body and the connector whose

different pipe layers are terminated in the end fitting in such a way as to transfer the load between the flexible

hose assembly and the connector
3.1.16
end fitting
assembly of connector and end termination
3.1.17
emergency release coupler
ERC

device to provide a means of quick release of the transfer system when such actions is required only as an

emergency measure
3.1.18
fatigue life

number of cycles of a specified character that a given specimen sustains before failure of a specified nature

occurs
3.1.19
hose assembly
hose and its fittings
3.1.20
impact test
test for determining the impact strength of a material
3.1.21
leak detection system

system able to detect a failure / leak from the fluid carrying part of the hose assembly

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)
3.1.22
liquefied natural gas
LNG
natural gas that has been cooled and condensed into liquid form
3.1.23
maximum allowable impact energy
MAIE

maximum impact energy which can be applied to the hose assembly without bringing permanent damage to

the hose assembly structure and performances
3.1.24
maximum allowable crush load
MACL

maximum allowable crush load which can be applied to the hose assembly without bringing permanent

damage to the hose assembly structure and performances
3.1.25
maximum allowable working pressure
MAWP

maximum pressure (gauge) across the entire specified temperature range to which the hose may be exposed

and operated

Note 1 to entry: It is commonly used by terminals to define their cargo system pressure capabilities (i.e. pump shut-in

plus any static head or cargo system safety valve relief setting.

Note 2 to entry: This pressure rating is not expected to account for dynamic surge pressures, but does include nominal

pressure variations during cargo transfer operations)
3.1.26
maximum working load
MWL

maximum allowable tensile force of the hose assembly in axial direction, applied to the end-fittings

3.1.27
minimum Bend Radius
MBR
minimum radius at which the hose assembly is designed to operate
3.1.28
non-destructive test

test that is not expected to cause permanent damage to the hose assembly, so that the hose assembly can be

used in subsequent tests and for operation as well
3.1.29
owner

business entity who has the legal or rightful title to the asset intended for LNG transfer

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)
3.1.30
proof pressure

pressure to which the hose assembly is tested (i.e. during a Factory Acceptance Test) to demonstrate its

structural integrity when subject to internal pressure

NOTE 1 to entry: According to the IMO IGC Code this pressure test at ambient temperature shall be not less than 1,5 x

MAWP and not more than two-fifths of its burst pressure
3.1.31
pumping port
connection to attach a vacuum pump for vacuum insulated hose assemblies
3.1.32
quick connect disconnect coupler
QCDC

manual or hydraulic mechanical device used to connect a transfer arm or hose to the cargo manifold without

employing bolts
3.1.33
service life

period of time during which the hose assembly fulfils all performance requirements for the specified or less

severe condition in the same Hose Qualification Category
3.1.34
static load

flexible hose assemblies not exposed to significant cyclically varying loads or deflections during normal

operations
3.1.35
storage bend radius

minimum radius at which the hose assembly is designed to be stored or handled. SBR may be lower than MBR

3.1.36
super-insulation

several high reflecting foils to reduce heat transfer via radiation as part of a vacuum insulation system

3.1.37
type approval certificate

certificate issued by an IVA confirming the suitability and appropriate limits on the manufacturer's design

methodologies, manufacturing processes and materials
Note 1 to entry: The name of this certificate can differ according to the IVA
3.1.38
visual inspection

examination of parts and equipment for visible defects in material and workmanship

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)
3.2 Abbreviations
D internal bore diameter of the hose assembly
FAT factory acceptance test
FSRU floating Storage Regasification Unit
HQC hose qualification category
IVA Independent verification agency
L Length of flexible part of the hose assembly
LNGC liquefied natural gas carrier
MAAT Maximum allowable applied twist
4 Applications and Qualification Categories
4.1 Applications

This subclause describes the main application using LNG transfer hose assemblies.

As industry and technology is developing, other type of application may consider using LNG transfer hose

assemblies and shall be covered in this standard.
List of applications (not exhaustive):
— Offshore tandem FLNG offloading / loading aerial or floating;
— Ship-To-Ship transfer such as LNGC to FSRU, LNG Bunkering;
— Shore-To-Ship such as LNG bunkering;
— Ship-To-Shore such as offloading / loading.

Based on the application and use of the hose assembly, there are different categories of hose assembly

qualification required. Main difference are the dynamic loads on the hose assembly. The following subclause

introduces Hose assembly Qualification Categories (HQC).

NOTE Guidelines for the owners regarding applications and relevant HQC are available in Annex C. Selection of HQC

remains the owner’s responsibility.
4.2 Qualification Categories

This subclause establishes criteria for definition of Hose Qualification Categories for the hose assemblies

covered by this standard. The Hose Qualification Categories specified below define different design

verification requirements as per subclause 7.2.2.

The test scope within all Qualification Categories define the basis for the hose assemblies qualification but are

independent of each project specific data (metocean data, waves & current data,). During the design for a

project the required HQC should be checked by the owner and / or IVA.

The owner / IVA can require executing additional tests in order to determine if the proposed hose assembly

is “Fit for Purpose” (For fatigue test for example, specific attention should be paid on bending loads adjacent

to end terminations)
— Hose Qualification Category A
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 1474-2:2020
EN 1474-2:2020 (E)

This HQC is intended to be used for quasi-static applications (i.e. application only driven by handling

and/or thermal and pressure fatigue).

This category is including the performance requirements applicable to all aerial transfer hose assembly,

typically transfer hose assemblies used in protected environment for intermittent usage without contact

with water and with negligible dynamic motions.
— Hose Qualification Category B

This HQC is intended to be used for dynamic applications driven by aerial transfer fatigue including

significant tensile and bending fatigue loads (e.g. by vessel motions or wind loads).

This Category is including the performance requirements applicable to all aerial transfer hose assemblies

and typically applicable for the hose assemblies used in combinatio
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.