Interpreting services -- General requirements and recommendations

ISO 18841:2018 specifies basic requirements for the provision of interpreting services. Additionally, it provides recommendations of good practice. NOTE Interpreting specializations/specialized interpreting services can be covered in other International Standards (e.g. ISO 20228, Legal interpreting).

Services d'interprétation -- Exigences et recommandations générales

Le présent document fixe les exigences fondamentales relatives ŕ la prestation de services d'interprétation. Il fournit également des recommandations de bonnes pratiques. NOTE Les spécialisations d'interprétation/services d'interprétation spécialisés peuvent ętre couverts dans d'autres Normes internationales (par exemple l'ISO 20228, Interprétation juridique et judiciaire).

Storitve tolmačenja - Splošne zahteve in priporočila

Ta dokument določa osnovne zahteve za zagotavljanje storitev tolmačenja. Poleg tega podaja priporočila dobre prakse.
OPOMBA: Specializirano tolmačenje/specializirane storitve tolmačenja je mogoče obravnavati v drugih mednarodnih standardih (npr. ISO 20228 – Pravno tolmačenje).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jan-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
06-Dec-2017
Completion Date
09-Jan-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18841:2018
01-oktober-2018
Storitve tolmačenja - Splošne zahteve in priporočila
Interpreting services -- General requirements and recommendations
Services d'interprétation -- Exigences et recommandations générales
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18841:2018
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
03.080.99 Druge storitve Other services
SIST ISO 18841:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18841
First edition
2018-01
Interpreting services — General
requirements and recommendations
Services d'interprétation — Exigences et recommandations générales
Reference number
ISO 18841:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to people involved in interpreting and to modes of interpreting ........................... 1

3.2 Terms related to translation as distinct from interpreting ............................................................................... 3

3.3 Terms related to interpreting settings and specializations ............................................................................ 3

3.4 Terms related to language and competences ............................................................................................................... 4

4 Basic principles of interpreting ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Interpreting protocols and codes of conduct ................................................................................................................ 5

4.2.1 Protocols ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.2 Codes of conduct .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3 Modes .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Basic conditions governing interpreting assignments ................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Request and offer .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Accepting assignments ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Working conditions ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 During assignments ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.4 After assignments ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Qualifications and competences related to interpreting ............................................................................................ 8

6.1 Qualifications ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2 Competences ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.1 General competences ................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Linguistic competences .............................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Intercultural competences ...................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Interpersonal competences .................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.5 Technical competences ........................................................................................................................................... .... 9

6.2.6 Competences in research and in information acquisition ........................................................... 9

6.2.7 Domain competences ................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Professional development – Continuous training/education .....................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Non-exhaustive list of settings and specializations ..............................................................11

Annex B (normative) Parties involved in interpreting, the client’s responsibilities for the

interpreter, and the interpreter’s own responsibilities ...........................................................................................12

Annex C (informative) Self-care responsibilities of interpreters ........................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and

content resources, Subcommittee SC 5, Translation, interpreting and related technology.

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
Introduction

This document responds to the need to provide general service requirements for the provision of

quality interpreting services. It provides requirements and recommendations for the delivery of

spoken and signed communication across languages and societal contexts and throughout interpreting

specializations. This document may be used in conjunction with other interpreting specialization

standards.

Interpreters render spoken or signed communication across languages. Interpreting differs from

translation, which is the rendering of written content into another written language.

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18841:2018(E)
Interpreting services — General requirements and
recommendations
1 Scope

This document specifies basic requirements for the provision of interpreting services. Additionally, it

provides recommendations of good practice.

NOTE Interpreting specializations/specialized interpreting services can be covered in other International

Standards (e.g. ISO 20228, Legal interpreting).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

3.1 Terms related to people involved in interpreting and to modes of interpreting

3.1.1
interpret

render spoken or signed information from a source language (3.4.4) to a target language (3.4.6) in oral

or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.4.5)

3.1.2
interpreting
interpretation

rendering spoken or signed information from a source language (3.4.4) to a target language (3.4.6) in

oral or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.4.5)

3.1.3
interpreter
person who interprets (3.1.1)
3.1.4
interpreting service provider
ISP
interpreter (3.1.3) or organization providing interpreting (3.1.2) services
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.1.5
client
customer

person, or organization, who enters into a formal agreement for the provision of an interpreting

(3.1.2) service

Note 1 to entry: The formal agreement can, for example, take the form of a contract or of an interdepartmental

service agreement between units of an organization.

Note 2 to entry: The client can be the end user (3.1.6), but this does not have to be the case.

3.1.6
end user

person or group of persons that ultimately uses the interpreting (3.1.2) service delivered

3.1.7
speaker
person addressing others, using either spoken language or sign language (3.4.2)
3.1.8
spoken language interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) between two spoken languages
3.1.9
sign language interpreting
signed language interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) between two sign languages (3.4.2) or between a sign language and a spoken

language
3.1.10
distance interpreting
remote interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) of a speaker (3.1.7) in a different location from that of the interpreter (3.1.3), enabled

by information and communications technology
3.1.11
mode

established method for the delivery of spoken language interpreting (3.1.8) or sign language

interpreting (3.1.9)
3.1.12
consecutive interpreting
mode (3.1.11) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed after the speaker (3.1.7) pauses

Note 1 to entry: Interpreters (3.1.3) can use special note-taking (3.1.15) techniques to help in rendering lengthy

passages.
3.1.13
simultaneous interpreting

mode (3.1.11) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed while a speaker (3.1.7) is still speaking or signing

3.1.14
sight translation

rendering written source language content (3.4.5) to the target language content (3.4.7) in the form of

spoken language or sign language (3.4.2)
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.1.15
note-taking

technique in consecutive interpreting (3.1.12) used by interpreters (3.1.3) for remembering,

conceptualizing and summarizing information

Note 1 to entry: Note-taking is highly individual and can involve a mixture of symbols, abbreviations, words and

diagrams.
3.1.16
chuchotage
whispered interpreting

simultaneous interpreting (3.1.13) where the interpreter (3.1.3) speaks very quietly, sits or stands in

close proximity to the listeners and uses no interpreting equipment

Note 1 to entry: Chuchotage is used for interpreting to a very small number of listeners, ideally one or two.

