Guidelines for addressing climate change in standards

This document provides guidance to standards developers on how to take account of climate change in the planning, drafting, revision and updating of ISO standards and other deliverables. It outlines a framework and general principles that standards developers can use to develop their own approach to addressing climate change on a subject-specific basis. It aims to enable standards developers to include adaptation to climate change (ACC) and climate change mitigation (CCM) considerations in their standardization work. Considerations related to ACC are intended to contribute to increasing preparedness and disaster reduction as well as impacting the resilience of organizations and their technologies, activities or products (TAPs). Considerations related to CCM consist primarily of approaches that seek to avoid, reduce or limit the release of GHG emissions and/or increase GHG removals.

Lignes directrices pour la prise en compte des changements climatiques dans les normes

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Published
Publication Date
09-Jul-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
05-Jun-2020
Completion Date
10-Jul-2020
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GUIDE 84
First edition
2020-07
Guidelines for addressing climate
change in standards
Lignes directrices pour la prise en compte des changements
climatiques dans les normes
Reference number
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Understanding and responding to climate change ........................................................................................................... 8

4.1 What is climate change? .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.2 Climate change mitigation and adaptation to climate change ....................................................................... 9

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2.2 Climate change mitigation ....................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2.3 Adaptation to climate change ............................................................................................................................10

4.2.4 Interrelation between climate change mitigation and adaptation to

climate change ................................................................................................................................................................10

5 Addressing climate change in standards..................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Principles related to addressing climate change in standards ...................................................................11

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.2 Interactivity .......................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.3 Clarity .....................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.4 Involvement of interested parties ..................................................................................................................11

5.2.5 Transparency ...................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.6 Fairness and equity.....................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.7 Performance-driven approach ..........................................................................................................................12

5.2.8 Future orientation .......................................................................................................................................................12

6 Planning the strategy ....................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Issues to think about before establishing a committee ....................................................................................13

6.3 Strategic business plan .................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Review and revision of standards .......................................................................................................................................14

7 Planning the content .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.1 Responsibilities ...................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.2 Understanding approaches to responding to climate change .....................................................................15

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.2.2 Systems approach ........................................................................................................................................................16

7.2.3 Life cycle approach......................................................................................................................................................16

7.2.4 Risk-based approach .................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.5 Precautionary approach .........................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Identifying climate change issues ........................................................................................................................................19

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.2 Identifying relevant climate change issues ............................................................................................21

7.3.3 Identifying significant climate change issues ......................................................................................21

8 Addressing climate change issues ...................................................................................................................................................22

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.2 Consider interrelations between adaptation and mitigation ......................................................................22

8.3 Addressing climate change mitigation when dealing with specific sources ...................................23

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.3.2 GHG emissions from the direct or indirect combustion of fuels and energy

efficiency ..............................................................................................................................................................................24

8.3.3 GHG emissions from the use of fluorinated industrial gases ..................................................25

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)

8.3.4 GHG emissions from the process industries .........................................................................................25

8.3.5 GHG emissions from agriculture .....................................................................................................................25

8.3.6 GHG emissions from livestock operations ..............................................................................................25

8.3.7 GHG emissions from waste management ................................................................................................26

8.3.8 GHG emissions from biomass and natural processes ...................................................................26

8.3.9 GHG emissions from road transportation fuels .................................................................................26

8.3.10 GHG emissions from the aviation sector ..................................................................................................26

8.3.11 GHG emissions from maritime shipping ..................................................................................................27

8.4 Mitigation approaches ...................................................................................................................................................................27

8.4.1 GHG reduction through energy management and energy efficiency ...............................27

8.4.2 GHG reduction through renewable energy ............................................................................................27

8.4.3 GHG reduction through fuel switching ......................................................................................................28

8.4.4 GHG reduction through resource management .................................................................................28

8.4.5 Carbon capture, use, and storage ...................................................................................................................28

8.5 Financing the transition to a low carbon economy ..............................................................................................28

8.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.5.2 Policy incentives ............................................................................................................................................................29

8.5.3 Green debt instruments ..........................................................................................................................................29

8.5.4 Mitigation projects ......................................................................................................................................................30

8.6 Addressing climate change adaptation aspects in product and process standards .................30

8.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................30

8.6.2 Considerations and approaches for adaptation .................................................................................31

