Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 311: Application of ISO 9241-307: LCD screens for workstations

This document provides information relating to the specification of liquid crystal display (LCD) screens at visual display workstations in indoor locations, in accordance with ISO 9241-307:2008, 5.2. The information is limited to LCD screens, since these are typically used at workstations. The information is intended to support managerial decision makers (e.g. procurement operators, companies’ safety committees, occupational safety and health professionals) who are responsible for the acquisition of visual displays.

Ergonomie de l'interaction homme-système — Partie 311: Application de l'ISO 9241-307: Écrans LCD pour les postes de travail

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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 9241-311
First edition
2022-04
Ergonomics of human-system
interaction —
Part 311:
Application of ISO 9241-307: LCD
screens for workstations
Reference number
ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Email: copyright@iso.org
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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Classification, profiles and screen selection .......................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Profiles ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.2 Profile No. 1 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2.3 Profile No. 2 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2.4 Profile No. 3 ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

4.2.5 Profile No. 4 ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10

4.3 Comparison of the profiles........................................................................................................................................................ 10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

iii
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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 4,

Ergonomics of human-system interaction.
This first edition cancels and replaces ISO 9241-3:1992.
A list of all parts in the ISO 9241 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
Introduction
1) 1) 1) 1)

The ISO 9241-30x family of standards has replaced ISO 9241-3 , ISO 9241-7 , ISO 9241-8 , ISO 13406-1

and ISO 13406-2 . The overall goal of the restructuring was to design a modular standard enabling an

easy way of adding new intended contexts of use, new measurement methods or new technologies in

the ISO 9241-30x family of standards.

The ISO 9241-30x family of standards consists of seven individual standards. Table 1 gives an overview

(for details see the standards themselves).

This document refers to ISO 9241-307. It helps explain the transition from the earlier structure of the

related standards to the current structure. It will be revised or withdrawn following the revision of

ISO 9241-307.
Table 1 — Overview of the ISO 9241-30x family of standards
Part of ISO 9241-30x Title and explanation
ISO 9241-300 Introduction to electronic visual display requirements
— This part introduces the ISO 9241-30x family of standards and explains the
modular structure.
ISO 9241-302 Terminology for electronic visual displays
— This part explains the terms and definitions used in the series.
ISO 9241-303 Requirements for electronic visual displays
— This part establishes fundamental image-quality requirements on a generic
basis. For assessing its requirements, a testing method is needed regarding its
technology, task and environment.
ISO 9241-304 User performance test methods for electronic visual displays
— This part provides guidance for assessing the visual ergonomics of display
technologies with user performance test methods.
ISO 9241-305 Optical laboratory test methods for electronic visual displays
— This part contains test methods for measurement of the requirements given in
ISO 9241-303.
ISO 9241-306 Field assessment methods for electronic visual displays
— This part describes simplified optical, geometrical and visual assessment
methods that can be used for on-site measurements at visual display
workstations.
ISO 9241-307 Analysis and compliance test methods for electronic visual displays

— This part establishes test methods for the analysis of a variety of visual display

technologies, tasks and environments. It refers to the general requirements
given in ISO 9241-303 and test methods given in ISO 9241-305 for assessment of
conformity for different (display-) technologies and the anticipated contexts of
use.

ISO test charts for the visual assessment of the display output by yes/no question are available from:

https://standards.iso.org/iso/9241/306/ed-2/index.html
https://standards.iso.org/iso/9241/306/ed-2/AE09/AE09F0PX.PDF (achromatic, 2 MB)
https://standards.iso.org/iso/9241/306/ed-2/AE18/AE18F0PX.PDF (chromatic, 14 MB)

1) Cancelled and replaced by ISO 9241-302, ISO 9241-303, ISO 9241-304, ISO 9241-305, ISO 9241-307

and ISO 9241-311.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
Ergonomics of human-system interaction —
Part 311:
Application of ISO 9241-307: LCD screens for workstations
1 Scope

This document provides information relating to the specification of liquid crystal display (LCD) screens

at visual display workstations in indoor locations, in accordance with ISO 9241-307:2008, 5.2. The

information is limited to LCD screens, since these are typically used at workstations.

