Earthworks - Part 2: Classification of materials

This European Standard defines a common basis for description and classification for use by all parties involved in the design, planning and construction of the earthworks.
This European Standard specifies the principles of classification, the processes and properties to be used in the description and classification of earthworks materials. For that, it specifies soil and rock groups as basis of material specifications for earth structure elements.
NOTE   Informative examples of existing national experience based classification systems and their use are presented in the annexes to prEN 16907-1.

Erdarbeiten - Teil 2: Materialklassifizierung

Dieses Dokument stellt eine gemeinsame Basis für die Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Erdbau-materialien auf und richtet sich an alle Beteiligten der Planung, Bemessung und Ausführung von Erdarbeiten.
Dieses Dokument legt die Verfahren und Eigenschaften fest, die zur Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Erdbaumaterialien anzuwenden sind. Es legt Boden- und Felsgruppen als Grundlage für die Material-spezifikationen von Erdbauwerken fest. Die vorliegende Klassifizierung bezieht sich auf die physikalischen und chemischen Eigenschaften der Boden- und Felsmaterialien.
ANMERKUNG 1 Die Ansätze zur Boden- und Felsbeschreibung nach EN ISO 14688-1 bzw. EN ISO 14689-1 sowie der Bodenklassifizierungsansatz nach EN ISO 14688-2 sind auch für Erdbauarbeiten zutreffend. Der in diesem Dokument definierte Gültigkeits- und Anwendungsbereich der Klassifizierung für Erdarbeiten ist jedoch detaillierter und auf die besonderen Anforderungen von Verfahrensweisen bei Erdarbeiten und Erdbauwerken ausgerichtet.
ANMERKUNG 2 Beispiele als Information für bestehende Klassifizierungssysteme aus nationalen Erfahrungswerten und deren Anwendung werden in den Anhängen zu EN 16907-1:2018 vorgestellt.

Terrassements - Partie 2: Classification des matériaux

Zemeljska dela - 2. del: Klasifikacija materialov

Ta evropski standard določa skupno podlago za opis in klasifikacijo, namenjeno za uporabo vsem strankam, vpletenim v projektiranje, načrtovanje ter konstrukcijo zemeljskih del.
Ta evropski standard določa načela klasifikacije, procesov in lastnosti, ki se uporabljajo pri opisu ter klasifikaciji materialov za zemeljska dela. Za ta namen navaja skupine zemljin in kamnin kot podlago specifikacij materiala za elemente zemeljske strukture.
OPOMBA: Informativni primeri obstoječih nacionalnih sistemov klasifikacije na podlagi izkušenj in njihova uporaba so predstavljeni v dodatkih standarda prEN 16907-1.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Oct-2015
Publication Date
14-Mar-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Feb-2019
Due Date
04-May-2019
Completion Date
15-Mar-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Zemeljska dela - 2. del: Klasifikacija materialovErdarbeiten - Teil 2: MaterialklassifizierungTerrassements - Partie 2: Classification des matériauxEarthworks - Part 2: Classification of materials93.020Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod zemljoEarthworks. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works13.080.99Drugi standardi v zvezi s kakovostjo talOther standards related to soil qualityICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16907-2:2018SIST EN 16907-2:2019en,fr,de01-april-2019SIST EN 16907-2:2019SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16907-2:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16907-2
December
t r s z ICS
s uä r z rä { {â
{ uä r t r English Version
Earthworks æ Part
tã Classification of materials Terrassements æ Partie
tã Classification des matériaux Erdarbeiten æ Teil
tã Materialklassifizierung This European Standard was approved by CEN on
s v May
t r s zä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x { r yæ tã t r s z ESIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5 3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations ................................................................................... 6 3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6 3.2 Abbreviations and symbols ......................................................................................................................... 7 4 Principles of classification ........................................................................................................................... 8 5 The process of description and classification ....................................................................................... 9 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 5.2 Description ..................................................................................................................................................... 10 5.3 Classification .................................................................................................................................................. 11 6 Classification by intrinsic parameters.................................................................................................. 11 6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 6.2 Definition of soil groups ............................................................................................................................ 12 6.3 Definition of rock groups .......................................................................................................................... 19 6.4 Use of other intrinsic properties ............................................................................................................ 23 7 Classification by state parameters ......................................................................................................... 23 7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 7.2 Soil state properties .................................................................................................................................... 23 7.3 Rock state properties.................................................................................................................................. 24 8 Characteristics and tests for assessing earthworks materials in situ ....................................... 25 8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25 8.2 Characteristics for execution of earthworks ...................................................................................... 26 8.3 Characteristics for material classification for use in earth structures ..................................... 27 9 Sampling of soil and rock .......................................................................................................................... 27 10 Test standards to support classification .............................................................................................. 28 Annex A (informative)

