Road vehicles - Ergonomic aspects of transport information and control systems - Procedure for assessing suitability for use while driving (ISO 17287:2003)

ISO 17287:2003 specifies a procedure for assessing whether specific TICS, or a combination of TICS with other in-vehicle systems, are suitable for use by drivers while driving. It addresses user-oriented TICS description and context of use, TICS task description and analysis, assessment process, and documentation.
The TICS description and context of use includes consideration of improper use, reasonably foreseeable misuse and TICS failure. The TICS description, analysis and assessment include a process for identifying and addressing suitability issues.
ISO 17287:2003 does not recommend specific variables for assessing suitability nor does it define criteria for establishing the suitability of use of a TICS Table while driving.

Straßenfahrzeuge -Ergonomische Aspekte von Fahrerinformations- und Assistenzsystemen - Verfahren zur Bewertung der Gebrauchstauglichkeit beim Führen eines Kraftfahrzeuges (ISO 17287:2003)

Diese Internationale Norm beschreibt ein Verfahren zur Bewertung der Eignung eines bestimmten Verkehrsinformations- und -Regelsystems (TICS) oder einer Kombination von TICS mit anderen Fahrzeugsystemen zur Benutzung durch den Fahrer während der Fahrt. Insbesondere behandelt sie:
¾ Anwenderorientierte TICS-Beschreibung und Einsatzbereich,
¾ Beschreibung und Analyse der TICS-Aufgaben,
¾ Bewertungsprozess und
¾ Dokumentation.
Die Beschreibung des TICS und seines Einsatzbereiches berücksichtigt auch den unsachgemäßen Gebrauch, den realistischerweise vorhersehbaren Fehlgebrauch und Systemfehler. Die Beschreibung, Analyse und Beurteilung von TICS beinhalten einen Prozess zur Identifizierung und Adressierung von Aspekten der Gebrauchstauglichkeit.
Diese Norm empfiehlt keine spezifischen Kenngrößen zur Bewertung der Gebrauchstauglichkeit, noch legt sie Kriterien fest für die Beurteilung der Gebrauchstauglichkeit einer TICS-Tabelle während der Fahrt.

Véhicules routiers - Aspects ergonomiques des systèmes de commande et d'information du transport - Procédure d'évaluation de leur adéquation pour une utilisation pendant la conduite (ISO 17287:2003)

L'ISO 17287:2003 spécifie une procédure permettant d'évaluer si des TICS spécifiques, ou une combinaison de TICS avec d'autres systèmes embarqués, sont adaptés à une utilisation par des conducteurs pendant la conduite. Elle aborde la description des TICS du point de vue de l'utilisateur, le contexte de leur utilisation, la description et l'analyse des tâches relatives à l'utilisation des TICS, la procédure d'évaluation, et la documentation.
La description des TICS et le contexte de leur utilisation comprend la prise en compte d'une utilisation inappropriée, les abus d'utilisation raisonnablement prévisibles et la défaillance des TICS. L'évaluation, l'analyse et la description des TICS comprennent l'identification et le traitement des questions d'adéquation.
L'ISO 17287:2003 ne recommande pas de variables spécifiques pour évaluer l'adéquation, ni ne définit de critères pour établir l'adéquation des TICS pour une utilisation pendant la conduite.

Cestna vozila - Ergonomski vidiki transportnih informacij in kontrolnih sistemov – Postopki za ocenjevanje primernosti uporabe med vožnjo (ISO 17287:2003)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Mar-2003
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
01-Apr-2003
Completion Date
01-Apr-2003

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
01-oktober-2003

Cestna vozila - Ergonomski vidiki transportnih informacij in kontrolnih sistemov –

Postopki za ocenjevanje primernosti uporabe med vožnjo (ISO 17287:2003)
Road vehicles - Ergonomic aspects of transport information and control systems -
Procedure for assessing suitability for use while driving (ISO 17287:2003)
Straßenfahrzeuge -Ergonomische Aspekte von Fahrerinformations- und

Assistenzsystemen - Verfahren zur Bewertung der Gebrauchstauglichkeit beim Führen

eines Kraftfahrzeuges (ISO 17287:2003)

