Timber structures - Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section - Part 1: General requirements

This European Standard specifies requirements for strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections either visual or machine graded, shaped by sawing, planning or other methods and with cross-sectional dimensions complying with EN 336 (referred to as structural timber in the following clauses).
This European Standard includes provisions for test methods, Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance and marking of structural timber.
NOTE 1   For machine strength graded timber additional provisions for type testing (TT) are given in EN 14081-2 and for factory production control (FPC) in EN 14081-3.
NOTE 2   An acceptance procedure for verification of a lot is given in EN 14358 which may be used for a delivery of structural timber.
This European Standard identifies characteristics for which limits have to be given in visual grading standards.
This European Standard covers structural timber, untreated or treated against biological attack.
This European Standard does not cover:
-   timber treated by fire retardant products to improve its fire performance;
-   thermally and/or chemically modified timber;
-   structural finger jointed timber.

Holzbauwerke - Nach Festigkeit sortiertes Bauholz für tragende zwecke mit rechteckigem Querschnitt - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen

Diese Europäische Norm legt Anforderungen an visuell oder maschinell nach der Festigkeit sortiertes Bauholz für tragende Zwecke mit rechteckigem Querschnitt fest, das durch Sägen, Hobeln oder andere Verfahren erzeugt wurde und Querschnittsmaße nach EN 336 aufweist (nachfolgend als „Bauholz für tragende Zwecke“ bezeichnet).
Die vorliegende Europäische Norm enthält Festlegungen für Prüfverfahren, die Bewertung und Überprüfung der Leistungsbeständigkeit sowie die Kennzeichnung von Bauholz für tragende Zwecke.
ANMERKUNG 1   Für maschinell nach der Festigkeit sortiertes Bauholz sind zusätzliche Festlegungen für die Typprüfung (TT) in EN 14081 2 sowie für die werkseigene Produktionskontrolle (WPK) in EN 14081 3 angegeben.
ANMERKUNG 2   Ein Annahmeverfahren für die Prüfung von Losen, das für Lieferungen von Bauholz für tragende Zwecke verwendet werden darf, ist in EN 14358 angegeben.
Diese Europäische Norm legt Sortiermerkmale fest, für die in den Normen zur visuellen Sortierung Grenzwerte anzugeben sind.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt für Bauholz für tragende Zwecke, das entweder unbehandelt ist oder gegen biologischen Befall behandelt wurde.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für:
—   Bauholz, das mit Feuerschutzmitteln behandelt wurde, um sein Verhalten bei Brandeinwirkung zu verbessern;
—   thermisch und/oder chemisch modifiziertes Bauholz;
—   keilgezinktes Bauholz für tragende Zwecke.

Structures en bois - Bois de structure à section rectangulaire classé pour sa résistance - Partie 1 : Exigences générales

La présente Norme européenne prescrit les exigences applicables au bois de structure à section rectangulaire classé soit visuellement soit par machine, profilé par sciage, rabotage ou d’autres méthodes, et ayant des dimensions minimales de section conformes à l'EN 336 (désigné comme bois de structure dans les articles suivants).
La présente Norme européenne comprend des dispositions relatives aux méthodes d'essai, à l'évaluation et la vérification de la constance des performances et au marquage du bois de structure.
NOTE 1   Pour le bois dont la résistance est classée par machine, des dispositions supplémentaires pour les essais de type (TT) sont spécifiées dans l'EN 14081-2 et pour le contrôle de production interne (CPU) dans l'EN 14081-3.
NOTE 2   Une procédure d’acceptation pour la vérification d’un lot est indiquées dans l’EN 14358 et celle-ci peut être utilisée pour la livraison de bois de structure.
La présente Norme européenne identifie, les caractéristiques pour lesquelles des limites sont établies dans les règles de classement visuel.
La présente Norme européenne couvre le bois de structure, non traité ou traité contre les attaques biologiques.
La présente Norme européenne ne couvre pas :
-   le bois traité par des produits ignifuges pour améliorer sa performance au feu ;
-   les bois modifiés thermiquement et/ou chimiquement ;
-   le bois avec aboutages à entures multiples.