The information is intended to support managerial decision makers (e.g. procurement operators,

companies’ safety committees, occupational safety and health professionals) who are responsible for

the acquisition of visual displays.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9241-302:2008, Ergonomics of human-system interaction — Part 302: Terminology for electronic

visual displays
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 9241-302 and the following

apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
artificial information

visualization of objects and scenes that do not have originals in our world in monochrome (including

achromatic) and/or multicolour (including full-colour) presentation
EXAMPLE Text (i.e. alphanumeric characters), graphical signs, symbols.
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-307:2008, Table 38.
3.2
reality information

imaging of objects and scenes that do have existing originals in our world in monochrome (including

achromatic) and/or multicolour (including full-colour) presentation
EXAMPLE Faces, people, landscapes.
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-307:2008, Table 38.
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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
3.3
design viewing direction
specific direction from which the visual display is intended to be viewed
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-307:2008, Table 38.
Note 2 to entry: Reality information is not considered.
3.4
design screen illuminance
specific maximum illuminance on the screen caused by ambient illumination
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-307:2008, Table 38.
3.5
luminance balance

ratio between the luminances of the displayed image and its adjacent surround or sequentially viewed

surfaces
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.4.18]
3.6
colour non-uniformity
change of a colour in the active area of the screen
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.4.3.
Note 2 to entry: Variation considers lateral and directional changes.
3.7
contrast non-uniformity

unintended variations in contrast (luminance ratio) in the active area of the screen

Note 1 to entry: There are three different forms of contrast non-uniformity:

— variation in area average luminance contrast from the centre of a display to the edge of any portion thereof;

— variation of the peak contrast of character elements (dots or strokes) at different locations of the screen;

— variation of the peak contrast of character elements (dots or strokes) within a character.

Note 2 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.4.4.
3.8
visual artefacts
Moiré effects
regular image superimposed on the intended image

Note 1 to entry: Moiré effects can appear as ripples, waves and intensity variations.

Note 2 to entry: Moiré effects are disturbing information.
Note 3 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.4.9.
3.9
unintended depth effects
perception of depth by combination of spectrally extreme colours
EXAMPLE Combination of red and blue.
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.4.12.
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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
3.10
luminance contrast

ratio between the higher luminance, L , and lower luminance, L , that defines the feature to be detected

H L

Note 1 to entry: ISO 9241-303:2011, ISO 9241-305:2008 and ISO 9241-307:2008 use luminance contrast measured

by contrast modulation or measured by contrast ratio.
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.1.7, modified — Notes to entry replaced.]
3.11
image polarity
relationship between background brightness and image brightness

Note 1 to entry: The presentation of brighter characters on a darker background is designated as negative

polarity, and the presentation of darker characters on a brighter background is designated as positive polarity.

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.4.15]
3.12
character format
number of horizontal and vertical elements of a character

Note 1 to entry: An element is understood to be a pixel, which is the smallest element that is capable of generating

the full intended functionality (e.g. colour and grey scale) of the display.

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.6.5, modified — definition revised and notes to entry replaced.]

3.13
luminance coding
information presented by temporally independent differences in image luminances
EXAMPLE Information highlighted by differences in luminance.

Note 1 to entry: Absolute luminance coding is understood to be information presented where the only dimension

that is used for visual differentiation is the difference in image luminances (see ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.4.1).

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.4.19, modified — example and Note 1 to entry added.]

3.14
blink coding
information presented by temporal luminance variations in images
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.3.8]
3.15
colour coding
information coding by using distinguishable colours
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.6.4.
3.16
geometrical coding
information coding by using different geometrical shapes

EXAMPLE Use of graphical symbols (e.g. triangles and circles for distinguishing curves in diagrams).

Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.6.5.
3.17
object size
visual angle required for objects to be recognizable
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.7.2.
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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
Note 2 to entry: Object size can be monochrome or multicolour.
3.18
contrast for object legibility
contrast required for objects to be recognizable
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.7.3.
3.19
colour considerations for graphics
summary of requirements for coloured symbols or characters

Note 1 to entry: A default colour set with distinguishable colours is required to be available. Characters and

symbols need to be presented with a visual angle of at least 20 of arc at the design viewing distance (2,9 mm

height of character or symbol at 500 mm viewing distance). Where accurate colour identification of an isolated

image such as a character or symbol is required, the image should be at least 30 of arc at the design viewing

distance, preferably 45 of arc.
Note 2 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.7.4.
3.20
surrounding image effects
background

effects with reference to the discriminability of image background and image foreground

Note 1 to entry: For colours to be discriminable and identifiable, coloured foreground images should be used on

achromatic background and vice versa.
Note 2 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.7.5.
3.21
colour gamut

number of colours used by an application as a percentage of all colours of the chromaticity diagram

Note 1 to entry: Depending on the application for office tasks (artificial information), a minimum of six and a

maximum of 11 discriminable colours should be provided.

Note 2 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.7.6 and 5.8.2.1 and ISO 9241-307:2008, Table 83.

3.22
reference white
specified reference for the white achromatic stimulus displayed on the monitor
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-307:2008, Table 83.
3.23
electro-optical transfer function

function describing the relationship between input signal of a display and the displayed luminance

Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-307:2008, Table 86.
3.24
grey scale
greys displayed by more than two luminance levels
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-307:2008, Table 86.
3.25
image formation time

time that is needed by the display to change the image from one luminance state to another luminance

state and vice versa

[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.4.14, modified — definition revised; example and note to entry deleted.]

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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
3.26
spatial resolution
display resolution in horizontal pixels times vertical pixels
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.8.6.
3.27
fill factor

fraction of the total pixel area geometrically available that can be altered to display information

Note 1 to entry: For discrete-pixel displays, the outer boundary of all the pixels defines the active area. Between

the pixels and subpixels are gaps that structurally support or define the pixel. The ratio of the active area minus

the area of the gaps to the active area is the fill factor.
[SOURCE: ISO 9241-302:2008, 3.4.10]
3.28
pixel density
number of pixels per dimension
EXAMPLE ppi = pixels per inch.

Note 1 to entry: The dimension can be a length measured in centimetres or inches, or an angle measured in

degrees at the design viewing distance.

Note 2 to entry: See ISO 9241-303:2011, 5.8.7, 5.8.8 and ISO 9241-307:2008, Table 91.

4 Classification, profiles and screen selection
4.1 General

In combination with ISO 9241-303 and ISO 9241-305, ISO 9241-307 forms the basis for conformity

assessment of LCD screens and is therefore considered to be the relevant standard for the acquisition

and specification of screens.

Whereas ISO 9241-3, ISO 9241-7, ISO 9241-8, ISO 13406-1 and ISO 13406-2 mainly took visual display

workstations into account, the scope of ISO 9241-307 was broadened and additional technologies were

considered.
The broad scope of ISO 9241-307 includes the following changes:
— consideration of illuminance between 50 lx and 1 500 lx;

— consideration of the luminance of an extended light source that can reflect in the screen, with higher

2 2
values of 300 cd/m or 500 cd/m ;
— integration of CIE-illuminants A, F11 and F12 ;

— discrimination between “artificial information” and “reality information” regarding content and

perception.
ISO 9241-307 considers the following technologies:
— Cathode ray tube (CRT) displays;
— emissive flat-panel LCD;
— plasma display panels;
— front-screen projection visual displays;

2) CIE standard illuminant A (ISO 11664-2:2007/CIE S 014-2:2006), CIE illuminants FL11 and FL12 (CIE 018:2018)

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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
— emissive, reflective and transflective LCDs for hand-held devices.

