Fire resistance tests -- Fire dampers for air distribution systems

ISO 10294-5:2005 describes the test requirements related to intumescent fire dampers. It identifies the minor modifications needed to adapt the test method described in ISO 10294-1 (which was intended for mechanical dampers) to suit intumescent fire dampers. Additional tests are included to give an assessment of the operational reliability of intumescent fire dampers. This test is intended for intumescent fire dampers that will be classified as EI dampers in accordance with ISO 10294-2. Without the addition of a mechanical damper, they are unable to achieve the "S" classification, which includes a leakage limit imposed at ambient temperatures.

Essais de résistance au feu -- Clapets coupe-feu pour systèmes de distribution d'air

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Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Mar-2005
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
10-Feb-2005
Completion Date
16-Mar-2005
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 10294-5
First edition
2005-03-01
Fire resistance tests — Fire dampers
for air distribution systems —
Part 5:
Intumescent fire dampers
Essais de résistance au feu — Clapets coupe-feu pour systèmes de
distribution d'air —
Partie 5: Clapets résistants au feu intumescent
Reference number
ISO 10294-5:2005(E)
ISO 2005
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 10294-5:2005(E)
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© ISO 2005

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ii © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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ISO 10294-5:2005(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Procedure............................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Test report.............................................................................................................................................. 7

Annex A (normative) Durability......................................................................................................................... 9

Annex B (informative) Test apparatus............................................................................................................ 10

Annex C (informative) The use and application of intumescent fire dampers in ducted air

distribution systems ........................................................................................................................... 18

© ISO 2005 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 10294-5:2005(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 10294-5 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 2, Fire

containment.

ISO 10294 consists of the following parts, under the general title Fire resistance tests — Fire dampers for air

distribution systems:
 Part 1: Method of test
 Part 2: Classification, criteria and field of application of test results
 Part 3: Guidance on the test method
 Part 4: Test of thermal release mechanism
 Part 5: Intumescent fire dampers
iv © ISO 2005 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 10294-5:2005(E)
Fire resistance tests — Fire dampers for air distribution
systems —
Part 5:
Intumescent fire dampers

CAUTION — The attention of all persons concerned with managing and carrying out this fire

resistance test is drawn to the fact that fire testing can be hazardous and that there is a possibility

that toxic and/or harmful smoke and gases can be evolved during the test. Mechanical and operational

hazards can also arise during the construction of the test elements or structures, their testing and

disposal of test residues.

An assessment of all potential hazards and risks to health shall be made and safety precautions shall

be identified and provided. Written safety instructions shall be issued. Appropriate training shall be

given to relevant personnel. Laboratory personnel shall ensure that they follow written safety

instructions at all times.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 10294-5 describes the test requirements related to intumescent fire dampers. It identifies the

minor modifications needed to adapt the test method described in ISO 10294-1 (which was intended for

mechanical dampers) to suit intumescent fire dampers. Additional tests are included to give an assessment of

the operational reliability of intumescent fire dampers.

This test is intended for intumescent fire dampers that are expected to be classified as EI dampers in

accordance with ISO 10294-2. Without the addition of a mechanical damper, they are unable to achieve the

“S” classification, which includes a leakage limit imposed at ambient temperatures.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10294-1:1996, Fire resistance tests — Fire dampers for air distribution systems — Part 1: Test method

ISO 10294-2:1999, Fire resistance tests — Fire dampers for air distribution systems — Part 2: Classification,

criteria and field of application of test results

ISO 10294-3:1999, Fire resistance tests — Fire dampers for air distribution system — Part 3: Guidance on the

test method

ISO 10294-4: 2001, Fire resistance tests — Fire dampers for air distribution systems — Part 4: Test of

thermal release mechanism
ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary
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ISO 10294-5:2005(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943 and the following apply.