Lesene konstrukcije - Po trdnosti razvrščen konstrukcijski les pravokotnega prečnega prereza - 1. del: Splošne zahteve

Ta evropski standard določa zahteve za vizualno in strojno razvrščen konstrukcijski les pravokotnega prečnega prereza po trdnosti, ki je oblikovan z žaganjem, struženjem ali z drugimi metodami in izpolnjuje zahteve standarda EN 336 glede najmanjših dimenzij prečnega prereza.
Ta evropski standard vključuje določbe za preskusne metode, ocenjevanje in preverjanje nespremenljivosti lastnosti ter označevanjem po trdnosti razvrščenega konstrukcijskega lesa.
OPOMBA: V standardu EN 14081-2 so za strojno razvrščen konstrukcijski les po trdnosti podane dodatne določbe za tipsko preskušanje (TT), v standardu EN 14081-3 pa za kontrolo proizvodnje v obratu (FPC).
Ta evropski standard opredeljuje lastnosti, za katere so podane omejitve v standardih za vizualno razvrščanje. Ta evropski standard obravnava pravokotni konstrukcijski les, zaščiten ali nezaščiten pred biološkimi dejavniki.
Ta evropski standard ne obravnava:
– lesa, obdelanega z zaščitnimi sredstvi proti ognju, ki izboljšujejo odpornost proti ognju;
– zobato spojenega lesa.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
09-Feb-2016
Withdrawal Date
13-Aug-2019
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
14-Aug-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.DYRNRWQHJDHolzbauwerke - Nach Festigkeit sortiertes Bauholz für tragende zwecke mit rechteckigem Querschnitt - Teil 1: Allgemeine AnforderungenStructures en bois - Bois de structure à section rectangulaire classé pour sa résistance - Partie 1 : Exigences généralesTimber structures - Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section - Part 1: General requirements91.080.20Lesene konstrukcijeTimber structures79.040Les, hlodovina in žagan lesWood, sawlogs and sawn timberICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14081-1:2016SIST EN 14081-1:2016en,fr,de01-april-2016SIST EN 14081-1:2016SLOVENSKI
STANDARDSIST EN 14081-4:2009SIST EN 14081-1:2006+A1:20111DGRPHãþD



SIST EN 14081-1:2016



EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 14081-1
February
t r s x ICS
y {ä r v r Supersedes EN
s v r z sæ sã t r r w ªA sã t r s sá EN
s v r z sæ vã t r r {English Version
Timber structures æ Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section æ Part
sã General requirements Structures en bois æ Bois de structure à section rectangulaire classé pour sa résistance æ Partie
s ã Exigences générales
Holzbauwerke æ Nach Festigkeit sortiertes Bauholz für tragende zwecke mit rechteckigem Querschnitt æ Teil
sã Allgemeine Anforderungen This European Standard was approved by CEN on
s u February
t r s xä
egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä
translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä
CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels
9
t r s x CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN
s v r z sæ sã t r s x ESIST EN 14081-1:2016



EN 14081-1:2016 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword . 4 Introduction . 5 1 Scope . 6 2 Normative references . 6 3 Terms and definitions . 7 4 Symbols . 8 5 Requirements for structural timber . 9 5.1 Mechanical resistance . 9 5.1.1 General . 9 5.1.2 Visual strength grading . 9 5.1.3 Machine strength grading . 9 5.2 Fire resistance (charring rate) . 11 5.3 Reaction to fire . 11 5.4 Release of dangerous substances . 12 5.5 Biological durability . 12 5.5.1 Structural timber without preservative treatment . 12 5.5.2 Structural timber with preservative treatment . 13 5.6 Geometrical data . 13 6 Assessment and verification of constancy of performance –AVCP . 13 6.1 General . 13 6.2 Type testing . 13 6.2.1 General . 13 6.2.2 Test samples, testing and compliance criteria . 14 6.2.3 Test reports . 15 6.2.4 Shared other party results . 15 6.3 Factory production control (FPC) . 15 6.3.1 General . 15 6.3.2 Requirements . 16 6.3.3 Product specific requirements . 19 6.3.4 Initial inspection of factory and of FPC . 20 6.3.5 Continuous surveillance of FPC . 20 6.3.6 Procedure for modifications . 21 7 Marking . 21 7.1 Marking methods . 21 7.2 Information on the timber (method A) or on the package (method B) . 21 7.3 Information in the documents accompanying strength graded structural timber . 22 8 Environmental issues . 23 Annex A (normative)
Requirements for strength reducing characteristics for visual grading standards . 24 A.1 Limitations for strength-reducing characteristics . 24 A.1.1 Knots . 24 A.1.2 Slope of grain . 24 SIST EN 14081-1:2016



