Determination of the uplift resistance of installed clay or concrete tiles for roofing - Roof system test method

This European Standard specifies a test method to establish the uplift resistance of installed clay or concrete tiles for roofing, complying with the relevant product standard, EN 490 or EN 1304, which are unfixed or mechanically fixed to the substructure.
NOTE   The test method has been developed for clay or concrete tiles for roofing but may apply to other discontinuously laid small elements, such as: slates; fibre cement slates; and, stones.
The test method is applicable to mechanical fixings such as clips, hooks, screws and nails.
In case of mechanically fixed tiles, at least every third tile shall be fixed. The method is not applicable for fixed tiles with fixing patterns with less than every third tile fixed.
The test method is not applicable to under and over tiles. Examples of these tiles are given in annex H.

Bestimmung des Abhebewiderstandes von Dachdeckungen mit Dachziegeln oder Dachsteinen (Dachpfannen) - Prüfverfahren für Dachsysteme

Détermination de la résistance au soulèvement des tuiles en terre cuite ou béton mises en béton mises en oeuvre sur la toiture - Methode d'essai par système de toiture

Ugotavljanje dvižne odpornosti vgrajenih opečnih ali betonskih strešnikov – Preskusna metoda

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Nov-2004
Current Stage
9092 - Decision on results of review/2YR ENQ - revise - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
20-May-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Bestimmung des Abhebewiderstandes von Dachdeckungen mit Dachziegeln oder Dachsteinen (Dachpfannen) - Prüfverfahren für DachsystemeDétermination de la résistance au soulevement des tuiles en terre cuite ou béton mises en béton mises en oeuvre sur la toiture - Methode d'essai par systeme de toitureDetermination of the uplift resistance of installed clay or concrete tiles for roofing - Roof system test method91.100.30Beton in betonski izdelkiConcrete and concrete products91.100.25Ceramic building products91.060.20StreheRoofsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14437:2004SIST EN 14437:2005en01-marec-2005SIST EN 14437:2005SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 14437:2005

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 14437November 2004ICS 91.060.20; 91.100.25; 91.100.30 English versionDetermination of the uplift resistance of installed clay orconcrete tiles for roofing - Roof system test methodDétermination de la résistance au soulèvement des tuilesterre cuite ou béton mises en oeuvre sur la toiture -Methode d'essai par système de toitureBestimmung des Abhebewiderstandes von verlegtenDachziegeln oder Dachsteinen - Prüfverfahren fürDachsystemeThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 13 September 2004.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2004 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 14437:2004: ESIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 2 Contents page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................5 1

Scope......................................................................................................................................................6 2

Normative references............................................................................................................................6 3

Terms and definitions...........................................................................................................................6 4

Symbols and abbreviations..................................................................................................................6 5

Sampling.................................................................................................................................................7 6

Test conditions......................................................................................................................................7 7

Test material...........................................................................................................................................7 8

Apparatus...............................................................................................................................................8 8.1 Test rig....................................................................................................................................................8 8.2 Cables.....................................................................................................................................................8 8.3 Force measuring device........................................................................................................................8 8.4 Measuring device for displacement of the roofing tiles....................................................................8 8.5 Measuring device for weight................................................................................................................8 9 Test procedure.......................................................................................................................................8 9.1 Measurement of the weight..................................................................................................................8 9.2 Installation of battens, roofing tiles and fixings.................................................................................8 9.3 Determination of the location of the forces on the test roof.............................................................9 9.4 Measurement of the uplift resistance................................................................................................10 10

Evaluation and expression of results................................................................................................12 11

Test report............................................................................................................................................13 Annex A (informative)

Test rig......................................................................................................................14 Annex B (normative)

Arrangement of tiles on the test rig..........................................................................15 B.1 General..................................................................................................................................................15 B.2 Single lap interlocking tiles in straight bond....................................................................................15 B.3 Single lap interlocking tiles in broken bond.....................................................................................15 B.4 Tiles with double-lap...........................................................................................................................16 Annex C (informative)

Fixing patterns to be tested....................................................................................17 C.1 General..................................................................................................................................................17 C.2 Single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond.............................................................................17 C.3 Single lap interlocking tiles laid in broken bond..............................................................................19 C.4 Tiles with double overlap....................................................................................................................20 Annex D (informative)

Calculation of characteristic values.......................................................................22 Annex E (informative)