8.6.3 Incorporating climate change adaptation measures into standards ...............................32

8.6.4 Process standards ........................................................................................................................................................34

8.6.5 Product standards .......................................................................................................................................................34

8.7 Adaptation and mitigation in management system standards ..................................................................36

8.8 Other aspects for consideration ............................................................................................................................................38

8.8.1 Organizational inventories ...................................................................................................................................38

8.8.2 GHG project monitoring ..........................................................................................................................................39

8.8.3 Per unit of product “footprints” .......................................................................................................................39

8.8.4 Role of verification in monitoring and evaluation ...........................................................................40

Annex A (informative) Using systems thinking to set boundaries for climate change adaptation ...41

Annex B (informative) Background information on approaches for responding to climate

change ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................45

Annex C (informative) Planetary boundary conditions .................................................................................................................51

Annex D (informative) Adaptation to climate change and climate change mitigation:

Examples and supporting information ......................................................................................................................................53

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................59

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by the ISO Technical Management Board Task Force on Climate Change

Coordination.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
Introduction

This document is intended for developers of ISO standards and other deliverables to encourage the

inclusion of provisions in standards to address climate change impacts, risks and opportunities, and

aims to:

— enable standards committees to determine if the standard under consideration should take into

account aspects, issues, impacts, risks and/or opportunities associated with climate change;

— provide standards developers with a systematic approach to address climate change impacts,

risks and opportunities in a coherent and consistent manner, with regard to both new and revised

standards, and in a manner related to the objective and scope of the standard being developed;

— promote consistency and compatibility to the extent practical among standards that directly or

indirectly address climate change and their wider uptake in support of sustainability.

NOTE Standards developers are encouraged to consider the mandatory committee-specific policies in the

ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1, for the development of sector-specific environmental management standards and

sector-specific environmental management system standards.

Figure 1 provides a schematic overview of this document as a process for addressing climate change in

standards.
Figure 1 — Schematic overview of this document
vi © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)

The international community has expressed a commitment to strengthen the global response to the

threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development, including:

a) holding the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and

pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1,5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing

that this would significantly reduce the negative climate change impacts;

b) increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate

resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food

production.

Climate change affects many regions of the world and includes significant climate change impacts, risks

and opportunities arising from changing weather patterns, rising sea levels and more extreme weather

events. Rapidly expanding urban areas are recognized to be particularly vulnerable. Climate extremes

affecting urban systems, such as power supplies, can lead to cascading failures in other utilities and

services compromising the health and well-being of the population. The potential consequences of such

climate-related impacts, risks and opportunities include the disruption of different environmental,

social and economic systems within national economies, affecting communities and organizations,

as well as individuals, with the poorest and most vulnerable people expected to be affected the most.

Action is needed, involving both climate change adaptation and mitigation, in order to limit the effects

of climate change impacts, risks and opportunities, while also contributing to the reduction of the

world’s average surface temperature. Against this challenging outlook, the scope, need and opportunity

for action on climate change is extensive.

Climate change is acknowledged as a foremost challenge with regards to the goal of sustainable

development, which encompasses any state of the global system in which the needs of the present are

met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Standards that take into consideration climate change adaptation and/or mitigation can contribute to

the achievement of sustainability, either directly (where they specifically address sustainability issues

such as climate change) or indirectly (where they relate to testing, products, procedures, services,

terminology, management systems or assessment). It is recognized that both climate change mitigation

(CCM) and adaptation to climate change (ACC) are important for all processes related to a technology,

activity or product (TAP). Although there are very important interactions, the two disciplines are

distinct and are addressed individually within this document.

Standards developers are encouraged to consider climate change issues in their work at all stages in

the standards development process. If climate change issues have not been considered, this can be a

valid reason to start the revision of a standard. In addition, the significance or relevance of specific

issues can have changed since the previous edition of a standard was drafted or reviewed. Whenever a

new standard is drafted, or an existing standard is revised, all standards developers (including project

leaders, convenors, committee chairs, committee managers and secretaries) are encouraged to actively

promote the application of this document, and to involve experts knowledgeable in the subject.