Véhicules routiers - Aspects ergonomiques des systemes de commande et d'information

du transport - Procédure d'évaluation de leur adéquation pour une utilisation pendant la

conduite (ISO 17287:2003)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 17287:2003
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
43.040.30 Prikazovalne in kontrolne Indicating and control
naprave devices
SIST EN ISO 17287:2003 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 17287
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2003
ICS 13.180; 43.040.15
English version
Road vehicles - Ergonomic aspects of transport information and
control systems - Procedure for assessing suitability for use
while driving (ISO 17287:2003)

Véhicules routiers - Aspects ergonomiques des systèmes Straßenfahrzeuge -Ergonomische Aspekte von Fahrer-

de commande et d'information du transport - Procédure informations- und -assistenzsystemen - Verfahren zur

d'évaluation de leur adéquation pour une utilisation pendant Bewertung der Gebrauchstauglichkeit beim Führen eines

la conduite (ISO 17287:2003) Kraftfahrzeuges (ISO 17287:2003)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 March 2003.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2003 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 17287:2003 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
EN ISO 17287:2003 (E)
CORRECTED 2003-07-16
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 17287:2003) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22

"Road vehicles" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 278 "Road transport and

traffic telematics", the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of

an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2003, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by October 2003.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and

the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 17287:2003 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 17287:2003 without any

modifications.

NOTE Normative references to International Standards are listed in Annex ZA (normative).

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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
EN ISO 17287:2003 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their relevant European publications

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of

any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by

amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to

applies (including amendments).

NOTE Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated

by (mod.), the relevant EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN Year
ISO 15005 2002 Road vehicles - Ergonomic EN ISO 15005 2002
aspects of transport information
and control systems - Dialogue
management principles and
compliance procedures
ISO 15008 2003 Road vehicles - Ergonomic aspects EN ISO 15008 2003
of transport information and control
systems - Specifications and
compliance procedures for in-
vehicle visual presentation
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17287
First edition
2003-04-01
Road vehicles — Ergonomic aspects of
transport information and control
systems — Procedure for assessing
suitability for use while driving
Véhicules routiers — Aspects ergonomiques des systèmes de
commande et d'information du transport — Procédure d'évaluation de
leur adéquation pour une utilisation pendant la conduite
Reference number
ISO 17287:2003(E)
ISO 2003
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
ISO 17287:2003(E)
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© ISO 2003

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ii © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
ISO 17287:2003(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms and definitions related to suitability........................................................................................ 2

3.2 Other terms and definitions ................................................................................................................. 2

4 Requirements and recommendations................................................................................................. 5

4.1 Summary of requirements.................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 User-oriented TICS description and context of use .......................................................................... 5

4.3 Task description and analysis............................................................................................................. 7

4.4 Assessment ........................................................................................................................................... 8

4.5 Documentation .................................................................................................................................... 11

Annex A (informative) User-oriented TICS description — Examples.......................................................... 12

Annex B (informative) TICS task descriptions — Examples........................................................................ 15

Annex C (informative) Suitability assessment methods and variables ...................................................... 18

Annex D (informative) Example individual assessments — Stages 2 to 6 ................................................. 26

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 28

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
ISO 17287:2003(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 17287 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 13,

Ergonomics applicable to road vehicles.
iv © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
ISO 17287:2003(E)
0 Introduction
0.1 General

This International Standard arises from the increasing availability of transport information and control systems

(TICS) to support the driver in the primary driving tasks and in other secondary tasks. Drivers require ease of

use and high functionality and do not expect this to lead to unsafe driving situations (in use as intended by the

manufacturer, or during malfunction).
0.2 Assessment of suitability of TICS

The suitability of TICS is assessed on the basis of compatibility with the primary driving task and is concerned

with those aspects of usability which relate most closely to the driver’s performance. In particular, suitability

focuses on
 interference (with the driving task),
 controllability,
 efficiency, and
 ease of use while learning about the system.

The first three aspects (which are not necessarily mutually exclusive) relate closely to the primary driving task.