Extending the scope led to discontinuation of the former classification (e.g. of the hitherto known

reflection classes according to ISO 13406-2. In ISO 9241-307 this is replaced by the corresponding

luminances. Comparability with the former reflection classes is guaranteed. Table 2 shows the

correlation of the former reflection classes to the luminances.
Table 2 — Comparison of reflection classes
Luminance of directional reflected Example for environment
Reflection class according to
light sources [cd/m ] according to ISO 9241-307 (ISO 13406-2, ISO
ISO 13406-2
ISO 9241-307 9241-7)
For specialized use with very strin-
N/A L = 500 and L = N/A gent level on robustness against
REF, EXT REF, SML
light
For general use in offices near
N/A L = 300 and L = N/A windows with stringent level on
REF, EXT REF, SML
robustness against light
I L = 200 and L = 2 000 General office use
REF, EXT REF, SML
For most but not all office environ-
II L = 200 or L = 2 000
REF, EXT REF, SML f
ments
Requires a specially controlled
III L = 200 or L = 125
REF, EXT REF, SML g
luminous environment
Key
N/A not applicable
REF, EXT large reference aperture source
REF, SML small reference aperture source
a 2
L = 5 000 cd/m .
REF, SML
Workstations with a very high illumination level.
c 2
L = 3 000 cd/m .
REF, SML
Workstations near windows, sun protection used only slightly.

Visual displays of this type can be used in any office environment. Workstations near windows, sun protection used in

good time.

Visual displays of this type can cause disturbing reflections if used in environments with no ideal lighting or positioned

near windows. Workstations far from windows with low illumination level.

Visual displays of this type cause greatly disturbing reflections, so these devices cannot be used for office work under

normal office environments. These disturbances can only be handled by complete diffuse lighting, which, however, is hardly

realizable from a technical point of view. Furthermore, the reflection of bright surfaces in the screens (e.g. walls, windows)

needs to be avoided. Workstations far from windows with completely diffuse lighting and without bright surfaces (e.g.

walls, windows) that can be reflected in the screen.

Additional changes or innovations in classification have been made in, for example, colour non-

uniformity and pixel fault classification. For “reality information”, higher levels of image quality are

defined.

In detail, Table 3 shows changes within the classification of the colour non-uniformity.

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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
Table 3 — Comparison of the classification of colour non-uniformity
Class according to Classification according to ISO 9241-
The classification is fulfilled…
ISO 13406-2 307
III High class chromaticity uniformity in a … for all colour combinations
viewing cone with a single visual display
R and/or G and/or B = 100 %
R and G and B = 75 %
R and/or G and/or B = 50 %
III Medium class chromaticity uniformity in … for all colour combinations
a viewing cone with a single visual display
R and/or G and/or B = 100 %
R = G = B = 75 %
III Low class chromaticity uniformity in a … only for primary colours
viewing cone with a single visual display
R = 100 %, G = 100 %, B = 100 %

IV Low class chromaticity uniformity in a … for all colours in a restricted viewing cone

restricted viewing cone

Pigment content of red, green and blue for generating mixed colours or primary colour.

The pixel fault classes have been changed as shown in Table 4 and Table 5, which give a (simplified)

comparison between the possible pixel fault classes of ISO 9241-307 and the former classifications

according to ISO 13406-2 for all typical screen sizes found at workstations.
Table 4 — Comparison of pixel fault classes
Classification ISO 9241-307 pixel Type 1 Type 2 Type 3
according to fault class Class
Pixel
(Pixel permanently (Pixel permanently (Subpixel perma-
ISO 13406-2
bright) dark) nently bright/dark)
I 0 0 0 0/0
— I 1 1 2/1
II II 2 2 5/0
III III 5 15 50/0
IV IV 50 150 500/0

NOTE 1 Numerical data: maximum number of faults per type and per million pixels.

