This document describes a method for sampling and analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including siloxanes, terpenes, organic sulfur compounds, in natural gas and biomethane matrices, using thermal desorption gas chromatography with flame ionization and/or mass spectrometry detectors (TD-GC-FID/MS).

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This document describes several test methods for measuring the ammonia amount fraction in natural gas and biomethane at the trace level (µmol mol-1). The suitable handling and sampling of pressurised mixtures of ammonia in methane that are applied to several different ammonia measurement systems are described. The measurement systems are comprised of readily available commercial spectroscopic analysers that are specific to ammonia. These NH3 analysers are considered as a black box in terms of their operation, which is dependent on the instructions of the manufacturer. The document describes suitable calibration and measurement strategies to quantify ammonia in (bio)methane around and above the 10 mg m-3 (14 µmol mol-1) level and applies to analysis within absolute pressure ranges of 1 bar – 2 bar, temperatures of 0 °C – 40 °C and relative humidity <90 %.
References are also made to additional standards that are applied either to natural gas analysis or air quality measurements. In this document the matrix gas is always methane or biomethane and the measurand is the amount fraction NH3.
NOTE            1 bar = 0,1 MPa =105 Pa; 1 MPa = 1 N/mm2.

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This document describes a gas chromatography – ion mobility spectroscopy (GC-IMS) method for the determination of the concentration of siloxanes in biomethane. The method is applicable to the following siloxanes:
—     hexamethyldisiloxane (L2);
—     octamethyltrisiloxane (L3);
—     decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4);
—     dodecamethylpentasiloxane (L5);
—     hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3);
—     octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4);
—     decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5);
—     dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6).
This document describes suitable calibration and measurement strategies to quantify siloxanes in (bio)methane around and above the 0,3 mg m-3 (14 µmol mol-1) level and applies to analyses within absolute pressure ranges of 1 bar – 2 bar, temperatures of 0 °C – 40 °C and relative humidity < 90 %.

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This document specifies a micro gas chromatography method for the on-line or offline determination of the content of five terpenes in biomethane, namely:
—     alpha-pinene,
—     beta-pinene,
—     para-cymene,
—     limonene,
—     3-carene.
The method is specifically developed for these five compounds. Information about the compounds is given in Annex A.
The method is applicable to the determination of individual amount fractions of the five terpenes from 1 µmol/mol up to and including 10 µmol/mol. With minor modifications it can also be used for terpene amount fractions above 10 µmol/mol.

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This document specifies the determination of the concentration of alkanolamines in biomethane. The measurement method involves thermal desorption gas chromatography with flame ionization and/or mass spectrometry detectors (TD-GC-MS/FID). The described method is specifically developed for the analysis of five amine compounds, namely:
— monoethanolamine (MEA);
— diglycolamine (DGA);
— diethanolamine (DEA);
— N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA);
— piperazine (PZ).
Information about the compounds is given in Annex A.

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This document is applicable to the measurement of the total silicon content in gaseous matrices such as biomethane and biogas. Silicon is present in a gas phase contained predominantly in siloxane compounds, trimethylsilane and trimethylsilanol. The analytical form of the silicon measured in liquid phase after conducted sampling and derivatization procedure is soluble hexafluorosilicate anion stable in slightly acidified media. Total silicon is expressed as a mass of silicon in the volume of the analysed gas.
This document is applicable to stated gaseous matrices with silicon concentrations up to 5 mg/m3, and it is prevalently intended for the biomethane matrices with Si mass concentration of 0,1 mg/m3 to 0,5 mg/m3.
With adaptation to ensure appropriate absorption efficiency, it can be used for higher concentrations. The detection limit of the method is estimated as 0,05 mg/m3 based on a gas sample volume of 0,020 m3. All compounds present in the gas phase are volatile at the absorption and derivatization temperature and gaseous organosilicon species are trapped in absorbance media and derivatized into analytical silicon that is measured by this method. The concentration of the silicon is measured in diluted derivatization media using atomic emission spectrometry upon atomisation/ionisation in microwave or inductively coupled plasma.
Unless specified otherwise, all volumes and concentrations refer to standard reference conditions (temperature, 273 K, and pressure, 101,325 kPa).
NOTE       When using appropriate dilution factors, the method can also be applied for silicon concentrations above 5 mg/m3.

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This document applies for systems for biogas production by anaerobic digestion, biogas conditioning, biogas upgrading and biogas utilization from a safety, environmental, performance and functionality perspective, during the design, manufacturing, installation, construction, testing, commissioning, acceptance, operation, regular inspection and maintenance phases.
The following topics are excluded from this document:
—    boilers, burners, furnaces and lighting in case these are not specifically applied for locally produced biogas;
—    gas fuelled engines for vehicles and ships;
—    the public gas grid;
—    specifications to determine biomethane quality;
—    transportation of compressed or liquefied biogas;
—    transportation of biomass or digestate;
—    assessment and determination whether biomass is sourced sustainably or not.
An informative explanation of the scope is included in Annex A.