Calculation of the uplift resistance of clay or concrete tiles for roofing at various roof pitches, for a tested configuration...............................................................................23 E.1 Correction for the influence of the weight of the roofing tiles........................................................23 E.2 Characteristic value of the strength of fixings.................................................................................24 E.3 Uplift resistance of partially or fully fixed roofing tiles for various roof pitches..........................25 Annex F (informative)

Determining the uplift resistance of installed clay or concrete tiles for roofing in special roof zones..............................................................................................................26 SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 3 Annex G (informative)

Considerations for partial safety factors for resistance......................................27 G.1 Partial safety factors for resistance..................................................................................................27 G.2 Unfavourable deviations from representative values......................................................................27 G.3 Systematic differences between test conditions and practical situations....................................28 G.4 Differences between test conditions and practical situations developing in time......................28 Annex H (informative)

Examples of roof tiles for which the test method is not applicable...................29 Annex I (informative)

Test Rig Commissioning Calibrations....................................................................30 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................31

SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 14437:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 128 “Roof covering products for discontinuous laying and products for wall cladding”, the secretariat of which is held by IBN/BIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2005. This standard is applicable where the National application standards, and/or regulations, specify a requirement for the uplift resistance of installed clay or concrete tiles for roofing. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 5 Introduction This document gives a test method and failure criteria for determining the uplift resistance of clay or concrete tiles for roofing. NOTE The results of this test may be used to determine the uplift force which can be withstood by the fixing, e.g. to withstand wind force. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 6 1

Scope This document specifies a test method to establish the uplift resistance of installed clay or concrete tiles for roofing, complying with the relevant product standard, EN 490 or EN 1304, which are unfixed or mechanically fixed to the substructure. NOTE The test method has been developed for clay or concrete tiles for roofing but may apply to other discontinuously laid small elements, such as: slates; fibre cement slates; and, stones. The test method is applicable to mechanical fixings such as clips, hooks, screws and nails. In case of mechanically fixed tiles, at least every third tile shall be fixed. The method is not applicable for fixed tiles with fixing patterns with less than every third tile fixed. The test method is not applicable to under and over tiles. Examples of these tiles are given in Annex H. 2

Normative references Not applicable. 3

Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1

discontinuously laid small elements elements to be used for roof covering and wall cladding which are installed as separate elements and collectively form the roof covering 3.2

roof pitch pitch of the roof structure, e.g. the rafters, counter battens, panels 3.3

characteristic value value of a material property having a prescribed probability of not being attained in a hypothetical unlimited test series. This value generally corresponds to a specified fractile of the assumed statistical distribution of the particular property of the material 3.4 roof system comprises the structure of the battens, mechanical fixings (clips, hooks, nails and screws) as well as the laying specification for the roof covering products (clay and concrete tiles for roofing) 4

Symbols and abbreviations dmax

the maximum permissible displacement; Ft force exerted on 16 tiles; kn a factor depending on the number of tests n; Lh

the hanging length of the tile; Lt total length of tile; SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 7 m number of fixings on 16 roofing tiles; n number of tests; Rd design uplift resistance of 16 roofing tiles; Rk characteristic uplift resistance of 16 roofing tiles; Rr,i uplift resistance of 16 tiles in test i; Rt uplift resistance of 16 tiles in a trial test; Rx mean uplift resistance of 16 roofing tiles; sx standard deviation of the uplift resistance of 16 roofing tiles; Wi weight of a roofing tile; Wk characteristic weight of a roofing tile at a roof pitch of 45o; Wx mean weight of a roofing tile; α roof pitch; γ partial safety factor for resistance, which may be defined by a national regulation. 5

Sampling The clay or concrete tiles for roofing selected shall be representative of the intended use. The battens selected shall be representative i.e., in line with the tile product and instructions of the clip manufacturer. The fixings used for the test shall be representative of the manufactured product. In selecting the number of elements, refer to 7 and 9, taking into consideration the number of fixing patterns and that in each case a trial test and at least 3 tests shall be conducted. NOTE The specification of the battens may include a reference to a national code of practice. 6

Test conditions Unless specified otherwise, the roofing tiles, fixings and the test frame shall be conditioned for at least

24 h in an environment of (20 ± 5) °C, and (60 ± 20) % relative humidity, prior to the test. The manner of storage shall not interfere with the free exchange of moisture from or into the materials. The test shall be conducted in the same conditions as the storage. NOTE If in practice, the moisture content of the battens is expected to be different from the standard conditions, and if it is expected that this may influence the test results, this should be taken into account; e.g. by testing under the appropriate conditions and recording the moisture content of the battens used. 7

