Stationary source emissions - Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive industries - Part 4: Aluminium industry

This European Standard specifies a harmonized method for calculating the emissions of greenhouse gases from the electrolysis section of primary aluminium smelters and aluminium anode baking plants. It also specifies key performance indicators for the purpose of benchmarking of aluminium. This also defines the boundaries.
NOTE   Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the scope of this standard.

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 4: Aluminiumindustrie

Diese Europäische Norm legt eine harmonisierte Methode zur Berechnung der Treibhausgasemissionen aus dem Elektrolyseabschnitt von Anlagen zur Aluminiumschmelzflusselektrolyse und Anlagen, in denen Anoden gebrannt werden, fest. Darüber hinaus legt sie Schlüsselleistungskennzahlen für das Benchmarking von Aluminium fest. Dadurch sind auch die Grenzen definiert.
ANMERKUNG   Für Produkte, die in den Anwendungsbereich dieser Norm fallen, können weitere Anforderungen und weitere EU Richtlinien anwendbar sein.

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) dans les industries énergo-intensives - Partie 4: Industrie de l'aluminium

La présente Norme européenne spécifie une méthode harmonisée pour calculer les émissions de gaz à effet de serre provenant du hall d'électrolyse des alumineries de production d'aluminium primaire et des installations de cuisson des anodes. Elle spécifie également des indicateurs clés pour déterminer les performances de l'aluminium. Elle définit en outre le périmètre des procédés.
NOTE   D’autres exigences et d’autres Directives UE peuvent être applicables au(x) produit(s) relevant du domaine d’application de la présente norme.

Emisije nepremičnih virov - Določevanje emisij toplogrednih plinov (TGP) v energetsko intenzivnih industrijah - 4. del: Proizvodnja aluminija

Potrjeni standard določa (opisuje) metodo izračuna za spremljanje emisij toplogrednih plinov iz primarnih talilnic aluminija, vključno s proizvodnjo anod. Emisije toplogrednih plinov vključujejo zlasti ogljikov dioksid (CO2) in perfluorirani ogljikovodik (PFC).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Jul-2016
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
20-Jul-2016
Completion Date
20-Jul-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 19694-4:2017
01-julij-2017
(PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY'RORþHYDQMHHPLVLMWRSORJUHGQLKSOLQRY 7*3 Y
HQHUJHWVNRLQWHQ]LYQLKLQGXVWULMDKGHO3URL]YRGQMDDOXPLQLMD
Stationary source emissions - Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in
energy-intensive industries - Part 4: Aluminium industry
Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus
energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 4: Aluminiumindustrie

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions des gaz à effet de serre dans

les industries à forte intensité énergétique - Partie 4: Industrie de l'aluminium

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 19694-4:2016
ICS:
13.020.40 Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad Pollution, pollution control
onesnaževanjem in and conservation
ohranjanje
13.040.40 (PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY Stationary source emissions
77.120.10 Aluminij in aluminijeve zlitine Aluminium and aluminium
alloys
SIST EN 19694-4:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.040.40
English Version
Stationary source emissions - Determination of
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive
industries - Part 4: Aluminium industry

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von

émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) dans les Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven

industries énergo-intensives - Partie 4: Industrie de Industrien - Teil 4: Aluminiumindustrie

l'aluminium
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 May 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 19694-4:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 5

4 List of abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................. 5

5 Symbols, units and chemical formulae .................................................................................................... 6

5.1 Symbols and units ........................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 Chemical formulae .......................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Calculation methods – General remarks................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Calculation methods for process GHG emissions from primary aluminium

production ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3 Sources of carbon dioxide ............................................................................................................................ 9

6.4 Sources of PFC .................................................................................................................................................. 9

7 Methods for calculation of process carbon dioxide emissions .................................................... 10

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

7.2 Tier 1 – Method using process specific equations with technology typical parameters

for carbon dioxide emissions ................................................................................................................... 10

7.3 Tier 2 – Method using process specific equations with facility specific parameters for

carbon dioxide emissions ......................................................................................................................... 10

7.4 Calculation of carbon dioxide emissions from prebake processes ............................................ 10

7.5 Baking furnace carbon dioxide emissions .......................................................................................... 12

7.6 Calculation of carbon dioxide emissions from the Søderberg process..................................... 16

8 Methods for calculation of PFC emissions ........................................................................................... 18

8.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 18

8.2 Tier 1 method for calculating PFC emissions ..................................................................................... 18

8.3 Tier 2 method for calculating PFC emissions ..................................................................................... 19

8.4 Calculation of PFC emissions from aluminium reduction processes ........................................ 19

8.5 Verification of GHG calculation ............................................................................................................... 22

9 Key performance indicators..................................................................................................................... 22

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 24

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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 19694-4:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air

quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate M/478 given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.