When standards developers address climate change in different existing or new standards, the result

can be an increased awareness of climate change issues among the user community across various

market sectors. Through the application of this document, users of such standards will be better able

to address climate change mitigation and/or adaptation in ways that many would not have expected or

considered. And with entirely new standards, users will realize that there are new opportunities for

the market to respond to these issues in ways not previously considered or contemplated.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
GUIDE ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
Guidelines for addressing climate change in standards
1 Scope

This document provides guidance to standards developers on how to take account of climate change in

the planning, drafting, revision and updating of ISO standards and other deliverables.

It outlines a framework and general principles that standards developers can use to develop their own

approach to addressing climate change on a subject-specific basis.

It aims to enable standards developers to include adaptation to climate change (ACC) and climate

change mitigation (CCM) considerations in their standardization work. Considerations related to ACC

are intended to contribute to increasing preparedness and disaster reduction as well as impacting the

resilience of organizations and their technologies, activities or products (TAPs). Considerations related

to CCM consist primarily of approaches that seek to avoid, reduce or limit the release of GHG emissions

and/or increase GHG removals.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
climate

statistical description of weather in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a

period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years

Note 1 to entry: The classical period for averaging these variables is 30 years, as defined by the World

Meteorological Organization.

Note 2 to entry: The relevant quantities are most often near-surface variables such as temperature, precipitation

and wind.
[SOURCE: ISO 14090:2019, 3.4]
3.1.2
climate change

change in climate (3.1.1) that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer

Note 1 to entry: Change in climate can be identified (e.g. by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/

or the variability of its properties.

Note 2 to entry: Climate change might be due to natural processes, internal to the climate system, or external

forcings such as modulations of the solar cycles, volcanic eruptions, and persistent anthropogenic (3.1.36)

changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use (3.1.37).
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
[SOURCE: ISO 14090:2019, 3.5, modified — Note 1 to entry has been modified.]
3.1.3
adaptation to climate change
climate change adaptation
adaptation
process of adjustment to actual or expected climate (3.1.1) and its effects

Note 1 to entry: In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.

Note 2 to entry: In some natural systems, human intervention can facilitate adjustment to expected climate and

its effects.

[SOURCE: ISO 14090:2019, 3.1, modified — The preferred term “adaptation” has been added.]

3.1.4
climate change mitigation
mitigation

human intervention to reduce GHG emissions (3.1.13) or enhance GHG removals (3.1.14)

[SOURCE: ISO 14080:2018, 3.1.2.1, modified — The preferred term “mitigation” has been added, and

the words “to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs)” have been replaced

with “to reduce GHG emissions or enhance GHG removals” in the definition.]
3.1.5
climate change impact

effect on natural or human systems as a result of being exposed to climate change (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: Impacts can be adverse or beneficial.

[SOURCE: ISO 14090:2019, 3.8, modified — The preferred term and definition have been contextualized

to directly refer to climate change: the term “impact” has been replaced with “climate change impact”,

the words “as a result of being exposed to climate change” have been added to the definition and the

original Note 1 to entry has been replaced.]
3.1.6
climate change risk

risk (3.1.7) of negative climate change impacts (3.1.5) that reflects the interaction among vulnerability

(3.1.8), exposure (3.1.10) and hazard (3.1.11)

Note 1 to entry: A risk assessment can include the consideration of vulnerabilities, exposure and climate change

(3.1.2) hazards, or the consideration of likelihoods (3.1.44) and consequences (3.1.43).

[SOURCE: ISO 14080:2018, 3.1.3.3, modified — The preferred term has been changed from “climate

risk” to “climate change risk”, the words “potential of negative impacts of climate change” have been

replaced with “risk of negative climate change impacts”, and the original Note 1 to entry has been

replaced.]
3.1.7
risk
effect of uncertainty on objectives

Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected. It can be positive, negative or both, and can address,

create or result in opportunities and threats.

Note 2 to entry: Objectives can have different aspects and categories, and can be applied at different levels.

Note 3 to entry: Risk is usually expressed in terms of risk sources (3.1.41), potential events (3.1.42), their

consequences (3.1.43) and their likelihood (3.1.44).
[SOURCE: ISO 31000:2018, 3.1]
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
3.1.8
vulnerability

propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected by climate (3.1.1) variability or change (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: Vulnerability encompasses a variety of concepts and elements including sensitivity (3.1.9) or

susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to cope and adapt.