Test material The test materials shall be randomly chosen from the samples. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 8 8

Apparatus 8.1 Test rig The test rig consists of a roof structure and auxiliary equipment to exert a force on the clay or concrete tiles for roofing. The roof structure shall have a roof pitch of (45 ± 2)°. The test rig shall be able to exert an equal uplift force on 16 roofing tiles from a minimum distance of 1,0 m to the surface of the roof covering and at an angle of (90 ± 2) ° to the roof structure, at the start of the test. The test rig shall have sufficient capacity and stiffness for the test as not to influence the test result. The test rig shall be capable of applying an uplift force at a rate of not more than 50 N/s. NOTE 1 The test results obtained at 45° may be used for pitches up to 60°.

For pitches greater than 60° tests at the appropriate roof pitch are advised. NOTE 2 Annex A includes an example of the test rig. 8.2 Cables The uplift force shall be exerted by using a cable. The cable shall be flexible, such that it minimises any overturning moment on the connection point, where the force is applied. 8.3 Force measuring device A calibrated force measuring device shall be used to determine the total uplift force on the 16 roofing tiles (refer to 9.3), having a maximum inaccuracy in combination with the reading equipment of 1 % of the measured value or 10 N, whichever is larger. 8.4 Measuring device for displacement of the roofing tiles A calibrated displacement measuring device shall be used to determine the displacement of the roofing tiles and shall have a maximum inaccuracy of 0,2 mm. The displacement measuring device shall not exert forces larger than 1 % of the uplift force measured on the 16 roofing tiles. The measuring device shall ensure that any displacement or twist of the roofing tiles is taken into account. NOTE This may be achieved by rigidly attaching a small flat plate to the measuring head, such that it always contacts the highest point on the roofing tile. 8.5 Measuring device for weight A calibrated weighing device shall be used to determine the weight of roofing tiles with a maximum inaccuracy of 1 % of the measured value. 9 Test procedure 9.1 Measurement of the weight Determine the individual weight Wi of at least 10 roofing tiles, where i indicates the number of the roofing tile weighed, after conditioning described in 6. 9.2 Installation of battens, roofing tiles and fixings The battens shall be fitted to the test rig. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 9 The roofing tiles shall be installed on the battens in a lay-out intended to be tested. The overlap of the roofing tiles shall be the maximum specified for the intended use in the national regulations or codes of practice or by the manufacturer. The boundary conditions for the installed roofing tiles on the test rig shall be representative of the intended application. For roofing tiles surrounded in the intended application by at least 2 courses and 2 columns of identical roofing tiles, the test requires a set of roofing tiles, sufficient to cover at least 8 courses high and

8 columns wide, or at least 1,5 m high and 1,5 m wide, whichever is larger. NOTE 1 For interlocking, single lap clay or concrete tiles, the lowest course on the test rig may be omitted without loss of accuracy of the test result. The fixings shall be installed representatively of the intended use of the fixings and shall take into account the lay-out of the roofing tiles. NOTE 2 For roofing tiles that are within 2 courses or columns distance of eaves, verge, ridge or valley or within

1 course or column distance of special tiles for eaves, verge, ridge or valley, additional guidance on the application of the test is given in Annex F. NOTE 3 Various fixing patterns may need to be tested, refer to Annex C. 9.3 Determination of the location of the forces on the test roof A total of 16 roofing tiles to be lifted shall be selected on the test roof. These 16 elements shall be located adjacent to each other in an area of 4 courses high and 4 columns wide, as defined in Annex B. The fixing pattern shall be chosen such that the roofing tile in the lower right corner is fixed. Annex C gives examples of suitable fixing patterns. The connection point is within 5 mm of the centre of the projected visible area of the roofing tile, normal to the roof surface taking into account the geometric peculiarities of the tile (see Figure 1). NOTE 1 The cable may be connected to the tile by feeding the cable through a hole to be made at the location of the connection point and locking the cable at the back-side of the roofing tile. NOTE 2 Figure 1 shows a typical example of a tile in the centre of the roof, overlapping along its edge and head regions.