EN 19694, Stationary source emissions — Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-

intensive industries is a series of standards that consists of the following parts:

— Part 1: General aspects
— Part 2: Iron and steel industry
— Part 3: Cement industry
— Part 4: Aluminium industry
— Part 5: Lime industry
— Part 6: Ferroalloy industry

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
Introduction
This European Standard serves the following purposes:
— measuring, testing and quantifying GHG emissions from the aluminium industry;

— assessing the level of GHG emissions performance of production processes over time, at production

sites;

— establishing and providing reliable, accurate and quality information for reporting and verification

purposes.

This European Standard can be used to measure, report and compare the GHG emissions of an

aluminium production facility. Data for individual facilities, sites or works may be combined to

measure, report and compare GHG emissions for a company, corporation or group.

Direct fuel based emissions are not included; for calculation of this part of the GHG emissions, see

EN 19694–1.

The European Standard deals with sector-specific aspects for the determination of greenhouse gas

(GHG) emissions from aluminium production and is based on documents mentioned under tier 3 of

Section 4.4.2.4 of the 2006 IPCC guidelines [6].
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard specifies a harmonized method for calculating the emissions of greenhouse

gases from the electrolysis section of primary aluminium smelters and aluminium anode baking plants.

It also specifies key performance indicators for the purpose of benchmarking of aluminium. This also

defines the boundaries.

NOTE Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within the

scope of this standard.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 19694-1, Stationary source emissions — Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-

intensive industries — Part 1: General aspects
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 19694-1 and the following

apply.
3.1
aluminium electrolysis

section of an aluminium primary smelter where aluminium is converted from aluminium oxide to

aluminium metal in electrolysis cells
3.2
anode baking plant
production of carbon anodes for use in aluminium prebake electrolysis cells
3.3
PFC gases
gas emitted from aluminium electrolysis consisting of CF and C F
4 2 6
3.4
grid specific CO factor

CO factor (t CO /MWh) associated with the electricity delivered to a specific aluminium smelter from

2 2
their supplier
4 List of abbreviated terms
AE Anode effect
CWPB Centre-Worked prebake
DAE Direct anode emissions
DEE Direct electrolysis emissions
GHG Green House Gas
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
HSS Horizontal Stud Søderberg
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
PFPB Point Feeder prebake
SWPB Side-Worked prebake
TIE Electrolysis electricity consumption
VSS Vertical Stud Søderberg
WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)
WRI World Resources Institute
5 Symbols, units and chemical formulae
5.1 Symbols and units
Symbol Quantity Unit
A Anode effects, (= frequency x average duration) minutes/cell
day
A Anode effect overvoltage millivolts
A Net anode consumption wt %
A Ash content in baked anodes wt %
sha
A Ash content in pitch in weight % wt %
shp
A Ash content in packing coke, wt % wt %
shpc
B Baked anode production tonne/year
B Baked anode weight tonne
C Carbon content of baked anodes, wt %
C Carbon content of anode butts tonne/year
Butt
C Current efficiency for aluminium production %
C Emissions of cyclohexane soluble matter, kilograms per kg/tonne
tonnes aluminium
E Emissions of tetrafluoromethane, kg CF per year kg/year
E Emissions of hexafluoroethane, kg C F per year kg/year
2 6
2 6
CO emissions in tonnes per year tonne/year
E 2
E Emission factor of Packing Coke, tCO /t of Packing Coke tonne
FPC 2
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
Symbol Quantity Unit
CF dimensionless
2 6
Weight fraction of
G tonne/year
 