[SOURCE: ISO 14090:2019, 3.15, modified —The definition has been contextualized to directly refer

to climate variability or change: the words “by climate variability or change” have been added to the

definition.]
3.1.9
sensitivity
degree to which a system or sp
...

GUIDE 84
First edition
2020-07
Guidelines for addressing climate
change in standards
Lignes directrices pour la prise en compte des changements
climatiques dans les normes
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1.6 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Understanding and responding to climate change ........................................................................................................... 8

4.1 What is climate change? .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.2 Climate change mitigation (CCM) and adaptation to climate change (ACC) ..................................... 9

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2.2 Climate change mitigation (CCM)...................................................................................................................... 9

4.2.3 Adaptation to climate change (ACC) ............................................................................................................10

4.2.4 Interrelation between climate change mitigation and adaptation ....................................10

5 Addressing climate change in standards..................................................................................................................................10

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.2 Principles related to addressing climate change in standards ...................................................................11

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.2 Interactivity .......................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.3 Clarity .....................................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.4 Involvement of interested parties ..................................................................................................................11

5.2.5 Transparency ...................................................................................................................................................................11

5.2.6 Fairness and equity.....................................................................................................................................................12

5.2.7 Performance-driven approach ..........................................................................................................................12

5.2.8 Future orientation .......................................................................................................................................................12

6 Planning the strategy ....................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.2 Issues to think about before establishing a committee ....................................................................................13

6.3 Strategic business plan .................................................................................................................................................................13

6.4 Review and revision of standards .......................................................................................................................................14

7 Planning the content .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.1 Responsibilities ...................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.2 Understanding approaches to responding to climate change .....................................................................15

7.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

7.2.2 Systems approach ........................................................................................................................................................16

7.2.3 Life cycle approach......................................................................................................................................................16

7.2.4 Risk-based approach .................................................................................................................................................18

7.2.5 Precautionary approach .........................................................................................................................................19

7.3 Identifying climate change issues ........................................................................................................................................19

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................19

7.3.2 Identifying relevant climate change issues ............................................................................................21

7.3.3 Identifying significant climate change issues ......................................................................................21

8 Addressing climate change issues ...................................................................................................................................................22

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.2 Consider interrelations between adaptation and mitigation ......................................................................22

8.3 Addressing climate change mitigation when dealing with specific sources ...................................23

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.3.2 GHG emissions from the direct or indirect combustion of fuels and energy

efficiency ..............................................................................................................................................................................24

8.3.3 GHG emissions from the use of fluorinated industrial gases ..................................................25

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)

8.3.4 GHG emissions from the process industries .........................................................................................25

8.3.5 GHG emissions from agriculture .....................................................................................................................25

8.3.6 GHG emissions from livestock operations ..............................................................................................25

8.3.7 GHG emissions from waste management ................................................................................................26

8.3.8 GHG emissions from biomass and natural processes ...................................................................26

8.3.9 GHG emissions from road transportation fuels .................................................................................26

8.3.10 GHG emissions from the aviation sector ..................................................................................................26

8.3.11 GHG emissions from maritime shipping ..................................................................................................27

8.4 Mitigation approaches ...................................................................................................................................................................27

8.4.1 GHG reduction through energy management and energy efficiency ...............................27

8.4.2 GHG reduction through renewable energy ............................................................................................27

8.4.3 GHG reduction through fuel switching ......................................................................................................28

8.4.4 GHG reduction through resource management .................................................................................28

8.4.5 Carbon capture, use, and storage ...................................................................................................................28

8.5 Financing the transition to a low carbon economy ..............................................................................................28

8.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

8.5.2 Policy incentives ............................................................................................................................................................29

8.5.3 Green debt instruments ..........................................................................................................................................29

8.5.4 Mitigation projects ......................................................................................................................................................30

8.6 Addressing climate change adaptation aspects in product and process standards .................30

8.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................30

8.6.2 Considerations and approaches for adaptation .................................................................................31

8.6.3 Incorporating climate change adaptation measures into standards ...............................32

8.6.4 Process standards ........................................................................................................................................................34

8.6.5 Product standards .......................................................................................................................................................34

8.7 Adaptation and mitigation in management system standards ..................................................................36

8.8 Other aspects for consideration ............................................................................................................................................38

8.8.1 Organizational inventories ...................................................................................................................................38

