This document specifies a calculation procedure for the determination of iodine value (“CIV” - “calculated iodine value”) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used either as automotive fuel for diesel engines as specified in EN 14214 [2] or heating fuel or as an extender for automotive fuel for diesel engines as specified in EN 590 [3]. This procedure does not apply to Ethyl esters or esters made from fish oil and mixtures thereof.
The calculation procedure is applicable to methyl esters between C6 and C24:1. The calculation procedure uses as data entry the results from the gas chromatography determination (GC) according to EN 14103 of individual fatty acid methyl esters and is based on AOCS recommended practice Cd 1c - 85 for the determination of the iodine value of edible oil from its fatty acid composition. It is important to recognize that the latest version of EN 14103 is intended to be used for the determination of individual FAME components.
NOTE 1   Experience from the field and from several precision evaluation campaigns in Germany and elsewhere indicates that the results of the determination of iodine value by the calculation specified here are very close to results obtained by titration with Wijs solvent according to EN 14111 [1]. Observed small differences were always found to be smaller than the reproducibility published in the actual EN 14111.
For informative purposes only, but not for cases of dispute, EN 14331 [4] can also be used to extract the FAME contents from FAME containing diesel fuels (like B5, B7, B30, etc.) and to use the contents of the individual FAME components from this method as data entry for the calculation specified in this document.
This calculation method can be used only if the evaluated sample fulfils the requirement for ester content as reported in EN 14214.
The precision statement of this test method was determined by calculation from a Round Robin exercise with iodine values in the range of 16 g iodine/100 g to 126 g iodine/100 g.
The test method is also applicable for higher iodine values; however, the precision statement is not established for iodine values above 126 g iodine/100 g.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass fraction.

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This document specifies a procedure for the determination of kinematic viscosity, ν, by calculation from dynamic viscosity, η, and density, ρ, of both transparent and opaque liquid petroleum products and crude oils using the Stabinger type viscometer.
The result obtained using the procedure described in this document depends on the rheological behaviour of the sample. This document is predominantly applicable to liquids whose shear stress and shear rate are proportional (Newtonian flow behaviour). If the viscosity changes significantly with the shear rate, comparison with other measuring methods is not possible except at similar shear rates.
The precision has been determined only for the materials, density ranges and temperatures described in Clause 13. The test method can be applied to a wider range of viscosity, density, temperature and materials. It is possible that the precision and bias are applicable for materials which are not listed in Clause 13.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the oxidation stability at 120 °C of fuels for diesel engines, by means of measuring the induction period of the fuel up to 20 h. The method is applicable to blends of FAME with petroleum-based diesel having a FAME content in the range between 2 % (V/V) and 50 % (V/V).
NOTE 1   An almost identical test method for oxidation stability at 110 °C is described in EN 15751 [1], which applies to pure FAME and diesel/FAME blends containing 2 % (V/V) of FAME at minimum. Other alternative test methods for the determination of the oxidation stability of distillate fuels are described in CEN/TR 17225 [3].
NOTE 2   The precision of this method was determined using samples with a maximum induction period of approximately 20 h. Higher induction periods are not covered by the precision statement; however, experience from EN 15751 indicates sufficient precision up to 48 h.
NOTE 3   The presence of cetane improver can reduce the oxidation stability determined by this test method. Limited studies with 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate (EHN) indicated that the stability is reduced to an extent which is within the reproducibility of the test method.
NOTE 4   For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the oxidation stability of middle distillate fuels, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fuel and blends thereof, under accelerated conditions, by measuring the induction period to the specified breakpoint in a reaction vessel charged with the sample and oxygen at 140 °C.
NOTE 1 For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ).
NOTE 2 The induction period is used as an indication for the resistance of middle distillates, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fuels and blends thereof against oxidation. This correlation can vary markedly under different conditions with different FAMEs and diesel fuel blends.
NOTE 3 The presence of ignition improvers can lead to lower oxidation stability results determined by this method. It has for instance been observed that the addition of 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate (2-EHN) can reduce the measured oxidation stability values. See [6] for details.
NOTE 4 For further information on the precision data at a test temperature of 120 °C see Annex C.