Weight of loaded green anodes = B
 
 AW
G Green anode weight tonne
G Global warming potential. Use latest G data from IPCC tonnes CO
WP WP 2
equivalent/tonn
H Hydrogen content in green anode wt %
M Total mass of baked anodes tonne/year
M Total mass of anode butts tonne/year
Butt
M Tonnes aluminium per year tonne/year
N Net anode consumption, tonnes per tonnes aluminium tonne/year
O Oxidation factor of packing coke (typically 1 for this dimensionless
FPC
stream)
O Overvoltage coefficient for CF kg /t /mV
VC 4 CF4 Al
P Paste consumption, tonnes per tonnes aluminium tonne
P Packing coke consumed per tonnes of baked anode tonne
P Packing coke weight tonne
R Emission rates of CF , kg per tonne of aluminium produced kg/tonne
Emission rates of C F , kg per tonne of aluminium produced kg/tonne
R 2 6
2 6
S Sulphur content in baked anodes wt %
Slope coefficient for CF , kg CF per tonne aluminium per tonne/effect
S 4 4
anode effect minute per cell day minute/cell day
W Waste tar collected tonne/year
wt Weight kg or tonne
5.2 Chemical formulae
Al Aluminium
Al O Aluminium oxide (Alumina)
2 3
C Carbon
CF Tetrafluoromethane
C F Hexafluoroethane
2 6
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
CO Carbon monoxide
CO Carbon dioxide
NaAlF Sodium aluminium hexafluoride (cryolite)
NaF Sodium fluoride
PFC Perfluorocarbon
6 Calculation methods – General remarks
6.1 Introduction

This standard shall be used in conjunction with EN 19694-1 which contains generic, overall

requirements, definitions and rules applicable to the determination of GHG emissions for all energy-

intensive sectors, provides common methodological issues and defines the details for applying the

rules. The application of this standard to the sector-specific standards ensures accuracy, precision and

reproducibility of the results.

6.2 Calculation methods for process GHG emissions from primary aluminium production

Figure 1 gives sources of process emissions and references to where in the standard calculation

methods are described.

Figure 1 — Decision tree for process carbon dioxide and perfluorocarbon emissions from

primary aluminium production
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EN 19694-4:2016 (E)

Process CO emissions in state of the art aluminium smelters comprise around 90 % of total direct CO

2 2

equivalent emissions, with the balance of emissions consisting of CO from fossil fuel combustion and

PFC emissions. Guidance on CO emissions from fuel combustion is not included in this document.

Methodology for calculating CO emissions from the combustion of fuel in anode baking furnaces is

described elsewhere [6, 7], while methodology for calculating process CO emissions is given in

Clause 7.
6.3 Sources of carbon dioxide
6.3.1 Electrolysis

Most of the CO emissions result from the electrolytic reaction of the carbon anode with alumina:

2Al O +→3C 4Al+3CO (1)
23 2

Carbon dioxide is also emitted during the electrolysis reaction as the carbon anode reacts with other

sources of oxygen, primarily from the air. Carbon dioxide is also formed as a result of the Boudouard

reaction where CO reacts with the carbon anode forming carbon monoxide, which is then oxidized to

form CO2. Each unit of CO2 participating in the Boudouard reaction produces two units of CO2 after air

oxidation:
CO + C→2CO (2)
22CO + O → CO (3)
2 2

All carbon monoxide formed is assumed to be converted to CO . By industry convention no correction is

made for the minute amount of carbon consumed as PFCs rather than CO emissions. No CO is

2 2

produced from cathode consumption unless there is on-site incineration and no recommendation is

included here for such operations CO emission from addition of sodium carbonate to electrolyses cells

is not included as this is added at infrequent intervals and is an insignificant source.

6.3.2 Anode baking

Another source of CO emissions, specific to prebake technologies, is the baking of green anodes,

wherein CO is emitted from the combustion of volatile components from the pitch binder and, for

baking furnaces fired with carbon based fuels, from the combustion of the fuel source. Some of the

packing coke used to cover the anodes is also oxidized, releasing CO during anode baking.

Carbon dioxide is emitted from the fuel used in the paste plant and the fuel used for firing the anode

baking furnace.
6.3.3 Aluminium smelting supporting processes

A further source of carbon dioxide emissions is fuel used in the cast house for heating of the metal

during treatment processes before casting, and some fuel may also be used in rodding operations.

6.3.4 Alumina refining

Carbon dioxide is not produced as process emission in the Bayer Process, the process through which

alumina is refined from bauxite ore. Most of the emissions associated with alumina refining are from

the combustion of fossil fuels, which are covered in the WRI/WBCSD [10] calculation tools for GHG

emissions from energy and electricity.
6.4 Sources of PFC

Two perfluorocarbon gases (PFCs), tetrafluoromethane (CF ) and hexafluoroethane (C F ), may be

4 2 6
produced during primary aluminium production.
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
4Na AlF +→3C 4Al+12NaF+3CF (4)
3 6 4
4Na AlF +→4C 4Al+12NaF+ 2C F (5)
3 6 26

NOTE The following recommendations for calculating PFC emissions are consistent with the inventory

guidance of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [6].
7 Methods for calculation of process carbon dioxide emissions
7.1 General

Direct CO emissions from aluminium production shall be calculated by using one of the following two

tiers:
— Tier 1: Process specific equations with industry typical parameters.
— Tier 2: Process specific equations with site or company specific parameters.