Some tiles may not have a side lap e.g., double lap tiles and some single lap verge tiles. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 10 Dimensions in millimetres

Key 1 Location of connection point within shaded area 2 Invisible (overlapped) part of tile 3 Visible part of tile Figure 1 – Location of the forces on the test roof 9.4 Measurement of the uplift resistance 9.4.1 Calibration of the test equipment The test equipment shall be calibrated when the equipment is commissioned. Guidance on calibration methods is given in Annex I. 9.4.2 Zero the measuring equipment To eliminate the effect of the load application frame and cables, the load cell shall be zeroed or the weight of the load cell and the load application system shall be determined and shall be subtracted from the reading of the total force on the selected 16 roofing tiles. 9.4.3 Trial test A trial test shall be conducted, where the total force on the 16 roofing tiles shall be increased at a rate of less than 50 N/s, until one of the events a, b, c or d (specified below in 9.4.5) occurs. The maximum total force on the 16 roofing tiles Ft shall be measured and the tile showing the largest displacement shall be identified together with the location of the largest displacement on this tile. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 11 9.4.4 Test series A series of at least 3 tests (see Clause 10) shall be conducted. The roofing tiles shall be reinstalled randomly between each test and new fixings shall be used. Any damaged roofing tiles and battens shall be replaced and, where fixings are used, the battens shall be replaced after a maximum of 6 tests. The tiles shall be installed in a manner that ensures the fixings do not coincide with previous fixing positions within 30 mm. 9.4.5 Application of the force The total force acting on the 16 roofing tiles shall be increased in a first step of maximum 0,7 Ft and in subsequent steps of maximum 1/20 Ft, and shall be kept at the maximum level for at least 5 s. Then the force shall be released to zero. The total force shall be increased or decreased at a rate of less than 50 N/s. At the maximum value of the force during a loading step, the displacement at the location defined in 9.4.2 shall be measured, at an angle of (90 ± 2) ° to the roof structure.

Key 1 Step 2 Step F Force t Time Figure 2 – Application of the force 9.4.6 Determining the maximum uplift resistance The maximum uplift resistance, Rr,i, where i is the number of the test, is defined as the total force on the

16 roofing tiles at the latest completed step, before one of the following events occurs: a) breakage of the mechanical fixing from tile to batten; b) pulling out or breakage of the connection of the mechanical fixing to the roof; SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 12 c) breakage of covering elements; d) the maximum displacement of any roofing tile exceeds the value dmax (mm), given by: dmax = 75 lh/400 where dmax is the maximum permissible displacement, in mm; lh is the hanging length of the tile, in mm; NOTE The hanging length of the tile is the distance between the lower (free) end of the tile to the inner surface of the hanging nib, refer to Figure E.1 in Annex E. e) the remaining displacement of any roofing tile due to deformations of the fixings after releasing the force to zero exceeds 5 mm; f) the tiles should not disengage from the batten. The release of the pulling force in between various loading steps may cause a remaining displacement of the roofing tiles due to friction between the elements or between the elements and the roof substructure. If the remaining displacement exceeds 5 mm after releasing the force to zero, the elements shall be returned to less than 5 mm by pushing at right angles to the surface of the tiles by hand. The fixings shall not be influenced when returning elements. If, after returning all the elements, a value less than 5 mm cannot be achieved, failure will be deemed to have occurred according to 9.4.6 (condition e). 10

Evaluation and expression of results The mean value and the standard deviation of the resistance from all tests i shall be calculated by: ∑=i,rxRRn1 ∑−−=2211)RR(sxi,rxn where Rr,i is the uplift resistance from test i, from 9.4; n the number of tests that have been carried out. When after a series of 3 tests, the ratio sx/Rx exceeds 0,10, two additional tests according to 9.4 shall be carried out; when the ratio sx/Rx still exceeds 0,10 after 5 tests, two additional tests according to 9.4 shall be done.

NOTE Annex D contains information on the calculation of the characteristic value of the uplift resistance and Annex E on the calculation of the characteristic resistance of the mechanical fixing. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 13 11

Test report The test report shall provide the following information: a) the title, reference number and date of publication of this document; b) the place, date and time of sampling; c) the identification of the roofing tile according to the relevant standard, and the commercial identification of the roofing tiles, including material specifications, surface characteristics and name of the manufacturer; d) the head and side lap and the bonding of the installed roofing tiles; e) the type and dimensions of the fixing and name of the manufacturer; f) number of tiles that have been fixed and distribution of fixings (fixing patterns, refer to Annex C); g) the species or density of the timber used for the battens, dimensions and span of the battens and the moisture content of the battens; h) date of testing; i) test results (individual values, mean and standard deviation and the modes of failure); j) any other factor that could have influenced the result. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 14 Annex A
(informative)
Test rig

Key 1 Hydraulic pull / push provision 2 Force application 3 Frame 4 Force measuring 5 Rafter 6 Joint 7 Cable 8 Frame

Figure A.1 – Example of the test rig SIST EN 14437:2005
EN 14437:2004 (E) 15 Annex B
(normative)

Arrangement of tiles on the test rig B.1 General This annex contains the specification of the arrangement of the tiles on the test rig and the arrangement of the tiles to be loaded. B.2 Single lap interlocking tiles in straight bond For single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond, the loading shall be applied to 16 tiles, laid in a rectangular shape of 4 x 4 tiles, as shown in the Figure below.