EN 14081-1:2016 (E) 3 A.1.3 Density and rate of growth . 24 A.1.4 Fissures . 25 A.2 Limitations for geometrical characteristics . 25 A.2.1 Wane . 25 A.2.2 Warp . 25 A.3 Limitations for biological characteristics . 26 A.4 Other characteristics . 26 A.4.1 Reaction wood . 26 A.4.2 Other criteria . 26 Annex B (normative)
Marking codes for species . 27 B.1 Marking codes for single species . 27 B.2 Marking codes for species combination . 28 Annex C (normative)
Measurement of moisture content . 30 C.1 General . 30 C.2 Measurement of moisture content of timber during production. 30 Annex ZA (informative)
Clauses of this European Standard addressing the provisions of the EU Construction Products Regulation . 31 ZA.1 Scope and relevant characteristics . 31 ZA.2 Procedure for Assessment and Verification of the Constancy of Performance (AVCP) of strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section . 33 ZA.2.1 System(s) of AVCP . 33 ZA.2.2 Declaration of performance (DoP) . 34 ZA.2.2.1 General . 34 ZA.2.2.2 Content . 35 ZA.2.2.3 Example of DoP . 35 ZA.3 CE marking and labelling . 36 ZA.3.1 General . 36 ZA.3.2 CE marking . 36 ZA.3.3 Marking on the product or on a label attached to the package . 39 Bibliography . 41
SIST EN 14081-1:2016



EN 14081-1:2016 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 14081-1:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 124 “Timber structures”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2016, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2017. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 14081-4:2009, EN 14081-1:2005+A1:2011. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Regulation n°305/2011. For relationship with EU Regulation, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. EN 14081-4:2009 will be withdrawn and replaced by 5.1.3, paragraph 2 of this document. Compared to EN 14081-1:2005+A1:2011, the following modifications have been made: — new Clause 6 for Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance linked to the CPR; — Annex ZA has been adapted to the CPR; — new clauses on Fire Resistance, release of dangerous substances, geometrical data and environmental issues have been added; — marking codes for species combinations have been moved to Annex B; — improvement of several definitions. Other parts of the series of EN 14081 are: — EN 14081-2, Timber structures - Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section - Part 2: Machine grading; additional requirements for initial type testing; — EN 14081-3, Timber structures - Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section - Part 3: Machine grading; additional requirements for factory production control. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 14081-1:2016



EN 14081-1:2016 (E) 5 Introduction There are basically two methods of strength grading: visual grading and machine grading. Machine grading is in common use in a number of countries. The countries use two basic systems, referred to as 'output control' and 'machine control'. Both systems require a visual override inspection to cater for strength-reducing characteristics that are not automatically sensed by the machine. Output control is suitable for use where the grading machines are situated in manufacturing units grading limited sizes, species and grades in repeated production runs. This enables the system to be controlled by testing timber specimens from the daily output. These tests, together with statistical procedures, are used to monitor and adjust the machine settings to maintain the required strength properties for each strength class. With this system it is permissible for machine approval requirements to be less demanding and for machines of the same type to have non-identical performance. Machine control was developed in Europe. Because of the large number of sizes, species and grades used it was not possible to carry out quality control tests on timber specimens drawn from production. Machine control relies, therefore, on the machines being strictly assessed and controlled, and on considerable research effort to derive the machines settings, which remain constant for all machines of the same type. Visual grading is also in common use in a number of countries. There are many different visual strength grading standards for timber in use in Europe. These have come into existence to allow for: — different species or groups of species; — geographic origin; — different dimensional requirements; — varying requirements for different uses; — quality of material available; — historic influences or traditions. Because of the diversity of existing visual grading standards in use in different countries, it is currently impossible to lay down a single standard for all Member States. The requirements given in this European Standard on visual strength grading are therefore basic principles, which should be followed when drawing up requirements for limits for some of the characteristics. The assignments to strength classes are based on grading reports. When these grading reports are evaluated and approved by CEN/TC 124/WG2/TG1, they become Approved Grading Reports (AGR) which are required for assigning visual grades to EN 1912 and for machine control. SIST EN 14081-1:2016