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This document applies to the design, manufacture, installation and operation of flares for the combustion of biogas. Test methods and performance requirements are also included.
Biogas systems are amongst others applied at industrial plants like food and beverage industries, waste water treatment plants, waste plants, landfill sites, small scale plants next to agricultural companies and small-scale household systems.

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This document covers the requirements for the design, installation, operation, maintenance and the safety of Household Biogas Systems (HBSs), producing biogas in an amount equivalent to an installation capacity of less than 100 MWh per year.
The document applies to HBSs comprising of pipeline and equipment with pressure levels of less than 5 kPa.
Any equipment or appliances connected to an HBS or utilizing the biogas energy of an HBS are not a part of the scope of this document.

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ISO 20675:2018 defines terms and describes classifications related to biogas production by anaerobic digestion, gasification from biomass and power to gas from biomass sources, biogas conditioning, biogas upgrading and biogas utilization from a safety, environmental, performance and functionality perspective, during the design, manufacturing, installation, construction, testing, commissioning, acceptance, operation, regular inspection and maintenance phases.
Biogas installations are, among others, applied at industrial plants like food and beverage industries, waste water treatment plants, waste plants, landfill sites, small scale plants next to agricultural companies and small scale household installations.
The following topics are excluded from this document:
-      boilers, burners, furnaces and lightening, in case these are not specifically applied for locally produced biogas;
-      gas-fuelled engines for vehicles and ships;
-      the public gas grid;
-      specifications to determine biomethane quality;
-      transportation of compressed or liquefied biogas;
-      transportation of biomass or digestate;
-      assessment and determination whether biomass is sourced sustainably or not.
ISO 20675:2018 describes the following for information purposes as well:
-      the parameters to determine the size (e.g. small, medium-sized, or large scale);
-      the parameters to determine the type of installation (e.g. domestic, industrial);
-      the parameters to describe the type of technique;
-      terms and processes in order to develop health, safety and environmental protection guidelines for biogas installations.
NOTE       For an explanation of the Scope, see Annex A.

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This document specifies the quality requirements for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) used as a fuel for marine applications. It defines the relevant parameters to measure as well as the required values and the test reference methods for all those parameters.
This document applies to LNG from any source, e.g. gas from conventional reservoirs, shale gas, coalbed methane, biomethane, synthetic methane. LNG described in this document can come from synthesis process out of fossil fuels or renewable sources.
This document identifies the required specifications for fuels delivered at the time and place of custody transfer (at the delivery point).

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This document explains an approach for assessment of limit values for contaminants that may be found in biomethane. Limit values are generally required as an adjunct to a biomethane specification (such as parts 1 and 2 of EN 16723, or an equivalent National specification) or as part of a Network Entry Agreement for injection of biomethane into gas networks.
The methodology employed will permit derivation of limit values based solely on consideration of potential for impact on human health and does not consider other impacts, such as integrity and operation of plant and pipelines used to convey biomethane or appliances involved in its combustion or other regulations like CLP regulation. Where consideration of such impacts would result in proposing lower limit values than those based on health impacts, then the lowest limit values should generally be proposed.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements and test methods for natural gas (group L and H, as in EN 437), biomethane and blends of both at the point of use as automotive fuels.
This European Standard applies to the previously mentioned fuels irrespective of the storage state (compressed or liquefied).
To check compliance with some requirements set by the standard, LNG or liquefied biomethane should be re-gasified prior to testing.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements and test methods for biomethane at the point of entry into natural gas networks.

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This document gives general guidance for the sampling and gas chromatographic analysis of oil carryover in biomethane or compressed natural gas (CNG). The oil carryover is determined by sampling on coalescing filters under defined operational conditions (the two first normal cubic meters delivered at a refueling station). The oil carryover is expressed as concentration and the range of this method is 3 mg/kg – 30 mg/kg.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the concentration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrofluoric acid (HF) in biomethane, after absorption on an alkali-impregnated quartz fibre filtre or in a sorbent trap, by ion chromatography (IC) with conductimetric detection.
The method is applicable to biomethane for concentration levels for HCl from 0,07 mg/m3 to 35 mg/m3 and for HF from 0,07 mg/m3 to 20 mg/m3.
Unless stated otherwise, all concentrations in this document are given under standard reference conditions (see ISO 13443). Other conditions can be applied.
This method is also applicable to biogas. This method is intended to support conformity assessment of biomethane and biogas according to specifications, such as the EN 16723 series.

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