8.8.2 GHG project monitoring ..........................................................................................................................................39

8.8.3 Per unit of product “footprints” .......................................................................................................................39

8.8.4 Role of verification in monitoring and evaluation ...........................................................................40

Annex A (informative) Using systems thinking to set boundaries for climate change adaptation ...41

Annex B (informative) Background information on approaches for responding to climate

change ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................45

Annex C (informative) Planetary boundary conditions .................................................................................................................51

Annex D (informative) Climate change adaptation and mitigation: Examples and

supporting information .............................................................................................................................................................................53

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................59

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by the ISO Technical Management Board Task Force on Climate Change

Coordination.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
Introduction

This document is intended for developers of ISO standards and other deliverables to encourage the

inclusion of provisions in standards to address climate change impacts, risks and opportunities, and

aims to:

— enable standards committees to determine if the standard under consideration should take into

account aspects, issues, impacts, risks and/or opportunities associated with climate change;

— provide standards developers with a systematic approach to address climate change impacts,

risks and opportunities in a coherent and consistent manner, with regard to both new and revised

standards, and in a manner related to the objective and scope of the standard being developed;

— promote consistency and compatibility to the extent practical among standards that directly or

indirectly address climate change and their wider uptake in support of sustainability.

NOTE Standards developers are encouraged to consider the committee specific policies in the ISO/IEC

Directives, Part 1, for the development of sector-specific environmental management standards and sector-

specific environmental management system standards.

Figure 1 provides a schematic overview of this document as a process for addressing climate change in

standards.
Figure 1 — Schematic overview of this document
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ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)

The international community has expressed a commitment to strengthen the global response to the

threat of climate change, in the context of sustainable development, including:

a) holding the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and

pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1,5 °C above pre-industrial levels, recognizing

that this would significantly reduce the negative climate change impacts;

b) increasing the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate

resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development, in a manner that does not threaten food

production.

Climate change affects many regions of the world and includes significant climate change impacts, risks

and opportunities arising from changing weather patterns, rising sea levels and more extreme weather

events. Rapidly expanding urban areas are recognized to be particularly vulnerable. Climate extremes

affecting urban systems, such as power supplies, can lead to cascading failures in other utilities and

services compromising the health and well-being of the population. The potential consequences of such

climate-related impacts, risks and opportunities include the disruption of different environmental,

social and economic systems within national economies, affecting communities and organizations,

as well as individuals, with the poorest and most vulnerable people expected to be affected the most.

Action is needed, involving both climate change adaptation and mitigation, in order to limit the effects

of climate change impacts, risks and opportunities, while also contributing to the reduction of the

world’s average surface temperature. Against this challenging outlook, the scope, need and opportunity

for action on climate change is extensive.

Climate change is acknowledged as a foremost challenge with regards to the goal of sustainable

development, which encompasses any state of the global system in which the needs of the present are

met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Standards that take into consideration climate change adaptation and/or mitigation can contribute to

the achievement of sustainability, either directly (where they specifically address sustainability issues

such as climate change) or indirectly (where they relate to testing, products, procedures, services,

terminology, management systems or assessment). It is recognized that both climate change mitigation

(CCM) and adaptation to climate change (ACC) are important for all processes related to a technology,

activity or product (TAP). Although there are very important interactions, the two disciplines are

distinct and are addressed individually within this document.

Standards developers are encouraged to consider climate change issues in their work at all stages in

the standards development process. If climate change issues have not been considered, this can be a

valid reason to start the revision of a standard. In addition, the significance or relevance of specific

issues can have changed since the previous edition of a standard was drafted or reviewed. Whenever a

new standard is drafted or an existing standard is revised, all standards developers (including project

leaders, convenors, committee chairs, committee managers and secretaries) are encouraged to actively

promote the application of this document, and to involve experts knowledgeable in the subject.

When standards developers address climate change in different existing or new standards, the result

can be an increased awareness of climate change issues among the user community across various

market sectors. Through the application of this document, users of such standards will be better able

to address climate change mitigation and/or adaptation in ways that many would not have expected or

considered. And with entirely new standards, users will realize that there are new opportunities for

the market to respond to these issues in ways not previously considered or contemplated.