The fourth is also important, as some features of TICS may be used infrequently, or by drivers who are initially

unfamiliar with the systems. Other aspects of usability, such as satisfaction, are less important in assessing

the suitability of TICS for use while driving as they are more specific to individual manufacturers and their

product profiles, and do not relate so closely to the driver’s performance in undertaking the primary driving

task.

The importance of the four identified components in an overall assessment of suitability will vary between

TICS.

Suitability is a property of TICS and not of their components. It is assessed on the basis of the interaction

between the driver and the TICS within the driving environment, and suitability needs to take into account

driver’s behavioural adaptation induced by the TICS.

This International Standard concerns the process of assessment of a specific TICS product and is intended to

ensure that its suitability is considered, assessed and documented as part of the design and development

process. It does not attempt to prescribe all the actions that should be taken to assess or ensure suitability.

The scope and detail of an assessment is a matter for users of this document. Informative annexes provide

examples of aspects of the suitability assessment process.
0.3 Application

This International Standard is intended to assist the assessment of the suitability of TICS in advance of

widespread system deployment. It can be used when components from different suppliers are proposed or

assembled for use in the in-vehicle environment. The trend of integration of in-vehicle systems is likely to

increase the need to consider the impact of multiple and integrated in-vehicle systems and this document

could also be applicable to non-TICS functions.
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
ISO 17287:2003(E)

This International Standard is intended for use by manufacturers or by others concerned with assessing the

suitability of TICS for use while driving. It is assumed that the users will have some knowledge of automotive

human factors.

This International Standard can be used by manufacturers as part of their own quality processes. The design

and implementation of procedures to ensure that TICS suitability is assessed and documented will be

influenced by the varying needs of an organization, its objectives, the products and services supplied and

existing processes and practices employed.

It is not the purpose of this International Standard to enforce uniformity of TICS. It is independent of the type

of vehicle, complexity of TICS, level of integration within a vehicle or the specific TICS application or

implementation. It is applicable to all TICS, including, for example, those intended for use by drivers with

special needs.
vi © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17287:2003(E)
Road vehicles — Ergonomic aspects of transport information
and control systems — Procedure for assessing suitability for
use while driving
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a procedure for assessing whether specific TICS (transport information

and control systems), or a combination of TICS with other in-vehicle systems, are suitable for use by drivers

while driving. It addresses
 user-oriented TICS description and context of use,
 TICS task description and analysis,
 the assessment process, and
 documentation.

The TICS description and context of use includes consideration of improper use, reasonably foreseeable

misuse and TICS failure. The TICS description, analysis and assessment include a process for identifying and

addressing suitability issues.

This International Standard does not recommend specific variables for assessing suitability nor does it define

criteria for establishing the suitability of use of a TICS table while driving.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 15005, Road vehicles — Ergonomic aspects of transport information and control systems — Dialogue

management principles and compliance procedures

ISO 15008, Road vehicles — Ergonomic aspects of transport information and control systems —

Specifications and compliance procedures for in-vehicle visual presentation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
ISO 17287:2003(E)
3.1 Terms and definitions related to suitability
3.1.1
suitability

degree to which TICS use is appropriate in the context of the driving environment based on compatibility with

the primary driving task
NOTE Suitability focuses on a subset of usability comprising
 interference (with the driving task),
 controllability,
 efficiency, and
 ease of use while learning about the TICS.
3.1.2
interference

adverse influence on the driver’s ability to deal with the vehicle and the environment

NOTE In this context, interference from the TICS is the opposite of driver support provided by the TICS.

3.1.3
controllability

manner and degree to which drivers can influence TICS function and pace of interaction

NOTE Control elements include initiation, termination, repetition, overriding, resuming, regulation (e.g. of level or

brightness) and adaptation.
3.1.4
efficiency

resources expended in relation to the accuracy and completeness with which drivers achieve intended

objectives

NOTE 1 Efficiency relates to situational awareness, mental effort, physical effort, sensory effort and stress.