EN 14081-1:2016 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard specifies requirements for strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross-sections either visual or machine graded, shaped by sawing, planning or other methods and with cross-sectional dimensions complying with EN 336 (referred to as structural timber in the following clauses). This European Standard includes provisions for test methods, Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance and marking of structural timber. NOTE 1 For machine strength graded timber additional provisions for type testing (TT) are given in EN 14081–2 and for factory production control (FPC) in EN 14081–3. NOTE 2 An acceptance procedure for verification of a lot is given in EN 14358 which may be used for a delivery of structural timber. This European Standard identifies characteristics for which limits have to be given in visual grading standards. This European Standard covers structural timber, untreated or treated against biological attack. This European Standard does not cover: — timber treated by fire retardant products to improve its fire performance; — thermally and/or chemically modified timber; — structural finger jointed timber. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 338, Structural timber — Strength classes EN 350-1, Durability of wood and wood-based products — Natural durability of solid wood — Part 1: Guide to the principles of testing and classification of the natural durability of wood EN 350-2, Durability of wood and wood-based products — Natural durability of solid wood — Part 2: Guide to natural durability and treatability of selected wood species of importance in Europe EN 384, Structural timber — Determination of characteristic values of mechanical properties and density EN 844-7, Round and sawn timber — Terminology — Part 7: Terms relating to anatomical structure of timber EN 844-9, Round and sawn timber — Terminology — Part 9: Terms relating to features of sawn timber EN 844-10, Round and sawn timber — Terminology — Part 10: Terms relating to stain and fungal attack EN 1310:1997, Round and sawn timber — Method of measurement of features EN 1912, Structural Timber — Strength classes — Assignment of visual grades and species EN 1995-1-2, Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures — Part 1-2: General — Structural fire design SIST EN 14081-1:2016



EN 14081-1:2016 (E) 7 EN 13183-2, Moisture content of a piece of sawn timber — Part 2: Estimation by electrical resistance method EN 13183-3, Moisture content of a piece of sawn timber — Part 3: Estimation by capacitance method EN 13238, Reaction to fire tests for building products — Conditioning procedures and general rules for selection of substrates EN 13501-1, Fire classification of construction products and building elements — Part 1: Classification using test data from reaction to fire tests EN 13501-2, Fire classification of construction products and building elements — Part 2: Classification using data from fire resistance tests, excluding ventilation services EN 13556, Round and sawn timber — Nomenclature of timbers used in Europe EN 13823, Reaction to fire tests for building products — Building products excluding floorings exposed to the thermal attack by a single burning item EN 14081-2, Timber structures — Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section — Part 2: Machine grading; additional requirements for initial type testing EN 14081-3, Timber structures — Strength graded structural timber with rectangular cross section — Part 3: Machine grading; additional requirements for factory production control EN 15804, Sustainability of construction works — Environmental product declarations — Core rules for the product category of construction products EN 15228:2009, Structural timber — Structural timber preservative treated against biological attack EN 16485, Round and sawn timber — Environmental Product Declarations — Product category rules for wood and wood-based products for use in construction EN ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country codes (ISO 3166-1) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 dry-graded structural timber timber for which grading has been completed after it has been dried 3.2 grading standard a set of grading rules contained in a National Standard or a proprietary document that is publically available 3.3 machine strength grading process by which structural timber is sorted by a machine sensing, non-destructively, one or more properties of the timber, with any necessary visual overriding inspection, into grades or strength classes to which characteristic values of strength, stiffness and density may be allocated SIST EN 14081-1:2016