Key

L Loaded tiles Figure B.1 - Loading pattern for single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond B.3 Single lap interlocking tiles in broken bond For single lap interlocking tiles laid in broken bond, the loading shall be applied to 16 tiles, 4 tiles per row. The loading pattern shall be similar to that shown in Figure B.2. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 16

Key L Loaded tiles Figure B.2 - Loading pattern for single lap interlocking tiles laid in broken bond B.4 Tiles with double-lap For tiles with double-lap, the loading pattern is given in Figure B.3. It is similar to that of tiles laid in broken bond.

Key L Loaded tiles
Figure B.3 - Loading pattern for tiles with double overlap
SIST EN 14437:2005
EN 14437:2004 (E) 17 Annex C
(informative)

Fixing patterns to be tested C.1 General This annex gives examples of specifications of fixing patterns, which are possible in different configurations. The pattern used should be specified in the test report. It is recommended to include a sketch similar to the Figures C.1 to C.4 in the test report. C.2 Single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond For single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond and fixings applied in alternate diagonals (1:2 fixing or checkerboard) the fixing pattern shown in Figure C.1 shall be used. For single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond and fixings applied in alternate courses in a 1:2 fixing, the fixing pattern shown in Figure C.2 shall be used.

Fixing pattern SB2 – 1 Key L Loaded tiles F Fixed tiles FL Fixed loaded tiles Figure C.1 - Alternate diagonal (1:2) fixing pattern for single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 18

Fixing pattern SB2 - 2 Key L Loaded tiles F Fixed tiles FL Fixed loaded tiles Figure C.2 - Alternate course (1:2) fixing pattern for single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond For single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond and each 3rd tile fixed (1:3 fixing), Figure C.3 shows examples of fixing patterns.

a) Fixing pattern SB3-1 b) Fixing pattern SB3-2 Key L Loaded tiles F Fixed tiles FL Fixed loaded tiles Figure C.3 - Fixing patterns for single lap interlocking tiles laid in straight bond in a 1:3 fixing SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 19 C.3 Single lap interlocking tiles laid in broken bond. For single lap interlocking tiles laid in broken bond, various 1:2 fixing patterns are possible. Examples are given below in Figure C.4.

a) Fixing pattern BB2 - 1 b) Fixing pattern BB2 - 2 Key L Loaded tiles F Fixed tiles FL Fixed loaded tiles Figure C.4 - Fixing patterns for single lap interlocking tiles laid in broken bond in a 1:2 fixing.

Fixing pattern BB2 - 3 Key L Loaded tiles F Fixed tiles FL Fixed loaded tiles Figure C.5 - Fixing pattern for single lap interlocking tiles laid in broken bond, with alternate course fixing. SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 20 For configurations with 1:3 fixing, various fixing patterns are possible. Examples are given in Figure C.6.

a) Fixing pattern BB3 – 1 b) Fixing pattern BB3 – 2 c) Fixing pattern BB3 - 3 Figure C.6 - Fixing patterns for single lap interlocking tiles laid in broken bond in a 1:3 fixing. C.4 Tiles with double overlap For tiles with double overlap, various 1:2 fixing patterns are possible. Examples are given below in

Figures C.7 and C.8.

a) Fixing pattern DO2 – 1 b) Fixing pattern DO2 - 2 Key L Loaded tiles F Fixed tiles FL Fixed loaded tiles Figure C.7 - Examples of fixing patterns for tiles with double overlap in a 1:2 fixing SIST EN 14437:2005

EN 14437:2004 (E) 21

Fixing pattern DO2 - 3 Figure C.8 - Fixing patterns for tiles with double overlap in a 1:2 fixing with alternate courses For configurations with 1:3 fixing, various fixing patterns are possible. Examples are given in Figure C.9.

a) Fixing pattern DO3 – 1 b) Fixing pattern DO3
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