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This document provides an overview of existing oxidation stability methods, with an emphasis on differences between the Rancimat (EN 14112/EN 15751) and PetroOxy (EN 16091) tests.

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This document specifies a method to determine the saturated monoglyceride content in Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME). This method only identifies and quantifies the following saturated monoglycerides: 1-C16:0, 2-C16:0 and 1-C18:0. The total saturated monoglyceride content is calculated by the summation of the contents of these three saturated monoglycerides. The precision has been established for FAMEs having saturated monoglycerides in the (200 to 1 500) mg/kg range.
This method is not suitable for FAME produced from or containing coconut and palm kernel oil derivatives because of overlapping of various peaks.
NOTE   This Standard determines only three saturated monoglycerides, i.e. 1-C16:0, 2-C16:0 and 1-C18:0. FAMEs can contain also other saturated monoglycerides such as 1-C17:0, but these are generally much lower than the three targeted saturated monoglycerides and are therefore not included in the Standard's scope.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard describes a procedure for the determination of steryl glycosides (SG) contents in fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in a range between 20 mg/kg and 38 mg/kg.
NOTE   Steryl glycosides (SG) are mainly present in vegetable oils.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of kinematic viscosity (ν) in the range from 2 mm2/s to 6 mm2/s at 40°C by calculation from dynamic viscosity (η) and density (ρ) of middle distillate fuels, fatty acid methyl ester fuels (FAME) and mixtures of these using the Stabinger-type viscosimeter.
The result obtained using the procedure described in this standard depends on the behaviour of the sample. This European Standard should be used predominantly on liquids whose shear stress and shear rate are proportional (Newtonian flow behaviour). However, if the viscosity changes significantly with the shear rate, comparison with other measuring methods is only permissible at similar shear rates.
WARNING - The use of this Standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the Standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This Technical Report describes the investigation into the development of a standard test method to determine oxidation stability of diesel fuel and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) blends in diesel by the use of determining the acid number after ageing at elevated temperature. It provides conclusions following this work that have been discussed by CEN. The result thereof is that no European Standard has been developed.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) content in diesel fuel or domestic heating fuel by mid infrared spectrometry, which applies to FAME contents of the two measurement ranges as follows:
-  range A: for FAME contents ranging from approx. 0,05 % (V/V) to approx. 3 % (V/V);
-  range B: for FAME contents ranging from approx. 3 % (V/V) to approx. 20 % (V/V);
-  range C: for FAME contents ranging from approx. 20 % (V/V) to approx. 50 % (V/V).
Principally, higher FAME contents can also be analyzed if diluted; however, no precision data for results outside the specified range is available at present.
This test method was verified to be applicable to samples which contain FAME conforming to EN 14214 or EN 14213. Reliable quantitative results are obtained only if the samples do not contain any significant amounts of other interfering components, especially esters and other carbonyl compounds which possess absorption bands in the spectral region used for quantification of FAME. If such interfering components are present, this test method is expected to produce higher values.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction () of a material.
NOTE 2   For conversion of grams FAME per litre (g FAME/l) to volume fraction, a fixed density for FAME of 883,0 kg/m³ is adopted.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this European Standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of the oxidation stability of fuels for diesel engines, by means of measuring the induction period of the fuel up to 48 h. The method is applicable to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) intended for the use as pure biofuel or as a blending component for diesel fuels, and to blends of FAME with diesel fuel containing 2 % (V/V) of FAME at minimum.
NOTE 1   EN 14112 [1] describes a similar test method for oxidation stability determination of pure fatty acid methyl esters (see the Introduction to this European Standard).
NOTE 2   For induction periods higher than 48 h the precision is not covered by the precision statement of this method. The limit values of the relevant fuel standards are well within the scope of this test method.
NOTE 3   The presence of cetane improver can reduce the oxidation stability determined by this test method. Limited studies with EHN (2-ethyl hexyl nitrate) indicated, however, that the stability is reduced to an extent which is within the reproducibility of the test method.
NOTE 4   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the polyunsaturated (≥ 4 double bonds) fatty acid (PUFA) methyl esters content of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as a whole between 0,6 % (m/m) and 1,5 % (m/m).