3.1.17
protocol

rule, official procedure or common practice that guides the conduct of members of a profession

EXAMPLE Taking an oath in court to perform accurate interpreting (3.1.2), using direct speech when

interpreting, or adhering to the code of ethics of a professional association.
3.2 Terms related to translation as distinct from interpreting
3.2.1
translate

render source language content (3.4.5) into target language content (3.4.7) in written form

3.2.2
translation

rendering source language content (3.4.5) into target language content (3.4.7) in written form

3.3 Terms related to interpreting settings and specializations
3.3.1
communicative setting
environment where an interaction between interlocutors takes place
3.3.2
community interpreting
public service interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) that enables people to access services available to society as a whole, and which

they would otherwise be unable to access owing to a language barrier
EXAMPLE Social services, tourist services, disaster victim support services.
3.3.3
conference interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) used for multilingual communication at technical, political, scientific and other

meetings
3.3.4
legal interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) at communicative settings (3.3.1) related to the law
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.3.5
healthcare interpreting
medical interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) that occurs when individuals are accessing services that deal with the prevention

and treatment of illnesses and where patients or their families have difficulty communicating with

treatment providers or administrators
3.4 Terms related to language and competences
3.4.1
language
systematic use of sounds, characters, symbols or signs by which to communicate
3.4.2
sign language
signed language

language (3.4.1) which uses a combination of hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands,

arms or body, and facial expressions

Note 1 to entry: Sign language can be a regional, national or international language with or without legal status,

or an informal sign language with any number of users.
3.4.3
content
information in any form
EXAMPLE Text, audio, video, etc.
3.4.4
source language

language (3.4.1) from which content (3.4.3) is interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1)

3.4.5
source language content
content (3.4.3) to be interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1)
3.4.6
target language

language (3.4.1) into which content (3.4.3) is interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1)

3.4.7
target language content

content (3.4.3) that has been interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1) from a source language (3.4.4)

3.4.8
‘A’ language

primary language (3.4.1) or its strict equivalent of which the interpreter (3.1.3) has complete command

and into which the interpreter (3.1.3) interprets (3.1.1) from all his/her other ‘A’ languages, ‘B’ languages

(3.4.9.) or ‘C’ languages (3.4.10)
3.4.9
‘B’ language

language (3.4.1) in which the interpreter (3.1.3) is proficient but which is not his/her primary language

or its strict equivalent

Note 1 to entry: An interpreter (3.1.3) works into this language from one or more other languages.

4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.4.10
‘C’ language

language (3.4.1) from which the interpreter (3.1.3) interprets (3.1.1) into his/her ‘A’ languages (3.4.8) or

‘B’ languages (3.4.9)
Note 1 to entry: An interpreter can have more than one ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘C’ language.
4 Basic principles of interpreting
4.1 General

Interpreting shall aim to facilitate non-written communication by rendering a message faithfully

between at least two parties who do not share the same language (either a spoken language or a sign

language).

NOTE In this context, "faithfully" means to convey/render the information without additions, alterations or

omissions affecting its content, style, intent and purpose.
4.2 Interpreting protocols and codes of conduct
4.2.1 Protocols

The interpreter shall adhere to accepted professional practices and protocols; they can vary by

interpreting specialization and setting, and by country or region.
A non-exhaustive list of specializations and settings is set out in Annex A.
4.2.2 Codes of conduct

Codes of ethics, codes of conduct and standards of practice exist in many countries. Such documents can

be developed by governments, judicial bodies, interpreters' associations, organizations that promote

interpreting, and other entities. The interpreter shall adhere to the applicable professional codes of

ethics and standards of practice.
4.3 Modes

The interpreter shall discuss with the client the mode of interpreting which is appropriate for the

setting (see Annex A for examples). The modes used are set out in Table 1 below.
Table 1 — Modes
Mode is widely considered appropri-
Type of mode Interpreting takes place
ate in settings that involve
each time there is a suitable pause in Dialogues, question-and-answer ses-
Consecutive interpreting
the speech sions, speeches, press conferences
at the same time that the speaker is Conferences using simultaneous inter-
Simultaneous interpreting
speaking or signing preting equipment

NOTE Sight translation involves the oral rendering of a written text. It is a common task of interpreters, not translators.

The interpreter first reads a document in silence to analyse it, and he/she then renders it orally from the source language

into the target language. Sight translation does not constitute a mode of interpreting as such, but can be included as a mode

of interpreting in an interpreting assignment.

Chuchotage, or whispered interpreting, is a form of simultaneous interpreting. When it is used, care has to be taken

...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18841
First edition
2018-01
Interpreting services — General
requirements and recommendations
Services d'interprétation — Exigences et recommandations générales
Reference number
ISO 18841:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18841:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18841:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to people involved in interpreting and to modes of interpreting ........................... 1

3.2 Terms related to translation as distinct from interpreting ............................................................................... 3

3.3 Terms related to interpreting settings and specializations ............................................................................ 3

3.4 Terms related to language and competences ............................................................................................................... 4

4 Basic principles of interpreting ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Interpreting protocols and codes of conduct ................................................................................................................ 5

4.2.1 Protocols ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.2 Codes of conduct .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3 Modes .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Basic conditions governing interpreting assignments ................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Request and offer .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Accepting assignments ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Working conditions ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 During assignments ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.4 After assignments ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Qualifications and competences related to interpreting ............................................................................................ 8

6.1 Qualifications ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2 Competences ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.1 General competences ................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Linguistic competences .............................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Intercultural competences ...................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Interpersonal competences .................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.5 Technical competences ........................................................................................................................................... .... 9

6.2.6 Competences in research and in information acquisition ........................................................... 9

6.2.7 Domain competences ................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Professional development – Continuous training/education .....................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Non-exhaustive list of settings and specializations ..............................................................11

Annex B (normative) Parties involved in interpreting, the client’s responsibilities for the

interpreter, and the interpreter’s own responsibilities ...........................................................................................12

Annex C (informative) Self-care responsibilities of interpreters ........................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 18841:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and

content resources, Subcommittee SC 5, Translation, interpreting and related technology.

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 18841:2018(E)
Introduction

This document responds to the need to provide general service requirements for the provision of

quality interpreting services. It provides requirements and recommendations for the delivery of

spoken and signed communication across languages and societal contexts and throughout interpreting

specializations. This document may be used in conjunction with other interpreting specialization

standards.

Interpreters render spoken or signed communication across languages. Interpreting differs from

translation, which is the rendering of written content into another written language.