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GUIDE ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
Guidelines for addressing climate change in standards
1 Scope

This document provides guidance to standards developers on how to take account of climate change in

the planning, drafting, revision and updating of ISO standards and other deliverables.

It outlines a framework and general principles that standards developers can use to develop their own

approach to addressing climate change on a subject-specific basis.

It aims to enable standards developers to include adaptation to climate change (ACC) and climate

change mitigation (CCM) considerations in their standardization work. Considerations related to ACC

are intended to contribute to increasing preparedness and disaster reduction as well as impacting

the resilience of organizations and their TAPs. Considerations related to CCM consist primarily

of approaches that seek to avoid, reduce or limit the release of GHG emissions and/or increase GHG

removals.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
climate

statistical description of weather in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a

period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years

Note 1 to entry: The classical period for averaging these variables is 30 years, as defined by the World

Meteorological Organization.

Note 2 to entry: The relevant quantities are most often near-surface variables such as temperature, precipitation

and wind.
[SOURCE: ISO 14090:2019, 3.4]
3.1.2
climate change

change in climate (3.1.1) that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer

Note 1 to entry: Change in climate can be identified (e.g. by using statistical tests) by changes in the mean and/

or the variability of its properties.
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ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)

Note 2 to entry: Climate change might be due to natural processes, internal to the climate system, or external

forcings such as modulations of the solar cycles, volcanic eruptions, and persistent anthropogenic (3.1.24)

changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use (3.1.25).

[SOURCE: ISO 14090:2019, 3.5, modified — The abbreviated term “CC” has been added and Note 1 to

entry has been modified.]
3.1.3
adaptation to climate change
climate change adaptation
adaptation
ACC

process (3.1.30) of adjustment to actual or expected climate (3.1.1) and its effects

Note 1 to entry: In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities.

Note 2 to entry: In some natural systems, human intervention can facilitate adjustment to expected climate and

its effects.

[SOURCE: ISO 14090:2019, 3.1, modified — The preferred term “adaptation” and the abbreviated term

“ACC” have been added.]
3.1.4
climate change mitigation
mitigation
CCM

human intervention to reduce GHG emissions (3.1.12) or enhance GHG removals (3.1.13)

[SOURCE: ISO 14080:2018, 3.1.2.1, modified — The preferred term “mitigation” and the abbreviated

term “CCM” have been added, and the words “to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse

gases (GHGs)” have been replaced with “to reduce GHG emissions or enhance GHG removals” in the

definition.]
3.1.5
climate change impact

effect on natural or human systems as a result of exposure (3.1.9) to climate change (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: Impacts can be adverse or beneficial.

[SOURCE: ISO 14090:2019, 3.8, modified — The preferred term and definition have been contextualized

to directly refer to climate change: the term “impact” has been replaced with “climate change impact”,

the words “as a result of exposure to climate change” have been added to the definition and the original

Note 1 to entry has been replaced.]
3.1.6
3.1.6.1
climate change risk

risk (3.1.6.2) of negative climate change impacts (3.1.5) that reflects the interaction among vulnerability

(3.1.7), exposure (3.1.9) and hazard (3.1.10)

Note 1 to entry: A risk assessment can include the consideration of vulnerabilities, exposure and climate change

(3.1.2) hazards, or the consideration of likelihoods (3.1.35) and consequences (3.1.34).

[SOURCE: ISO 14080:2018, 3.1.3.3, modified — The preferred term has been changed from “climate

risk” to “climate change risk”, the words “potential of negative impacts of climate change” have been

replaced with “risk of negative climate change impacts”, and the original Note 1 to entry has been

replaced.]
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ISO GUIDE 84:2020(E)
3.1.6.2
risk
effect of uncertainty on objectives

Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected. It can be positive, negative or both, and can address,

create or result in opportunities and threats.

Note 2 to entry: Objectives can have different aspects and categories, and can be applied at different levels.

Note 3 to entry: Risk is usually expressed in terms of risk sources (3.1.32), potential events (3.1.33), their

consequences (3.1.34) and their likelihood (3.1.35).
[SOURCE: ISO 31000:2018, 3.1]
3.1.7
vulnerability

propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected by climate (3.1.1) variability or change (3.1.2)

Note 1 to entry: Vulnerability encompasses a variety of concepts and elements including sensitivity (3.1.8) or

susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to c
...

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