The method covers the predominant four polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters of eicosatetraenoic acid (C 20:4 (n-6)), eicosapentaenoic acid (C 20:5 (n-3)), docosapentaenoic acid (C 22:5 (n 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C 22:6 (n 3)).
Studies have indicated that based on the linearity of results from this European Standard, PUFA methyl esters can be determined in FAME in the range between 0,3 % (m/m) to 3,0 % (m/m). However, the precision was not established in that range, as no samples within the upper ranges where included in the final interlaboratory test (see 10.1).
Although the method is applicable to all uses, it is predominantly for FAME for use in diesel engines.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this document, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass fraction of a material.
NOTE 2   This European Standard is based on A.O.C.S Official Method Ce 1b-89 [1].

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This Technical Report describes a series of round robin test campaigns for precision estimation of EN 16091. Furthermore, this document includes a summary of the results of the RRTs (see Clause 7 and Annex B).
NOTE   The identities of the participating laboratories are not displayed in this report. They are, however filed with the original RRT documentation at the CEN/TC 19/JWG1 secretariat.

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This document specifies a method for the separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from middle distillates by liquid chromatography (LC) and for the determination of the pattern of the fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography (GC) according to EN 14103.
The pattern of the fatty acid methyl esters might be used for calculation of the average molecular mass of FAME according to EN 14078 [1].
Independently from the origin of the middle distillate, this method is applicable to FAME of vegetable or animal origin that contain fatty acid methyl esters between C6:0 and C24:1. The method is suitable for the separation and determination of FAME from middle distillates with FAME contents of at least 2 % (V/V).
NOTE   For the purpose of this document, the terms % (V/V) and % (m/m) are used to express volume fractions in % or mass fractions in %.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) content in diesel fuel or domestic heating fuel by mid infrared spectrometry, which applies to FAME contents of the three measurement ranges as follows:
-   range A: for FAME contents ranging from approx. 0,05 % (V/V) to approx. 3 % (V/V);
-   range B: for FAME contents ranging from approx. 3 % (V/V) to approx. 20 % (V/V);
-   range C: for FAME contents ranging from approx. 20 % (V/V) to approx. 50 % (V/V).
Principally, higher FAME contents can also be analysed if diluted; however, no precision data for results outside the specified range is available at present.
This test method was verified to be applicable to samples which contain FAME conforming to EN 14214. Reliable quantitative results are obtained only if the samples do not contain any significant amounts of other interfering components, especially esters and other carbonyl compounds which possess absorption bands in the spectral region used for quantification of FAME. If such interfering components are present, this test method is expected to produce higher values.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ) of a material.
NOTE 2   For conversion of grams FAME per litre (g FAME/l) to volume fraction, a fixed density for FAME of 883,0 kg/m3 is adopted.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the oxidation stability of fuels for diesel engines at 110 °C, by means of measuring the induction period of the fuel up to 48 h. The method is applicable to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) intended for the use as pure biofuel or as a blending component for diesel fuels, and to blends of FAME with diesel fuel containing 2 % (V/V) of FAME at minimum.
The precision of the test method has been developed for conventional diesel. This test method is applicable for paraffinic diesel fuels as specified in EN 15940, however a separate precision statement for paraffinic diesel is not available.
NOTE 1   EN 14112 [1] describes a similar test method for the determination of the oxidation stability of pure fatty acid methyl esters (see the Introduction to this document). Additionally, EN 16568 [3] describes a similar test method for the determination of the oxidation stability of fuels for diesel engines at 120 °C, by means of measuring the induction period of the fuel up to 20 h. This method is applicable to blends of FAME with diesel fuel containing 2 % (V/V) of FAME at minimum. Other alternative test methods for the determination of the oxidation stability of distillate fuels are described in CEN/TR 17225 [4].
NOTE 2   For induction periods higher than 48 h the precision is not covered by the precision statement of this method. The limit values of the relevant fuel standards are well within the scope of this test method.
NOTE 3   The presence of cetane improver can reduce the oxidation stability determined by this test method. Limited studies with EHN (2-ethyl hexyl nitrate) indicated, however, that the stability is reduced to an extent which is within the reproducibility of the test method.