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18841:2018(E)
Interpreting services — General requirements and
recommendations
1 Scope

This document specifies basic requirements for the provision of interpreting services. Additionally, it

provides recommendations of good practice.

NOTE Interpreting specializations/specialized interpreting services can be covered in other International

Standards (e.g. ISO 20228, Legal interpreting).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

3.1 Terms related to people involved in interpreting and to modes of interpreting

3.1.1
interpret

render spoken or signed information from a source language (3.4.4) to a target language (3.4.6) in oral

or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.4.5)

3.1.2
interpreting
interpretation

rendering spoken or signed information from a source language (3.4.4) to a target language (3.4.6) in

oral or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.4.5)

3.1.3
interpreter
person who interprets (3.1.1)
3.1.4
interpreting service provider
ISP
interpreter (3.1.3) or organization providing interpreting (3.1.2) services
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.1.5
client
customer

person, or organization, who enters into a formal agreement for the provision of an interpreting

(3.1.2) service

Note 1 to entry: The formal agreement can, for example, take the form of a contract or of an interdepartmental

service agreement between units of an organization.

Note 2 to entry: The client can be the end user (3.1.6), but this does not have to be the case.

3.1.6
end user

person or group of persons that ultimately uses the interpreting (3.1.2) service delivered

3.1.7
speaker
person addressing others, using either spoken language or sign language (3.4.2)
3.1.8
spoken language interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) between two spoken languages
3.1.9
sign language interpreting
signed language interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) between two sign languages (3.4.2) or between a sign language and a spoken

language
3.1.10
distance interpreting
remote interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) of a speaker (3.1.7) in a different location from that of the interpreter (3.1.3), enabled

by information and communications technology
3.1.11
mode

established method for the delivery of spoken language interpreting (3.1.8) or sign language

interpreting (3.1.9)
3.1.12
consecutive interpreting
mode (3.1.11) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed after the speaker (3.1.7) pauses

Note 1 to entry: Interpreters (3.1.3) can use special note-taking (3.1.15) techniques to help in rendering lengthy

passages.
3.1.13
simultaneous interpreting

mode (3.1.11) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed while a speaker (3.1.7) is still speaking or signing

3.1.14
sight translation

rendering written source language content (3.4.5) to the target language content (3.4.7) in the form of

spoken language or sign language (3.4.2)
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.1.15
note-taking

technique in consecutive interpreting (3.1.12) used by interpreters (3.1.3) for remembering,

conceptualizing and summarizing information

Note 1 to entry: Note-taking is highly individual and can involve a mixture of symbols, abbreviations, words and

diagrams.
3.1.16
chuchotage
whispered interpreting

simultaneous interpreting (3.1.13) where the interpreter (3.1.3) speaks very quietly, sits or stands in

close proximity to the listeners and uses no interpreting equipment

Note 1 to entry: Chuchotage is used for interpreting to a very small number of listeners, ideally one or two.

3.1.17
protocol

rule, official procedure or common practice that guides the conduct of members of a profession

EXAMPLE Taking an oath in court to perform accurate interpreting (3.1.2), using direct speech when

interpreting, or adhering to the code of ethics of a professional association.
3.2 Terms related to translation as distinct from interpreting
3.2.1
translate

render source language content (3.4.5) into target language content (3.4.7) in written form

3.2.2
translation

rendering source language content (3.4.5) into target language content (3.4.7) in written form

3.3 Terms related to interpreting settings and specializations
3.3.1
communicative setting
environment where an interaction between interlocutors takes place
3.3.2
community interpreting
public service interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) that enables people to access services available to society as a whole, and which

they would otherwise be unable to access owing to a language barrier
EXAMPLE Social services, tourist services, disaster victim support services.
3.3.3
conference interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) used for multilingual communication at technical, political, scientific and other

meetings
3.3.4
legal interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) at communicative settings (3.3.1) related to the law
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.3.5
healthcare interpreting
medical interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) that occurs when individuals are accessing services that deal with the prevention

and treatment of illnesses and where patients or their families have difficulty communicating with

treatment providers or administrators
3.4 Terms related to language and competences
3.4.1
language
systematic use of sounds, characters, symbols or signs by which to communicate
3.4.2
sign language
signed language

language (3.4.1) which uses a combination of hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands,

arms or body, and facial expressions

Note 1 to entry: Sign language can be a regional, national or international language with or without legal status,

or an informal sign language with any number of users.
3.4.3
content
information in any form
EXAMPLE Text, audio, video, etc.
3.4.4
source language

language (3.4.1) from which content (3.4.3) is interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1)

3.4.5
source language content
content (3.4.3) to be interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1)
3.4.6
target language

language (3.4.1) into which content (3.4.3) is interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1)

3.4.7
target language content

content (3.4.3) that has been interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1) from a source language (3.4.4)

3.4.8
‘A’ language

primary language (3.4.1) or its strict equivalent of which the interpreter (3.1.3) has complete command

and into which the interpreter (3.1.3) interprets (3.1.1) from all his/her other ‘A’ languages, ‘B’ languages

(3.4.9.) or ‘C’ languages (3.4.10)
3.4.9
‘B’ language

language (3.4.1) in which the interpreter (3.1.3) is proficient but which is not his/her primary language

or its strict equivalent

Note 1 to entry: An interpreter (3.1.3) works into this language from one or more other languages.

4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.4.10
‘C’ language

language (3.4.1) from which the interpreter (3.1.3) interprets (3.1.1) into his/her ‘A’ languages (3.4.8) or

‘B’ languages (3.4.9)
Note 1 to entry: An interpreter can have more than one ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘C’ language.
4 Basic principles of interpreting
4.1 General

Interpreting shall aim to facilitate non-written communication by rendering a message faithfully

between at least two parties who do not share the same language (either a spoken language or a sign

language).