NOTE Tier 1 and tier 2 in this standard correspond to what is listed as tier 2 and tier 3 in the IPCC technical

guidance [6].

Reference should be made to Figure 1 as an overall guide on how to proceed when calculating direct

CO emissions. For calculation of key performance indicator tier 2 shall be used.

7.2 Tier 1 – Method using process specific equations with technology typical parameters

for carbon dioxide emissions

Tier 1 method for the calculation of total direct CO emissions shall be based on the calculation of CO

2 2

emissions from each individual process step which are then summed to calculate total emissions.

Equations in 7.4 describe the calculation of CO for prebake technologies, while 7.6 contains the

equations for Søderberg technologies.

7.3 Tier 2 – Method using process specific equations with facility specific parameters for

carbon dioxide emissions

The most accurate inventories of CO are obtained by using site or company specific data in the

equations for calculating emissions (tier 2 method). This data may come from measurements made on

site or from data from suppliers. The equations are identical to those used in the tier 1 method

described above. However, facility specific or company specific data, rather than technology typical

data, shall be used.
7.4 Calculation of carbon dioxide emissions from prebake processes
7.4.1 General

Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from CWPB and SWPB reduction technologies have as their sources

electrolysis and anode baking.

7.4.2 Carbon dioxide emissions from prebake anode consumption during electrolysis

The following equation should be used for calculation of CO emissions from prebake anode

consumption during electrolysis:
100- S - A
 
a sha
(6)
E = M ×N 3,664
CO P AC
 
100
 
where
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
are the CO emissions in tonnes per year;
E 2
M is the total metal production, tonnes aluminium per year;
N is the net anode consumption, tonnes per tonne aluminium;
S is the sulphur content in baked anodes, wt %;
A is the ash content in baked anodes, wt %;
sha
3,664 is the CO molecular mass: carbon atomic mass ratio,
dimensionless.

Parameters used in Formula (6) are defined in Table 2 together with technology typical values for

calculating CO emissions from prebake anode consumption during electrolysis.
Alternatively, the following equation may also be used:
(7)
E = M ×%C - M ×%C 3,664
( )
CO BA BA Butts Butts
where
E are the CO emissions in tonnes per year;
M is the total mass of baked anodes, tonnes anodes per
year;
% C is the carbon content of baked anodes, wt %;
M is the total mass of anode butts, tonnes anodes per year;
Butts
% C is the arbon content of anode butts, wt %.
Butts

Parameters used in Formula (7) are defined in Table 1 together with technology typical values for

calculating CO emissions from prebake anode consumption during electrolysis.
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)

Table 1 — Typical uncertainty for individual parameters and analyses used in tier 1 or tier 2

method for carbon dioxide emissions from prebake cells
Tier 1 method Tier 2 method
Data
Data
Parameter
uncertaint
Data source Data source uncertainty
(± %)
(± %)
Individual
M : total metal production Individual
2 facility 2
(tonnes aluminium per year) facility records
records
Individual
NAC: net anode consumption Individual
5 facility 5
(tonnes per tonne aluminium) facility records
records
Individual
S : sulphur content in baked Use industry
3 facility 3
anodes (wt %) typical value, 2
records
Use industry Individual
A : ash content in baked
sha
typical value, 3 facility 3
anodes (wt %)
0,4 records
M = total mass of baked Individual Individual
anodes (tonnes anodes per facility records 2 facility 2
year) records
Use industry Individual
% C = carbon content of
typical value, 5 facility 2
baked anodes (wt %)
98 records
Individual
M = total mass of anode Individual
Butts
2 facility 2
butts (tonnes anodes per year) facility records
records
Use industry Individual
% C = carbon content of
Butts
typical value, 5 facility 2
anode butts (wt %)
98 records
7.5 Baking furnace carbon dioxide emissions
7.5.1 General
Baking furnace emissions result from three sources:
— combustion of the fuel for firing the furnace;
— combustion of volatile matter released during the baking operation;
— combustion of baking furnace packing material.
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EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
7.5.2 Fuel

Carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the fuel consumed during baking furnace firing can be

calculated using the WRI/WBCSD [10] calculation tools for GHG emissions from energy and electricity.