NOTE 4   For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This European Standard specifies a calculation procedure for the determination of Iodine value ("CIV" - "calculated iodine value"), of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used either as automotive or heating fuel for diesel engines as specified in EN 14214 [2] or as an extender for automotive fuel for diesel engines as specified in EN 590 [4].
This procedure has originally been described in Annex B of EN 14214:2008 [2]. The calculation procedure is now specified for methyl esters between C14 and C24. The calculation procedure uses as data entry the results from the gas chromatography determination (GC) according to EN 14103 of individual fatty acid methyl esters and is based on AOCS recommended practice Cd 1c – 85 for the determination of the iodine value of edible oil from its fatty acid composition. It is important to recognise that the latest version of EN 14103 is to be used for the determination of individual FAME components.
NOTE 1   Experience from the field and from several precision evaluation campaigns in Germany and elsewhere indicates that the results of the determination of iodine value by calculation specified here are very close to results obtained by titration with Wijs solvent according to EN 14111. Observed small differences were always found to be smaller than the reproducibility published in the actual EN 14111.
For informative purposes only, but not for cases of dispute, EN 14331 [5] may also be used to extract the FAME contents from FAME containing diesel fuels (like B5, B7, B30, etc.) and to use the contents of the individual FAME components from this method as data entry for the calculation specified in this European Standard.
In principle, other fatty acid alkyl esters can also be analysed. However, neither the close correlation to the titration method EN 14111 has been verified nor is any precision information available for such an extension of application range.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "% (m/m)" is used to represent the mass fraction, µ, of a material.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of the oxidation stability of fuels for diesel engines, by means of measuring the induction period of the fuel up to 20 h at 120 °C. The method is applicable to blends of FAME with petroleum-based diesel having a FAME content in the range between 2 % (V/V) and 50 % (V/V).
NOTE 1   An almost identical test method for oxidation stability at 110 °C is described in EN 15751 [1], which applies to pure FAME and diesel/FAME blends containing 2 % (V/V) of FAME at minimum. Another alternative for distillate fuels is described in EN ISO 12205 [3].
NOTE 2   The precision of this method was determined using samples with a maximum induction period of ~ 20 h. Higher induction periods are not covered by the precision statement, however, the experience from EN 15751 indicates sufficient precision up to 48 h.
NOTE 3   The presence of cetane improver can reduce the oxidation stability determined by this test method. Limited studies with 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate (EHN) indicated, however, that the stability is reduced to an extent which is within the precision range of the test method.
NOTE 4   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the oxidation stability of middle distillate fuels, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fuel and blends thereof, under accelerated conditions, by measuring the induction period to the specified breakpoint in a reaction vessel charged with the sample and oxygen.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction (φ).
NOTE 2   The induction period is used as an indication for the resistance of middle distillates, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fuels and blends thereof against oxidation. It should be recognized, however, that this correlation can vary markedly under different conditions with different FAMEs and diesel fuel blends.
NOTE 3   The presence of ignition improvers may lead to lower oxidation stability results determined by this method. It has for instance been observed that the addition of 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate (2EHN) can reduce the measured oxidation stability values.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) content in diesel fuel or domestic heating fuel by mid infrared spectrometry, which applies to FAME contents of the two measurement ranges as follows:
-   range A: for FAME contents ranging from approx. 0,05 % (V/V) to approx. 3 % (V/V);
-   range B: for FAME contents ranging from approx. 3 % (V/V) to approx. 20 % (V/V).
Principally, higher FAME contents can also be analyzed if diluted; however, no precision data for results outside the specified range is available at present.
This test method was verified to be applicable to samples which contain FAME conforming to EN 14214 or EN 14213. Reliable quantitative results are obtained only if the samples do not contain any significant amounts of other interfering components, especially esters and other carbonyl compounds which possess absorption bands in the spectral region used for quantification of FAME. If such interfering components are present, this test method is expected to produce higher values.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (phi) of a material.
NOTE 2   For conversion of grams FAME per litre (g FAME/l) to volume fraction, a fixed density for FAME of 883,0 kg/m3 is adopted.
WARNING - The use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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