NOTE In this context, "faithfully" means to convey/render the information without additions, alterations or

omissions affecting its content, style, intent and purpose.
4.2 Interpreting protocols and codes of conduct
4.2.1 Protocols

The interpreter shall adhere to accepted professional practices and protocols; they can vary by

interpreting specialization and setting, and by country or region.
A non-exhaustive list of specializations and settings is set out in Annex A.
4.2.2 Codes of conduct

Codes of ethics, codes of conduct and standards of practice exist in many countries. Such documents can

be developed by governments, judicial bodies, interpreters' associations, organizations that promote

interpreting, and other entities. The interpreter shall adhere to the applicable professional codes of

ethics and standards of practice.
4.3 Modes

The interpreter shall discuss with the client the mode of interpreting which is appropriate for the

setting (see Annex A for examples). The modes used are set out in Table 1 below.
Table 1 — Modes
Mode is widely considered appropri-
Type of mode Interpreting takes place
ate in settings that involve
each time there is a suitable pause in Dialogues, question-and-answer ses-
Consecutive interpreting
the speech sions, speeches, press conferences
at the same time that the speaker is Conferences using simultaneous inter-
Simultaneous interpreting
speaking or signing preting equipment

NOTE Sight translation involves the oral rendering of a written text. It is a common task of interpreters, not translators.

The interpreter first reads a document in silence to analyse it, and he/she then renders it orally from the source language

into the target language. Sight translation does not constitute a mode of interpreting as such, but can be included as a mode

of interpreting in an interpreting assignment.

Chuchotage, or whispered interpreting, is a form of simultaneous interpreting. When it is used, care has to be taken to

ensure that it does not disturb the participants, including the speaker, since the interpreter, although whispering, can be

heard by everybody. For that reason, chuchotage should only be provided for a very small group of people, ideally one or two.

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 18841:2018(E)
5 Basic conditions governing interpreting assignments
5.1 Request and offer
The interprete
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 18841:2018
01-oktober-2018
6WRULWYHWROPDþHQMD6SORãQH]DKWHYHLQSULSRURþLOD
Interpreting services -- General requirements and recommendations
Services d'interprétation -- Exigences et recommandations générales
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 18841:2018
ICS:
01.020 7HUPLQRORJLMD QDþHODLQ Terminology (principles and
NRRUGLQDFLMD coordination)
03.080.01 Storitve na splošno Services in general
SIST ISO 18841:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST ISO 18841:2018
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18841
First edition
2018-01
Interpreting services — General
requirements and recommendations
Services d'interprétation — Exigences et recommandations générales
Reference number
ISO 18841:2018(E)
ISO 2018
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms related to people involved in interpreting and to modes of interpreting ........................... 1

3.2 Terms related to translation as distinct from interpreting ............................................................................... 3

3.3 Terms related to interpreting settings and specializations ............................................................................ 3

3.4 Terms related to language and competences ............................................................................................................... 4

4 Basic principles of interpreting ............................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2 Interpreting protocols and codes of conduct ................................................................................................................ 5

4.2.1 Protocols ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.2 Codes of conduct .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.3 Modes .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Basic conditions governing interpreting assignments ................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Request and offer .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.2 Accepting assignments ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.2 Working conditions ....................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 During assignments ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.4 After assignments ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Qualifications and competences related to interpreting ............................................................................................ 8

6.1 Qualifications ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2 Competences ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.1 General competences ................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Linguistic competences .............................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.3 Intercultural competences ...................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Interpersonal competences .................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.5 Technical competences ........................................................................................................................................... .... 9

6.2.6 Competences in research and in information acquisition ........................................................... 9

6.2.7 Domain competences ................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Professional development – Continuous training/education .....................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Non-exhaustive list of settings and specializations ..............................................................11

Annex B (normative) Parties involved in interpreting, the client’s responsibilities for the

interpreter, and the interpreter’s own responsibilities ...........................................................................................12

Annex C (informative) Self-care responsibilities of interpreters ........................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and

content resources, Subcommittee SC 5, Translation, interpreting and related technology.

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
Introduction

This document responds to the need to provide general service requirements for the provision of

quality interpreting services. It provides requirements and recommendations for the delivery of

spoken and signed communication across languages and societal contexts and throughout interpreting

specializations. This document may be used in conjunction with other interpreting specialization

standards.

Interpreters render spoken or signed communication across languages. Interpreting differs from

translation, which is the rendering of written content into another written language.

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18841:2018(E)
Interpreting services — General requirements and
recommendations
1 Scope

This document specifies basic requirements for the provision of interpreting services. Additionally, it

provides recommendations of good practice.

NOTE Interpreting specializations/specialized interpreting services can be covered in other International

Standards (e.g. ISO 20228, Legal interpreting).
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

3.1 Terms related to people involved in interpreting and to modes of interpreting

3.1.1
interpret

render spoken or signed information from a source language (3.4.4) to a target language (3.4.6) in oral

or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.4.5)

3.1.2
interpreting
interpretation

rendering spoken or signed information from a source language (3.4.4) to a target language (3.4.6) in

oral or signed form, conveying both the register and meaning of the source language content (3.4.5)

3.1.3
interpreter
person who interprets (3.1.1)
3.1.4
interpreting service provider
ISP
interpreter (3.1.3) or organization providing interpreting (3.1.2) services
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.1.5
client
customer

person, or organization, who enters into a formal agreement for the provision of an interpreting

(3.1.2) service

Note 1 to entry: The formal agreement can, for example, take the form of a contract or of an interdepartmental

service agreement between units of an organization.

Note 2 to entry: The client can be the end user (3.1.6), but this does not have to be the case.

3.1.6
end user

person or group of persons that ultimately uses the interpreting (3.1.2) service delivered

3.1.7
speaker
person addressing others, using either spoken language or sign language (3.4.2)
3.1.8
spoken language interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) between two spoken languages
3.1.9
sign language interpreting
signed language interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) between two sign languages (3.4.2) or between a sign language and a spoken

language
3.1.10
distance interpreting
remote interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) of a speaker (3.1.7) in a different location from that of the interpreter (3.1.3), enabled

by information and communications technology
3.1.11
mode

established method for the delivery of spoken language interpreting (3.1.8) or sign language

interpreting (3.1.9)
3.1.12
consecutive interpreting
mode (3.1.11) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed after the speaker (3.1.7) pauses

Note 1 to entry: Interpreters (3.1.3) can use special note-taking (3.1.15) techniques to help in rendering lengthy

passages.
3.1.13
simultaneous interpreting

mode (3.1.11) of interpreting (3.1.2) performed while a speaker (3.1.7) is still speaking or signing

3.1.14
sight translation

rendering written source language content (3.4.5) to the target language content (3.4.7) in the form of

spoken language or sign language (3.4.2)
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.1.15
note-taking

technique in consecutive interpreting (3.1.12) used by interpreters (3.1.3) for remembering,

conceptualizing and summarizing information

Note 1 to entry: Note-taking is highly individual and can involve a mixture of symbols, abbreviations, words and

diagrams.
3.1.16
chuchotage
whispered interpreting

simultaneous interpreting (3.1.13) where the interpreter (3.1.3) speaks very quietly, sits or stands in

close proximity to the listeners and uses no interpreting equipment

Note 1 to entry: Chuchotage is used for interpreting to a very small number of listeners, ideally one or two.