7.5.3 Combustion of volatile matter

Calculation of carbon dioxide emissions from pitch volatiles combustion should be calculated according

to:
HG×
E = G− − BW− 3,664 (8)
CO A A T
100
where
is the CO emissions in tonnes per year;
is the weight of loaded green anodes = B ;
 A
AW
G is the green anode weight, tonnes;
B is the baked anode weight, tonnes;
B is the baked anode production, tonnes baked anode per year;
H is the hydrogen content in green anodes, wt %;
W is the waste tar collected, tonnes;
3,664 is the CO Molecular Mass: Carbon Atomic Mass Ratio, dimensionless.

Parameters included in Formula (8) are defined and industry typical values noted in Table 2.

Alternatively, the following formula may also be used:
E = G ×%C - B ×%C 3,664 (9)
( )
CO AW GA AW BA
where
is the CO emissions in tonnes per year;
E 2
GAW is the green anodes weight, tonnes;
% C is the carbon content of green anodes, wt %;
B is the baked anodes weight, tonnes;
% C is the carbon content of baked anodes, wt %.
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)

Table 2 — Typical uncertainty for individual parameters and analyses used in Tier 1 or Tier 2

method for CO emissions from bake furnace pitch volatiles combustion
Parameter Tier 1 method Tier 2 method
Data Source Data Data source Data
uncertainty uncertainty
(± %) (± %)
G : weight of green Individual facility Individual
2 2
anodes (tonnes) records facility records
B : weight of baked Individual facility Individual
2 2
anodes (tonnes) records facility records
H : hydrogen content Use industry Individual
5 5
in green anodes (wt %) typical value, 0,5 facility records
B : baked anode
Individual facility Individual
production (tonnes per 2 2
records facility records
year)
W : waste tar collected
Use industry
(tonnes):
typical value:
Individual
a) Riedhammer 20 20
a) 0,005 x G facility records
furnaces
b) Insignificant
b) All other furnaces
% C : Carbon content Use industry Individual
5 2
of green anodes, wt % typical value, 98 facility records
% C = Carbon content Use industry Individual
5 2
of baked anodes, wt % typical value, 98 facility records
7.5.4 Baking furnace packing material
Carbon dioxide emissions from packing coke should be calculated according to:
 100- S - Ash 
 
pc pc
(10)
E = P ×B 3,664
 
CO CC A 
100
 
 
where
are the CO emissions in tonnes per year;
E 2
P is the packing coke consumed, tonnes per tonne of baked anode;
B is the baked anode production, tonnes baked anode per year;
S is the sulphur content in packing coke, wt %;
A is the ash content in packing coke, wt %;
shpc
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EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
3,664 is the CO molecular mass: carbon atomic mass ratio, dimensionless.

Parameters included in Formula (10) are defined and industry typical values noted in Table 3.

Alternatively, by considering packing coke as a fuel, the following formula could be used:

E = P × E ×O (11)
co CW FPC F PC
where
are the CO emissions in tonnes per year;
E 2
P is the packing coke weight, tonnes;
E is the emission factor of packing coke, tCO /t of packing coke;
FPC 2
O is the oxidation factor of packing coke (typically 1 for this stream).
FPC

Table 3 — Typical uncertainty for individual parameters and analyses used in tier 1 or tier 2

method for carbon dioxide emissions from oxidation of bake furnace packing material

Parameter Tier 1 method Tier 2 method
Data Data source Data
Data source uncertainty uncertainty
(± %) (± %)
P : packing coke
Individual
consumption Use industry typical value,
7,5 facility 2
(tonnes per tonne 0,015
records
BA)
B : baked anode Individual
production (tonnes Individual facility records 2 facility 2
per year) records
S : sulphur content Individual
Use industry typical value,
in packing coke (wt 5 facility 6
%) records
A : ash content in Individual
shpc
Use industry typical value,
packing coke (wt 5 facility 6
2,5
%) records
P = packing coke Individual
weight (tonnes) Individual facility records 2 facility 2
records
E = emission
FPC
factor of packing
3,19 [4] Not relevant 3,19 [4] Not relevant
coke (t CO /t of
packing coke)
O = oxidation 1 Not relevant 1 Not relevant
FPC
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SIST EN 19694-4:2017
EN 19694-4:2016 (E)
Parameter Tier 1 method Tier 2 method
Data Dat
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