3.1
intumescent

term describing the phenomenon of expansion in excess of normal thermal expansion under the action of heat

normally generated by the fire
3.2
intumescent fire dampers

non-mechanical device, installed in a ducted system that intumesces when exposed to hot gases and acts as

a barrier to fire and hot smoke
3.3
intumescent sheet

intumescent material manufactured in rigid or flexible thin sections, typically 1 mm to 4 mm thick, usually cut

into strips for incorporation into the fire damper
3.4
covered intumescent

partly enclosed intumescent material to provide protection, modify the behaviour, improve the surface finish

and/or enhance the aesthetics of the fire damper
3.5
skinned intumescent material

totally enclosed intumescent material on all faces and edges to provide protection, modify the behaviour and

improve the surface finish and/or the aesthetics of the fire damper
3.6
specially shaped intumescent

intumescent material formed into special contours by extrusion, dipping, moulding, machining or spraying onto

formers or mandrills
4 Procedure
4.1 General considerations
4.1.1 Apparatus

The apparatus for the fire test shall be as described in ISO 10294-1:1996. As intumescent dampers give off

some moisture, a suitable condensing device shall be installed before the flow-measuring device. This will be

deemed to be effective if the gas temperature within the flow-measuring device does not exceed 40 °C at any

time during the test.
4.1.2 Test specimen

The damper with the largest dimensions to be manufactured shall be tested. Where it is intended that multiple

intumescent dampers will be used in a duct having a size greater than the individual damper size, the

maximum number of dampers in the maximum-sized duct including all mullions and transoms together with

any other supporting structure shall be tested.
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ISO 10294-5:2005(E)
4.1.3 Test procedure
4.1.3.1 General procedure and criteria

Other than the exceptions stated below, carry out the test in accordance with ISO 10294-1. The criteria with

respect to integrity and insulation shall be as specified in ISO 10294-2.
4.1.3.1.1 Opening and closing cycles
The 50 opening and closing cycles specified are not applicable to this product.

NOTE The reason for the 50-cycle test for mechanical dampers is to demonstrate the likelihood of their functioning

when called upon to do so, without jamming or disintegrating. Clearly a product that is activated by an irreversible

chemical activity cannot be activated more than once. There are no parts moving mechanically in an intumescent fire

damper, only the swelling of the intumescent material when activated by heat.
4.1.3.1.2 Time to close

There is no requirement for the damper to close before 2 min, but it shall satisfy leakage requirements after

5 min into the test.

NOTE The 2 min limit in the test for mechanical dampers is the time beyond which it is deemed that dampers that

have not closed will not do so; therefore, continuation of the test would be irrelevant. Since the time deemed necessary for

the furnace to stabilize is 5 min and no sensor values are considered accurate enough to record until that time has

elapsed, the 2 min period has no relevance in the case of intumescent dampers.
4.1.3.1.3 Condensing device

A suitable condensing device may be considered to be a water tank fed with water at ambient temperature

with about 9 m of measuring duct immersed in the tank prior to reaching the measuring device.

4.2 Reaction to fire tests — Intumescent materials
4.2.1 General

To ensure some equivalence with a mechanical damper, the following tests are described that allow an

assessment of the reliability of intumescent materials used for intumescent fire dampers. These tests can be

used as an initial type test to get the performance of an intumescent material tested. The result is normally

used to define the specification for the material. In this case 10 specimens shall normally be tested. For the

purpose of factory control, two specimens are normally used to show compliance with the specification.

Thermal activation and faulty set-off are normally tested only in the course of the initial type test but all three

alternatives for “expansion pressure” are suitable tests for factory control.

Expansion pressure is normally determined at various temperatures during the initial type test to find out the

range of minimum temperature dependence. For the purposes of factory production control these tests are

normally conducted at a temperature in the range of temperature independence to ensure that the effect of

temperature variation on the results is minimized.

Complete components or sections of components of the damper, in sufficient quantity to complete the range

of testing required by the test authority and manufacturer, shall be nominated as representative specimens for

initial type testing and all subsequent production control conformity tests, as dictated by local

certification/approval needs.

Sample sets shall be placed in ambient laboratory conditions consisting of a temperature of 23 °C ± 4 °C and

a humidity of 50 % for a minimum of seven days.
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ISO 10294-5:2005(E)
4.2.2 Thermal activation temperature test
4.2.2.1 General

This test is used to assess the activation temperature of the intumescent material used in the damper.