3.1.17
protocol

rule, official procedure or common practice that guides the conduct of members of a profession

EXAMPLE Taking an oath in court to perform accurate interpreting (3.1.2), using direct speech when

interpreting, or adhering to the code of ethics of a professional association.
3.2 Terms related to translation as distinct from interpreting
3.2.1
translate

render source language content (3.4.5) into target language content (3.4.7) in written form

3.2.2
translation

rendering source language content (3.4.5) into target language content (3.4.7) in written form

3.3 Terms related to interpreting settings and specializations
3.3.1
communicative setting
environment where an interaction between interlocutors takes place
3.3.2
community interpreting
public service interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) that enables people to access services available to society as a whole, and which

they would otherwise be unable to access owing to a language barrier
EXAMPLE Social services, tourist services, disaster victim support services.
3.3.3
conference interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) used for multilingual communication at technical, political, scientific and other

meetings
3.3.4
legal interpreting
interpreting (3.1.2) at communicative settings (3.3.1) related to the law
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.3.5
healthcare interpreting
medical interpreting

interpreting (3.1.2) that occurs when individuals are accessing services that deal with the prevention

and treatment of illnesses and where patients or their families have difficulty communicating with

treatment providers or administrators
3.4 Terms related to language and competences
3.4.1
language
systematic use of sounds, characters, symbols or signs by which to communicate
3.4.2
sign language
signed language

language (3.4.1) which uses a combination of hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands,

arms or body, and facial expressions

Note 1 to entry: Sign language can be a regional, national or international language with or without legal status,

or an informal sign language with any number of users.
3.4.3
content
information in any form
EXAMPLE Text, audio, video, etc.
3.4.4
source language

language (3.4.1) from which content (3.4.3) is interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1)

3.4.5
source language content
content (3.4.3) to be interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1)
3.4.6
target language

language (3.4.1) into which content (3.4.3) is interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1)

3.4.7
target language content

content (3.4.3) that has been interpreted (3.1.1) or translated (3.2.1) from a source language (3.4.4)

3.4.8
‘A’ language

primary language (3.4.1) or its strict equivalent of which the interpreter (3.1.3) has complete command

and into which the interpreter (3.1.3) interprets (3.1.1) from all his/her other ‘A’ languages, ‘B’ languages

(3.4.9.) or ‘C’ languages (3.4.10)
3.4.9
‘B’ language

language (3.4.1) in which the interpreter (3.1.3) is proficient but which is not his/her primary language

or its strict equivalent

Note 1 to entry: An interpreter (3.1.3) works into this language from one or more other languages.

4 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 18841:2018
ISO 18841:2018(E)
3.4.10
‘C’ language

language (3.4.1) from which the interpreter (3.1.3) interprets (3.1.1) into his/her ‘A’ languages (3.4.8) or

‘B’ languages (3.4.9)
Note 1 to entry: An interpreter can have more than one ‘A’, ‘B’ or ‘C’ language.
4 Basic principles of interpreting
4.1 General

Interpreting shall aim to facilitate non-written communication by rendering a message faithfully

between at least two parties who do not share the same language (either a spoken language or a sign

language).

NOTE In this context, "faithfully" means to convey/render the information without additions, alterations or

omissions affecting its content, style, intent and purpose.
4.2 Interpreting protocols and codes of conduct
4.2.1 Protocols

The interpreter shall adhere to accepted professional practices and protocols; they can vary by

interpreting specialization and setting, and by country or region.
A non-exhaustive list of specializations and settings is set out in Annex A.
4.2.2 Codes of conduct

Codes of ethics, codes of conduct and standards of practice exist in many countries. Such documents can

be developed by governments, judicial bodies, interpreters' associations, organizations that promote

interpreting, and other entities. The interpreter shall adhere to the applicable professional codes of

ethics and standards of practice.
4.3 Modes

The interpreter shall discuss with the client the mode of interpreting which is appropriate for the

setting (see Annex A for examples). The modes used are set out in Table 1 below.
Table 1 — Modes
Mode is widely considered appropri-
Type of mode Interpreting takes place
ate in settings that involve
each time there is a suitable pause in Dialogues, question-and-answer ses-
Consecutive interpreting
the speech sions, speeches, press conferences
at the same time that the speaker is Conferences using simultaneous inter-
Simultaneous interpreting
speaking or signing preting equipment

NOTE Sight translation involves the oral rendering of a written text. It is a common task of interpreters, not translators.

The interpreter first reads a document in silence to analyse it, and he/she then renders it orally from the source language

into the target language. Sight translation does not constitute a mode of interpreting as such, but can be included as a mode

of interpreting in an interpreting assignment.

Chuchotage, or whispered interpreting, is a form of simultaneous interpreting. When it is used, care has to be

...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 18841
Première édition
2018-01
Services d'interprétation — Exigences
et recommandations générales
Interpreting services — General requirements and recommendations
Numéro de référence
ISO 18841:2018(F)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 18841:2018(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2018

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en oeuvre, aucune partie de cette

publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

ISO copyright office
Case postale 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Tél.: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
E-mail: copyright@iso.org
Web: www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 18841:2018(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d'application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Termes relatifs aux personnes impliquées dans l’interprétation et aux modes

d’interprétation ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Termes relatifs à la traduction par opposition à l’interprétation................................................................ 3

3.3 Termes relatifs aux contextes et spécialisations d’interprétation .............................................................. 3

3.4 Termes relatifs à la langue et aux compétences ......................................................................................................... 4

4 Principes de l’interprétation ................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2 Protocoles et codes de conduite en matière d’interprétation ........................................................................ 5

4.2.1 Protocoles .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.2 Codes de conduite ........................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Modes .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Conditions de base régissant les missions d’interprétation ................................................................................... 5

5.1 Demandes et offres .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Conditions d’acceptation d’une mission ........................................................................................................................... 6

5.2.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.2.2 Conditions de travail ........................................................................................................................................... .......... 6

5.3 Déroulement d’une mission ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.4 À la suite d’une mission ................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Qualifications et compétences liées à l’interprétation ................................................................................................. 8