EN 14081-1:2016 (E) 8 3.4 package structural timber of one grade, of one species or species combination, to be delivered to one customer 3.5 settings values associated with the variable controls of a grading machine which determine the acceptance to each grade or strength class of structural timber graded by the machine 3.6 strength class result of the classification of structural timber based on particular values of its mechanical properties and density 3.7 structural timber timber with rectangular cross section strength graded either by visual means or by machine 3.8 strength-reducing characteristic property or feature of a piece of structural timber that reduces its load bearing capacity Note 1 to entry: Can result from natural growth of the tree (e.g. knots, slope of grain), changes in moisture content (e.g. fissures), conversion of the log (e.g. the inclusion of wane), attack from fungi, insects or mechanical damage. 3.9 timber source identifiable geographical origin of a species or species combination from which timber is, or is intended to be, strength graded 3.10 visual strength grading process by which structural timber is sorted, by visual inspection and assessment, into grades to which characteristic values of strength, stiffness and density can be allocated Note 1 to entry: Electronic or mechanical instruments can be used to assist the visual grader in this process. 3.11 thickness smaller dimension perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a piece of timber 3.12 width greater dimension perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of a piece of timber 4 Symbols M machine graded structural timber DG dry-graded structural timber PT preservative treated structural timber SIST EN 14081-1:2016



EN 14081-1:2016 (E) 9 5 Requirements for structural timber 5.1 Mechanical resistance 5.1.1 General Mechanical resistance covers modulus of elasticity, bending strength, compressive strength, tension strength, shear strength and density. Structural timber shall be either visually graded according to 5.1.2, or machine graded according to 5.1.3, and have characteristic values for the bending strength, tension strength, compression strength, shear strength, modulus of elasticity and density according to 5.1.2 or 5.1.3. Characteristic values shall be determined in accordance with EN 384. If the structural timber is assigned to a strength class from EN 338, the characteristic values for the properties shall be those given for the strength class in EN 338. If the grading has been carried out before processing, provided that the processing reduction is not greater than 5 mm for dimensions greater than or equal to 22 mm but less than or equal to 100 mm, or not greater than 10 mm for dimensions greater than 100 mm, the grade shall be considered not to have changed. If the reduction is greater, the structural timber shall be re-graded. Structural timber that has previously been graded shall not be re-graded to the same or different grades unless the method of determining characteristic values has made allowances for changes to the timber population caused by the previous grading. Since some geometrical characteristics (fissures, distortion) depend on the moisture content and affect the strength properties, marking shall consider the moisture content at the time of grading. Moisture content shall be determined in accordance with EN 13183-2 or EN 13183-3 with an accuracy of ± 3 % moisture content (see Annex C). Dry graded structural timber shall have at the time it is graded for fissures and distortion, a mean moisture content of 20 % or less with no individual measurement exceeding 24 %. If the grading method restricts the structural timber to a special use, e.g. flatwise bending or compression, this shall be reflected in the marking. 5.1.2 Visual strength grading Structural timber shall be graded visually in accordance with a grading standard which meets the requirements given in Annex A. This grading standard shall be publically available. If the grade and species or species combination have been assigned to a strength class by EN 1912, the characteristic values for the properties shall be those given for the assigned strength class in EN 338. Assignments according to EN 384 to be included in EN 1912 should be reported and evaluated by CEN/TC 124. Accepted reports shall be documented in Approved Grading Reports (AGR). NOTE Approved Grading Reports are intended to give basic documentation for the certification by a Notified Body of a manufacturer's factory production control (FPC) needed for the CE marking. A current list of AGRs may be obtained through CEN/TC 124 secretariat. If there are any restrictions or additional criteria related to the strength or use of structural timber, resulting from the method of grading or species or species combination, they shall be stated in the grading standard. 5.1.3 Machine strength grading For a grade and species (or species combination) graded by a machine control system, the settings shall be derived for the total growth area from which the structural timber will be sourced. SIST EN 14081-1:2016



EN 14081-1:2016 (E) 10 Grading machines shall use settings determined in accordance with EN 14081-2. Grading machines and settings used in machine control system should be evaluated by CEN/TC 124. Settings which have been accepted by CEN/TC 124 shall be documented in Approved Grading Reports (AGR). NOTE Approved Grading Reports are intended to give basic documentation for the certification by a
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