NOTE 2 Resources include physical, mental and sensory capacities.
NOTE 3 Adapted from ISO 9241-11:1998, definition 3.3.
3.1.5
learning
acquiring knowledge and developing skills
3.2 Other terms and definitions
3.2.1
assessment

judgement of the actual and potential effect of a TICS in a “prospective” way, usually before widespread

deployment
3.2.2
behavioural adaptation
behaviour which may occur in response to changes to the road-vehicle–user system
2 © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 17287:2003
ISO 17287:2003(E)
3.2.3
context of use

description of drivers, goals, tasks, equipment (hardware, software, materials) and the physical and social

environments in which the TICS are used
3.2.4
criterion
threshold or range of values of a variable to be met
3.2.5
workload

degree of mental, physical and perceptual effort required by a driver to undertake a particular task

3.2.6
environment
physical surroundings in which data is captured
EXAMPLE Real road, test track, simulator, laboratory.
3.2.7
failure

system state which results in TICS non-performance or TICS impaired performance (relative to the TICS

specification)
NOTE This is usually as a result of a hardware or software malfunction.
3.2.8
failure modes and effects analysis
FMEA

formal technique for listing ways in which a system can fail and estimating the probabilities and consequences

associated with each failure
3.2.9
HMI component
element or subsystem of a TICS with which the driver can interact while driving
EXAMPLE Visual display, control knob.
3.2.10
improper use

use of TICS functions while driving that are not intended by the manufacturer to be used while driving

3.2.11
intended use

TICS use while driving in accordance with specifications, instructions and information provided by the

manufacturer
3.2.12
manufacturer

organization or person designing, developing, integrating or supplying a TICS product

NOTE For original equipment supplied with a vehicle, the manufacturer is the vehicle manufacturer. For after-market

products, the manufacturer is the after-market supplier.
3.2.13
method

high-level approach to assessment, based on theory, which implies an underlying rationale in the choice of

assessment techniques

EXAMPLE Behavioural analysis, workload assessment, analysis of psycho-physiological responses.

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 3
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ISO 17287:2003(E)
3.2.14
misuse

use of TICS functions intended by the manufacturer to be used while driving in a way or manner not intended

by the manufacturer and which may lead to adverse consequences
3.2.15
mode
specified sub-set of functions or behaviour pattern of a TICS
EXAMPLE Processing, data entry.
3.2.16
performance
skill demonstrated by the driver in a driving task or TICS-related task
3.2.17
primary driving task

those activities that the driver has to undertake to maintain longitudinal and lateral vehicle control within the

traffic environment
3.2.18
satisfaction
comfort and acceptability of use
3.2.19
task analysis

formal method used to describe and study the performance demands made on the human elements of a

system
3.2.20
technique
component of the method used to directly gather data
EXAMPLE Eye movement registration, subjective assessment, heart rate monitoring.
NOTE Use of a technique will provide one or more variables.
3.2.21
transport information and control system
TICS

single function, such as route guidance, or number of functions designed to work together as a system

[ISO 15005:2002, definition 3.25]
[1]
See ISO/TR 14813-1 for TICS services.
3.2.22
tool
means for obtaining one or more variables

NOTE Although a tool is often an item of equipment such as a video camera or accelerometer it can also be a

questionnaire or checklist.
3.2.23
usability

concept comprising the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users can achieve

specified goals in a particular environment
NOTE Adapted from ISO 9241-11:1998, definition 3.1.
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ISO 17287:2003(E)
[2]

NOTE As well as effectiveness (see ISO 9241-11 ), efficiency and satisfaction, usability involves learnability,

controllability, interference and adaptability.
3.2.24
variable
metric or indicator giving a quantitative measure of driver behaviour
EXAMPLE Eye glance duration, vehicle speed.
NOTE A variable is independent of the tool used to measure it.
4 Requirements and recommendations
4.1 Summary of requirements

The assessed TICS shall be described in accordance with the following requirements (see Annex A).

a) The intended use of the TICS and the context of use shall be defined (see 4.2.2 to 4.2.4).

b) TICS functions that are not intended to be used while driving shall be identified (see 4.2.5.1).

c) Steps taken to prevent the use of functions not intended to be used while driving shall be described

(see 4.2.5.2).

d) Steps taken to prevent reasonably foreseeable misuse shall be described (see 4.2.5.3).

e) The way in which TICS failures will be apparent to the driver shall be described (see 4.2.6).

f) Suitability assessment shall take account of the intended use and context of use of the TICS (see 4.4.2).

g) Information concerning suitability, including assessment results, shall be recorded and documented

(see 4.5).
4.2 User-oriented TICS description and context of use
4.2.1 Introduction

The intended use of the TICS and the context of use shall be defined. This subclause provides a

recommended structure along with an explanation of the elements. An outline example is given in Annex A.