6.1 Qualifications ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2 Compétences ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.1 Compétences générales ............................................................................................................................................. 8

6.2.2 Compétences linguistiques ..................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.3 Compétences interculturelles ............................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.4 Compétences interpersonnelles ......................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.5 Compétences techniques .......................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.6 Compétences en recherche documentaire et acquisition de données .............................. 9

6.2.7 Compétences dans le domaine de spécialité ........................................................................................... 9

6.3 Développement/perfectionnement professionnel – Formation continue .......................................10

Annexe A (informative) Liste non exhaustive de contextes et de spécialisations ...............................................11

Annexe B (normative) Parties impliquées dans l’interprétation, responsabilités du client

envers l’interprète et propres responsabilités de l'interprète .........................................................................12

Annexe C (informative) Prise en charge personnelle des interprètes à l’égard de leur santé ..............14

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Index .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2018 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 18841:2018(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: www .iso .org/iso/fr/avant -propos .html.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 37, Langage et terminologie, sous-

comité SC 5, Traduction, interprétation et technologies apparentées.
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ISO 18841:2018(F)
Introduction

Le présent document répond à la nécessité de pourvoir aux exigences générales requises pour la

prestation de services d’interprétation de qualité. Il fournit les exigences et recommandations

relatives à la prestation de communications orale et signée entre différentes langues et dans les

contextes sociétaux ainsi que dans l’ensemble des spécialisations liées à l’interprétation. Le présent

document peut être utilisé en conjonction avec d’autres normes relatives aux spécialisations en matière

d’interprétation.

Les interprètes restituent la communication orale ou signée entre différentes langues. L’interprétation

se distingue de la traduction, qui consiste à restituer un contenu écrit dans une autre langue écrite.

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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 18841:2018(F)
Services d'interprétation — Exigences et recommandations
générales
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document fixe les exigences fondamentales relatives à la prestation de services

d’interprétation. Il fournit également des recommandations de bonnes pratiques.

NOTE Les spécialisations d’interprétation/services d’interprétation spécialisés peuvent être couverts dans

d’autres Normes internationales (par exemple l’ISO 20228, Interprétation juridique et judiciaire).

2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s'appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:
— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http: //www .electropedia .org/

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https: //www .iso .org/obp

3.1 Termes relatifs aux personnes impliquées dans l’interprétation et aux modes
d’interprétation
3.1.1
interpréter

restituer une information parlée ou signée d’une langue source (3.4.4) vers une langue cible (3.4.6)

sous une forme parlée ou signée, en transmettant à la fois le sens et le registre du contenu en langue

source (3.4.5)
3.1.2
interprétation

restitution d’une information parlée ou signée d’une langue source (3.4.4) vers une langue cible (3.4.6)

sous une forme parlée ou signée, en transmettant à la fois le sens et le registre du contenu en langue

source (3.4.5)
3.1.3
interprète
personne qui interprète (3.1.1)
3.1.4
prestataire de services d’interprétation
PSI

interprète (3.1.3) ou personne morale fournissant des services d’interprétation (3.1.2)

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ISO 18841:2018(F)
3.1.5
client

personne physique ou morale qui sollicite des services d’interprétation (3.1.2) dans le cadre d’un contrat

Note 1 à l'article: Le contrat peut, par exemple, prendre la forme d'un contrat écrit entre deux parties ou d’un

accord entre les services d’une même entreprise ou d’un même organisme.

Note 2 à l'article: Le client peut être l’utilisateur final (3.1.6), mais ce n’est pas nécessairement le cas.

3.1.6
utilisateur final

personne ou groupe de personnes qui au final utilise le service d’interprétation (3.1.2) fourni

3.1.7
orateur

personne s’adressant à d’autres personnes, en utilisant soit une langue parlée soit une langue des

signes (3.4.2)
3.1.8
interprétation en langues parlées
interprétation (3.1.2) entre deux langues parlées
3.1.9
interprétation en langue(s) des signes
interprétation en langue(s) signée(s)

interprétation (3.1.2) entre deux langues des signes (3.4.2) ou entre une langue des signes et une

langue parlée
3.1.10
interprétation à distance

avec l’appui des technologies de l'information et de la communication, interprétation (3.1.2) des propos

d’un orateur (3.1.7) se trouvant en un endroit différent de celui où se trouve l’interprète (3.1.3)

3.1.11
mode

méthode employée pour la prestation de l’interprétation en langues parlées (3.1.8) ou de l’interprétation

en langues des signes (3.1.9)
3.1.12
interprétation consécutive

mode (3.1.11) d’interprétation (3.1.2) pratiqué en respectant les temps de pauses marqués par

l’orateur (3.1.7)

Note 1 à l'article: Les interprètes (3.1.3) peuvent utiliser des techniques particulières de prise de notes (3.1.15)

pour faciliter la restitution de passages longs.
3.1.13
interprétation simultanée

mode (3.1.11) d’interprétation (3.1.2) pratiqué en même temps que le discours de l’orateur (3.1.7)

3.1.14
traduction à vue

restitution d’un contenu écrit dans la langue source (3.4.5) en un contenu dans la langue cible (3.4.7) sous

forme de langue parlée ou de langue des signes (3.4.2)
3.1.15
prise de notes

technique utilisée dans l’interprétation consécutive (3.1.12) par les interprètes (3.1.3) pour se rappeler,

conceptualiser et synthétiser l’information

Note 1 à l'article: La prise de notes est éminemment individuelle et peut impliquer un mélange de symboles,

d’abréviations, de mots et de schémas.
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ISO 18841:2018(F)
3.1.16
chuchotage
interprétation chuchotée

interprétation simultanée (3.1.13) au cours de laquelle l’interprète (3.1.3) se tient assis(e) ou debout à

proximité physique directe des auditeurs et parle à voix basse sans aucun équipement d’interprétation

Note 1 à l'article: Le chuchotage est employé pour une interprétation destinée à très petit nombre d’auditeurs,

idéalement un ou deux.
3.1.17
protocole

règle, procédure officielle ou pratique courante dictant la conduite des membres d’une profession

EXEMPLE Prêter serment au tribunal pour effectuer une interprétation (3.1.2) précise, en employant le style

direct lors de l’interprétation, ou adhérer au code de déontologie d’une association professionnelle.

