This document specifies a method for the determination of the characteristic temperatures for the ash melting behaviour of solid biofuels.

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ISO 16993:2016 gives formulae which allow analytical data relating to solid biofuels to be expressed on the different bases in common use. Consideration is given to corrections that can be applied to certain determined values for solid biofuels prior to their calculation to other bases. In Annex A, tools for integrity checks of analytical results are given. In Annex B, conversion factors for calculation into other units are given. Annex C is a guideline for the use of validation parameters as can be found in ISO/TC 238 analytical standards.

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ISO 16994:2016 describes methods for the determination of the total sulfur and total chlorine content in solid biofuels. It specifies two methods for decomposition of the fuel and different analytical techniques for the quantification of the elements in the decomposition solutions. The use of automatic equipment is also included in ISO 16994:2016, provided that a validation is carried out as specified and that the performance characteristics are similar to those of the method described in ISO 16994:2016.

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ISO/TS 16996:2015 specifies the procedure for a determination of major and minor element concentrations in biomass material by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry or wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry using a calibration with biomass reference materials. A semi-quantitative determination may be carried out using matrix independent standards. ISO/TS 16996:2015 is applicable for the following elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Mo, Cd, Sb, and Pb. Concentrations from approximately 0,000 1 % and above can be determined depending on the element, the calibration materials used and the instrument used.

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ISO 16968:2015 is intended for the determination of the minor elements Arsenic, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Copper, Mercury, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Lead, Antimony, Vanadium, and Zinc in all solid biofuels. Further, it describes methods for sample decomposition and suggests suitable instrumental methods for the determination of the elements of interest in the digests. The determination of other elements such as Selenium, Tin, and Thallium is also possible with the method described in this International Standard.

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ISO 16948:2015 describes a method for the determination of total carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents in solid biofuels.

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ISO 16967:2015 describes methods for the determination of major elements of solid biofuels respectively of their ashes, which are Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K, Si, Na, Ti. The determination of other elements such as barium (Ba) and manganese (Mn) is also possible with the methods described in ISO 16967:2015. ISO 16967:2015 includes two parts: Part A describes the direct determination on the fuel, this method is also applicable for sulfur and minor elements, Part B gives a method of determination on a prepared 550 °C ash.

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ISO 16995:2015 describes a method for the determination of the water soluble chloride, sodium and potassium content in solid biofuels by extraction with water in a closed container and their subsequent quantification by different analytical techniques.

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ISO 16994:2015 describes methods for the determination of the total sulfur and total chlorine content in solid biofuels. ISO 16994:2015 specifies two methods for decomposition of the fuel and different analytical techniques for the quantification of the elements in the decomposition solutions. The use of automatic equipment is also included in ISO 16994:2015, provided that a validation is carried out as specified and that the performance characteristics are similar to those of the method described in ISO 16994:2015.

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ISO 16993:2015 gives formulae which allow analytical data relating to solid biofuels to be expressed on the different bases in common use. Consideration is given to corrections that can be applied to certain determined values for solid biofuels prior to their calculation to other bases.

  • Standard
    11 pages
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  • Standard
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