4.2.2 General description

Table 1 gives those elements that should be included in the general description of the TICS.

Table 1 — General TICS description
Aspect of description Explanation

Market A brief introductory description of the market for which the product is intended.

General function A brief “headline” description of the function performed by the system.

Technical context A brief résumé of current developments in the field including, particularly, comparisons with

existing systems.

Benefits A summary of the intended goals and benefits of system use. Where appropriate,

reference should be made to the three levels of the driving task (navigating, manoeuvring

and handling).
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 5
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ISO 17287:2003(E)
4.2.3 Identification

Table 2 gives those elements that should be included in the identification of the TICS.

Table 2 — TICS identification
Aspect of description Explanation
Product name and version A one line description for identification purposes.
Manufacturer The name, address and contact points.

Subsystems A brief description of the subsystems to an appropriate level. HMI (human–machine

interface) components should receive greatest attention.

Build status A brief description of the state of development of the TICS for reference purposes.

Documentation A list of technical and user documentation included within the suitability assessment.

4.2.4 Context and restrictions for intended use

The context and restrictions can be regarded as “envelope of use”. Restrictions or limitations may be

particularly important for certain TICS functions. In these cases, the restrictions and limitations should be

given particular emphasis. A consideration of the driver’s needs, including his or her training needs, could be

helpful. Table 3 presents aspects of the context that should be considered.
Table 3 — Context and restrictions for intended TICS use
Aspect of description Explanation

Vehicle A description of the TICS requirements of a vehicle (e.g. physical devices, sensor signals

or other information). Also, any exclusions or restrictions on the vehicle within which the

TICS is intended to be used.

Driver If any restrictions or special driver skill requirements are defined by the manufacturer,

these should determine the intended user group considered within assessments.

Road A definition of the road context in which the TICS is, and is not, intended to be operated.

This includes the road category and physical requirements of road markings, gradients,

curvatures, widths, etc.

Traffic A description of the traffic context within which the TICS is, and is not, intended to be

operated (e.g. traffic mix and density).

Other environmental Additional requirements or restrictions could include weather and lighting specifications.

Infrastructure A general description of any infrastructure or information which is external to the vehicle

and required for the intended TICS operation.
4.2.5 Improper use and misuse

4.2.5.1 TICS functions that are not intended to be used while driving shall be identified. According to the

definition of intended use, this is the responsibility of the manufacturer of the TICS. The result should be a

clear distinction between functions intended to be used while driving and those not intended for use while

driving.

4.2.5.2 Steps taken to prevent the use of functions not intended to be used while driving shall be

described. Such improper use occurs when a function not intended to be used while driving is used by the

driver. As an example, suppose a mobile phone is not intended to be used without a hands-free car-adapter

kit. Steps taken to prevent the use of functions could include physical lock-outs or descriptions in the operating

manuals of the intended scope of TICS use and suitable warnings.

4.2.5.3 Steps taken to prevent reasonably foreseeable misuse shall be described. Misuse occurs when a

function intended to be used while driving is used by the driver in a way or manner not intended by the

manufacturer and which may lead to adverse consequences. Examples are using an ACC system as a

6 © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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ISO 17287:2003(E)

collision warning system and using a large-scale map as a driving aid in fog. Steps taken to prevent

reasonably foreseeable misuse could include advice and warnings in the operating manual or warning

reminders placed inside the vehicle.
4.2.6 Failures

TICS failures should be identified. The way in which TICS failures will be apparent to the driver shall be

described. The consequences of failures on TICS operation should be considered. More detailed descriptions

may also be undertaken using techniques such as failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA).

4.2.7 Additional information
Mor
...

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