3.2 Termes relatifs à la traduction par opposition à l’interprétation
3.2.1
traduire

transposer un contenu dans la langue source (3.4.5) en un contenu dans la langue cible (3.4.7) sous

forme écrite
3.2.2
traduction

transposition d’un contenu dans la langue source (3.4.5) en un contenu dans la langue cible (3.4.7) sous

forme écrite
3.3 Termes relatifs aux contextes et spécialisations d’interprétation
3.3.1
contexte de communication
environnement où se déroule une interaction entre des interlocuteurs
3.3.2
interprétation en milieu social
interprétation de service public

interprétation (3.1.2) permettant à des personnes d’accéder à des services offerts à la société dans son

ensemble, auxquels elles ne pourraient pas accéder en raison de la barrière linguistique

EXEMPLE Services sociaux, services touristiques, services d’aide aux victimes de catastrophes.

3.3.3
interprétation de conférence

interprétation (3.1.2) utilisée pour la communication multilingue dans le cadre de réunions techniques,

politiques, scientifiques et autres réunions
3.3.4
interprétation juridique et judiciaire

interprétation (3.1.2) dans un contexte de communication (3.3.1) relatif au droit

3.3.5
interprétation dans le domaine de la santé
interprétation médicale

interprétation (3.1.2) pratiquée lorsque des individus accèdent à des services en rapport avec la

prévention et le traitement de maladies, notamment lorsque les patients ou leur famille ont des

difficultés à communiquer avec le personnel soignant ou le personnel administratif

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ISO 18841:2018(F)
3.4 Termes relatifs à la langue et aux compétences
3.4.1
langue

utilisation systématique de sons, caractères, symboles ou signes permettant de communiquer

3.4.2
langue des signes
langue signée

langue (3.4.1) utilisant une combinaison de positions des mains, de sens et de mouvement des mains,

des bras et du corps ainsi que les expression faciales

Note 1 à l'article: Une langue des signes peut être une langue régionale, nationale ou internationale avec ou sans

statut juridique, ou une langue des signes informelle utilisée par un nombre quelconque d’utilisateurs.

3.4.3
contenu
information sous toutes ses formes
EXEMPLE Texte, audio, vidéo, etc.
3.4.4
langue source

langue (3.4.1) à partir de laquelle le contenu (3.4.3) est interprété (3.1.1) ou traduit (3.2.1)

3.4.5
contenu dans la langue source
contenu (3.4.3) devant être interprété (3.1.1) ou traduit (3.2.1)
3.4.6
langue cible

langue (3.4.1) dans laquelle le contenu (3.4.3) est interprété (3.1.1) ou traduit (3.2.1)

3.4.7
contenu dans la langue cible

contenu (3.4.3) qui a été interprété (3.1.1) ou traduit (3.2.1) à partir d’une langue source (3.4.4)

3.4.8
langue «A»

langue (3.4.1) principale ou son strict équivalent dont l’interprète (3.1.3) possède une parfaite maîtrise

et vers laquelle l’interprète (3.1.3) interprète (3.1.1) à partir de ses autres langues «A», de langues «B»

(3.4.9) ou de langues «C» (3.4.10)
3.4.9
langue «B»

langue (3.4.1) dont l’interprète (3.1.3) a une très bonne maîtrise, sans qu'elle constitue sa langue

principale ou son strict équivalent

Note 1 à l'article: L’interprète (3.1.3) travaille vers cette langue à partir d’une ou plusieurs autres langues.

3.4.10
langue «C»

langue (3.4.1) à partir de laquelle l’interprète (3.1.3) interprète (3.1.1) vers ses langues «A» (3.4.8) ou

éventuellement langues «B» (3.4.9)

Note 1 à l'article: Un(e) interprète peut posséder plusieurs langues «A», «B» ou «C».

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ISO 18841:2018(F)
4 Principes de l’interprétation
4.1 Généralités

L’interprétation vise à faciliter la communication non écrite en restituant fidèlement un message entre

au moins deux parties qui ne parlent pas la même langue (orale ou signée).

NOTE Dans ce contexte, «fidèlement» signifie transmettre/restituer l’information sans ajouts, modifications

ou omissions ayant une incidence sur son contenu, son style, son intention et sa finalité.

4.2 Protocoles et codes de conduite en matière d’interprétation
4.2.1 Protocoles

L’interprète est tenu de respecter les pratiques professionnelles et protocoles admis; ceux-ci peuvent

varier en fonction de la spécialisation, du contexte d’interprétation et du pays ou de la région.

Une liste non exhaustive des spécialisations et contextes est présentée à l’Annexe A.

4.2.2 Codes de conduite

Les codes de déontologie, les codes de conduite et les bonnes pratiques existent dans de nombreux

pays. Ces textes peuvent être élaborés par les gouvernements, les instances judiciaires, les associations

d’interprètes, les organismes assurant la promotion de l’interprétation et autres entités. L’interprète se

doit de respecter les codes de déontologie professionnelle applicables ainsi que les bonnes pratiques.

4.3 Modes

L’interprète doit convenir avec le client du mode d’interprétation convenant au contexte dans lequel

l’interprétation doit être pratiquée (voir exemples en Annexe A). Les modes utilisés sont indiqués au

Tableau 1 ci-après.
Tableau 1 — Modes
Mode Déroulement de l’interprétation Contextes
Dialogues, séances de questions-ré-
Interprétation consécutive lors des pauses d’un discours
ponses, discours, conférences de presse
au moment même où l’orateur s’exprime Contexte équipé de matériel adéquat
Interprétation simultanée
oralement ou par des signes d'interprétation simultanée.

NOTE La traduction à vue implique la restitution orale d’un texte écrit. Il appartient aux interprètes et non aux traducteurs

de s’acquitter de cette tâche. L’interprète réalise dans un premier temps une lecture silencieuse d’un document afin de

l’analyser, puis il le lit oralement de la langue source vers la langue cible. La traduction à vue ne constitue pas, à ce titre,

un mode d’interprétation, mais peut s’inscrire comme mode d’interprétation dans le cadre d’une mission d’interprétation.