NOTE 2 ISO 13406-2 had not differentiated between “permanently bright”/”permanently dark” subpixel faults. This is new

with ISO 9241-307.
Table 5 — Comparison of the pixel fault classes – Continuation
Type 3 Accumu-
Type 1 (Pixel Type 2 (Pixel
ISO 9241- lation of Accumulation
permanently permanently
Permanently Permanently
307 Class Type 1 or of Type 3
Pixel
bright) dark)
bright dark
Type 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
I 1 1 2 1 0 0
1 1 1 3 0 0
1 1 0 5 0 0
NOTE 1 Numerical data: maximum number of faults per type and per million pixels.

NOTE 2 The classification is made by declaring the pixel fault class and the counter n . In pixel fault class II the counter is

n = 1, 2, 3 or 4.
NOTE 3 Bright pixel faults are perceived more intensely than dark pixel faults.
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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)
Table 5 (continued)
Type 3 Accumu-
Type 1 (Pixel Type 2 (Pixel
ISO 9241- lation of Accumulation
permanently permanently
Permanently Permanently
307 Class Type 1 or of Type 3
Pixel
bright) dark)
bright dark
Type 2
II 2 2 5 0 0 1
2 2 5 − n 2 × n 0 1
II II
2 2 0 10 0 1
NOTE 1 Numerical data: maximum number of faults per type and per million pixels.

NOTE 2 The classification is made by declaring the pixel fault class and the counter n . In pixel fault class II the counter is

n = 1, 2, 3 or 4.
NOTE 3 Bright pixel faults are perceived more intensely than dark pixel faults.
4.2 Profiles
4.2.1 General

This document provides information to support decision making on the specification of LCD screens at

workstations. It only deals with LCD screens, since those are typically used at workstations.

Four different profiles are provided, which describe different environmental conditions, tasks and

visual display attributes.

It is the task of a managerial decision maker to compare the intended use of a screen to the different

profiles and to identify the profile needed. Once the profile is identified, the associated attributes the

visual display is to meet can be taken from the attributes table. Note that all statements made are

informative. The binding document is ISO 9241-307.

In the following subclauses each of the profiles is defined. They differ in robustness against ambient

light, task and image quality.
Each profile describes:
— the number of visual displays at the workstation;
— the observation conditions of the screen;
— the content of the displayed information, including examples;
— perception and identification of colours and luminances;
— environmental conditions at the workstation;
— perception of pixel faults and other visual image artefacts.
NOTE 1 The profiles are examples and cannot reflect each possible use case.

NOTE 2 For the acquisition of LCD screens at workstations, a profile is chosen that is most similar to the

intended use.

NOTE 3 Profiles can be individualized according to the context of use. In an environment with low ambient

illuminance, for example, a higher colour uniformity and/or higher colour gamut might be needed due to the need

to view several displays from a workstation in a fixed position or due to the task at hand. Also, depending on the

task, more stringent levels might be defined regarding the image formation time and/or the monotony of the

electro-optical transfer function.
NOTE 4 In case of doubt a higher level is chosen for the individual attribute.

NOTE 5 The choice of a profile is the responsibility of the managerial decision maker.

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ISO/TR 9241-311:2022(E)

NOTE 6 The profiles have been created under consideration of current applications. The profiles will be

subject to change with advancing technologies and software or changing tasks.
4.2.2 Profile No. 1
a) The workstation is generally equipped with one single visual display.

b) The whole screen is viewed from a fixed position and from a viewing distance of at least 500 mm by

a single user.

c) Purely artificial information is presented without moving images, for example as text processing

with dark characters on a bright background (positive polarity) or bright characters on a dark

background (negative polarity).
d) The perception and identification of colours is of minor importance.
e) The workstation is located in a controlled illuminated environment.

NOTE A controlled illuminated environment minimizes disturbing reflections on screens, enabling

screens with poor antireflection treatment to be used.
f) Pixel faults do not appear.

g) Within the given limits, no other visual artefacts (i.e. information competing against the intended

information for the user) appear.
4.2.3 Profile No. 2
a) The workstation is generally equipped with one single visual display.

b) The whole screen is viewed from a fixed position and from a viewing distance of at least 500 mm by

a single user.

c) Predominantly artificial information is presented without moving images, for example as text

processing, spreadsh
...

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