4.2.2.2 Apparatus

4.2.2.2.1 Oven, with an operating temperature range of 25 °C to 350 °C to within better than ± 3 °C.

4.2.2.2.2 Temperature-measuring and display device for the oven, with an accuracy of ± 1 °C.

4.2.2.3 Test specimens

Three specimens of the smallest-sized damper in the range of critical reactive intumescent components shall

be tested.
4.2.2.4 Test method

Each specimen or critical reactive component shall be placed in the oven. The oven shall be set at 30 °C

below the activation temperature given by the manufacturer for the intumescent material under test. The oven

temperature shall be maintained for at least 15 min and intumescent activity observed. Should no intumescent

development occur, the temperature shall be increased by increments of 5 °C and maintained for a minimum

of 15 min at each stage until activation does commence.
4.2.3 Faulty set-off
4.2.3.1 General

This test method is intended to cover standard operating conditions (60 °C; see ISO 10294-4). However, the

test method may be adapted to cover situations where the intumescent damper is intended to be operated at

either lower or higher temperatures, for example dampers used in cold climates or those installed in warm-air

ducts, by using the appropriate operating temperature as the test temperature. Except for the

temperatures/threshold limits, there shall be accordance with all other conditions specified in this part of

ISO 10294.
4.2.3.2 Apparatus

4.2.3.2.1 Oven, with a standard temperature operating range of 25 °C to at least 80 °C or a range

compatible with the chosen operating temperature to within better than ± 3 °C.

4.2.3.2.2 Temperature-measuring and display device for oven, with an accuracy of ± 1 °C.

4.2.3.2.3 Thickness-measuring device, with an accuracy of ± 0,05 mm.
4.2.3.3 Test specimens

Three specimens of the smallest-sized damper in the range or three critical reactive intumescent components

shall be tested. Where the intumescent material is covered by a protective skin that may be affected by the

chosen operating temperature, the critical reactive intumescent component shall be composed the

intumescent material and the skin.
4.2.3.4 Test method

The thickness of each specimen shall be measured at a minimum of four different locations on the

intumescent reactive components and the values recorded. The specimens shall then be placed in a

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ISO 10294-5:2005(E)

pre-heated oven that is at the chosen temperature. The specimens shall be removed from the oven after

60 min and the thickness at the previously measured locations measured and recorded.

4.2.3.5 Performance

The thickness shall not vary by more than 5 % of the measurements taken prior to placing in the oven.

4.2.4 Expansion pressure test
4.2.4.1 General

This test is used to assess the pressure, and in the case of the pipe pressure test and the die-set pressure

test also the expansion factor, of an intumescent material created during expansion on heating.

For intumescent material that is employed in an uncovered state and is not subject to any further processing

prior to incorporation in the damper assembly, both the “disc pressure test” and the “pipe pressure test” are

suitable.

Where the original intumescent material is covered, skinned, specially shaped or processed in such a way as

a) change the performance characteristics,
b) improve or reduce resistance to moisture,
c) increase or decrease chemical or gas resistance, and/or
d) improve or reduce durability.

The coverings of intumescent materials may cause a variation of characteristics from the material in its

uncovered state. Therefore, such specimens shall be selected complete with covering to provide authentic

characteristics and normally the die-set pressure test is suitable. The specimens shall be of a shape and

dimensions compatible with the product design.
4.2.4.2 Expansion pressure — Disc pressure test method
4.2.4.2.1 Apparatus

The test apparatus consists of two heating plates provided with a means of adjusting the distance between

them. The lower plate is connected to a strain gauge/pressure transducer capable of measuring the pressure

exerted by the expansion of the specimen. The strain gauge/pressure transducer is connected to a recorder

that continuously records the measured pressure relative to time; see Figure B.1.

4.2.4.2.2 Test specimens

The specimens shall be circular and die-cut to a size to suite the internal diameter of the test apparatus from

the intumescent material used in the fabrication of the damper. Each specimen shall be weighed and

measured after being die-cut and examined to ensure that there are no voids between the specimen and the

internal face of the test apparatus.
4.2.4.2.3 Test method

For uncovered sheet material, the specimen shall be placed in a steel cylinder whose height is equal to the

thickness of the specimen. The inside diameter of the cylinder shall be the same size as the specimen.

2 2

The test apparatus shall be set such that there is an initial load between 0,1 N/mm and 0,5 N/mm , the

heating plates of the apparatus are preheated to a minimum of 300 °C for standard applications or to the

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ISO 10294-5:2005(E)

appropriate temperature above the activation temperature for other applications, to wit

...

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