Le chuchotage, ou interprétation chuchotée, est une forme d’interprétation simultanée. Lorsqu'il est retenu par le

client, le chuchotage ne doit pas perturber les participants, y compris l’orateur, car même si l’interprète chuchote, car il

(elle) pourrait être entendu(e) par tous. C’est la raison pour laquelle il convient de ne pratiquer le chuchotage que pour un

groupe très restreint de personnes, idéalement une ou deux.
5 Conditions de base régissant les missions d’interprétation
5.1 Demandes et offres

Avant toute prestation de service, l’interprète doit indiquer au client ses tarifs, ses conditions, sa

politique, ses procédures ainsi que le matériel technique relatif au service demandé, à moins qu’une

disposition juridique ou une convention collective existante ne régisse les obligations contractuelles

entre le prestataire de services d’interprétation (PSI) et les interprètes employé(e)s ou engagé(e)s

contractuellement par celui-ci.
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ISO 18841:2018(F)

L’interprète doit préciser au client au moins les paramètres suivants du contrat en vue d’élaborer

une offre:
a) contexte (voir exemples à l’Article A.1);
b) mode d’interprétation;
c) nombre de langues requises;
d) nombre d’interprètes par équipe;
e) nombre d’équipes d’interprètes selon les combinaisons linguistiques requises;
f) rémunération;
g) horaire/durée de travail;
h) autres conditions de travail (voir 5.2 à 5.4).

Une liste non exhaustive des parties impliquées dans des missions d’interprétation, et leurs

responsabilités, est présentée à l’Annexe B.
5.2 Conditions d’acceptation d’une mission
5.2.1 Généralités

L’interprète doit accepter uniquement les missions pour lesquelles il (elle) possède les qualifications

linguistiques et les combinaisons linguistiques nécessaires et qui correspondent à ses compétences et

son expertise dans le domaine de spécialité. L’interprète doit préciser - et exiger en vertu d’un accord -

les conditions de travail propices à la bonne exécution de ses services.
5.2.2 Conditions de travail
Les conditions de travail doivent être précisées et convenues au préalable.

NOTE Les conditions de travail sont décrites de manière plus détaillée dans d’autres Normes internationales

(par exemple l’ISO 20228, Interprétation juridique et judiciaire).

Lors du recrutement des interprètes, les parties signataires de l’accord ou de l’ensemble des accords

régissant les missions doivent, au minimum, s’entendre sur les aspects essentiels, et ce, avec ou sans

intermédiaire.

Les éléments de base d’un accord de mission doivent inclure, sans toutefois s’y limiter:

a) date et lieu de la manifestation;
b) horaire/durée de travail;
c) pauses entre les sessions d’interprétation;
d) rémunération;

e) endroit où se tiennent les interprètes par rapport à l’orateur et à l’auditoire (qu’il s’agisse ou non

d’interprétation à distance);
f) nombre approximatif d’orateurs;
g) particularités et/ou instructions pertinentes pour le projet;

h) transport, hébergement, indemnités journalières et autres modalités de remboursement, le cas

échéant;
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ISO 18841:2018(F)

i) sécurité et sûreté (y compris les équipements de protection individuelle tels que casques de

protection et masques), le cas échéant;
j) mode d’interprétation (c’est-à-dire consécutive ou simultanée);
k) combinaisons linguistiques;
l) composition des équipes d’interprètes par combinaison linguistique;

m) fourniture préalable aux interprètes de tout document ou texte de référence pouvant être évoqué

ou étudié au cours de la mission;

n) délai imparti pour recevoir les documents nécessaires à la préparation de la mission;

o) équipement d’interprétation conformément aux normes ISO applicables et assistance technique

durant la prestation de service d'interprétation;

p) mesures prises pour assurer une acoustique, une visibilité et un confort adéquats;

q) accès en temps opportun au système/équipement d’interprétation;

r) radiodiffusion, diffusion en continu ou enregistrement des propos de l’interprète, et toute question

de droits d’auteur y afférent.

s) L’interprète doit également assumer les responsabilités spécifiées à l’Article B.3.

5.3 Déroulement d’une mission

Lors d’une mission d’interprétation, l’interprète doit, chaque fois que cela est possible et pertinent:

a) interpréter à la première personne (style direct), sauf si cela nuit à la clarté d’une communication.

Parmi les exceptions à cette règle, figurent les cas d’urgence et les situations où plusieurs personnes

parlent en même temps;

b) gérer le flux de communication et de tours de parole lors de l’interprétation de dialogues pour

assurer fluidité et précision de la communication;

c) s’abstenir d’exprimer ses propres sentiments ou toute opinion sans lien avec la mission, même par

des expressions faciales, le langage corporel ou l’intonation;

d) intervenir seulement si nécessaire et exclusivement dans le but d’assurer une communication

claire, de demander des éclaircissements ou de rectifier des erreurs d’interprétation (par exemple,

lorsque les parties parlent trop vite ou se méprennent sur le contenu interprété);

e) en cas d’intervention de sa part, se conformer à l’ensemble des exigences régissant les interventions

relevant de la spécialisation et du contexte, ainsi qu’à toutes les exigences juridiques et clairement

indiquer que son intervention se fait en tant qu’interprète;

f) signaler au commanditaire de la mission tout risque de fatigue, de surmenage (burn-out) ou de

traumatisme secondaire résultant des circonstances de cette mission;

g) lorsqu’il (elle) effectue une interprétation consécutive, prendre des notes, au besoin, afin d’en

améliorer la précision;

h) ne pas répondre à des demandes contraires aux codes de déontologie et protocoles y afférents.

5.4 À la suite d’une mission

À la suite d’une mission d’interprétation, l’interprète doit, chaque fois que cela est possible et approprié:

a) établir un compte rendu;
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ISO 18841:2018(F)
b) signaler les incidents critiques;
c) produire les documents comptables appropriés;

d) prendre en main sa propre santé pour prévenir surmenage et/ou traumatismes secondaires;

e) signaler au commanditaire de la mission tout risque de fatigue, de surmenage (burn-out) ou de

traumatisme secondaire résultant des circonstances de cette mission.

La prise en charge personnelle de la santé des interprètes est présentée à l’Annexe C.

6 Qualifications et compétences liées à l’interprétation
6.1 Qualifications

Les qualifications peuvent varier selon la spécialisation. Lorsque des qualifications spécialisées sont

couvertes par des Normes internationales pertinentes, l’interprète doit disposer de tous les documents

attestant de telles qualifications (par exemple ISO 20228, Interprétation juridique et judiciaire) afin de

pouvoir les présenter au client.
6.2 Compétences
6.2.1 Compétences générales

L’interprète doit maîtriser au moins deux langues (parlées ou signées) et doit être capable de faciliter

la communication en interprétant deux langues ou plus. Les termes langues «A», «B» ou «C» sont

utilisés pour
...

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