List of test standards relevant to earthworks as detailed in Clause 10 ......................................................................................................................................................... 29 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 40 SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 16907-2:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 396 “Earthworks”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2019. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document is one of the European Standards within the framework series of EN 16907 on Earthworks, as follows: — Part 1: Principles and general rules, — Part 2: Classification of materials (this document), — Part 3: Construction procedures, — Part 4: Soil treatment with lime and/or hydraulic binders, — Part 5: Quality control, — Part 6: Land reclamation earthworks using dredged hydraulic fill, — Part 7: Hydraulic placement of extractive waste. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 4 Introduction This European Standard is part of a European Standard on Earthworks. It was decided by CEN/TC 396 to establish a stand-alone standard part on the classification of materials used in earthworks. The different regional situations in geology and climate result in national differences in the earthwork procedures which do not allow a single classification of materials throughout Europe at present. Therefore, this standard identifies the principles and systems for classification considering national practices. Furthermore the test procedures suitable for earthworks are identified. SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 5 1 Scope This document defines a common basis for description and classification for use by all parties involved in the design, planning and construction of the earthworks. This document specifies the processes and properties to be used in the description and classification of earthworks materials. It specifies soil and rock groups as a basis of material specifications for earth structure elements. This classification relates to the physical and chemical properties of the soil and rock materials. NOTE 1 The approach to description of soil and rock set out in EN ISO 14688-1 and EN ISO 14689 respectively and the approach to classification of soil set out in EN ISO 14688-2 are applicable to earthworks, but the range and scope of classification for earthworks given here is more detailed and orientated to the specific demands of earthwork procedures and earth structure elements. NOTE 2 Informative examples of existing national experience based classification systems and their use are presented in the annexes to EN 16907-1:2018. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 932-1, Tests for general properties of aggregates — Part 1: Methods for sampling EN 1997-2, Eurocode 7 — Geotechnical design — Part 2: Ground investigation and testing EN 13383-1, Armourstone — Part 1: Specification EN 16907-1:2018, Earthworks — Part 1: Principles and general rules EN ISO 14688-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil — Part 1: Identification and description (ISO 14688-1) EN ISO 14689, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification, description and classification of rock (ISO 14689) EN ISO 22475-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Sampling methods and groundwater measurements — Part 1: Technical principles for execution (ISO 22475-1) SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 6 3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16907-1:2018 and the following apply. ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/

ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp 3.1.1 description identification and naming of a given material and its physical and soil mechanical properties that are relevant for earthwork purposes 3.1.2 classification definition of material groups and classes and assigning of materials to groups and classes with similar properties for earthworks 3.1.3 classification parameters values of characteristics that define groups and classes 3.1.4 characteristics material properties which may be relevant for a defined use 3.1.5 properties physical and chemical attributes of a material 3.1.6 intrinsic properties properties of solids of soils and rock which do not change in the course of earthworks such as particle size distribution, particle shape, mineralogy, plasticity, organic or carbonate content 3.1.7 state properties properties of the soil or rock that may change during earthworks; such as density, water content, strength, consistency, relative density or stiffness 3.1.8 materials all soils, rocks, by-products and recycled mineral materials handled during earthworks 3.1.9 material groups classification of materials based on intrinsic properties SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 7 3.1.10 material class classification of materials based on intrinsic and state properties for use in specific aspects of earthworks 3.1.11 particle size dimension of a material particle defined by a representative diameter which is determined by sieving or by sedimentation analysis 3.1.12 particle fraction mass percentage of particles in a range of particle sizes with defined lower and upper diameters referring to the total mass of particles in a soil volume or sample EXAMPLES Sand fraction: mass percentage of particles with particle sizes between 0,063 mm and 2,0 mm. 3.1.13 fines particles with a particle size smaller than 0,063 mm 3.1.14 anthropogenic material natural materials processed mechanically e.g. by crushing or washing, manufactured materials including secondary manufactured materials and recycled materials 3.2 Abbreviations and symbols For the purposes of this document the abbreviations and symbols given in EN 16907-1:2018 and the following apply. Abbreviations for terms and tests DG Degradability FR Fragmentability MDE Micro-Deval Test LA Los Angeles Test IDD Intact dry density

Symbols for Quantities CC Coefficient of curvature dimensionless CLA Los Angeles coefficient (by LA test) dimensionless CMDE Micro-Deval coefficient dimensionless COM Organic matter content dimensionless (%) CU Coefficient of uniformity (CU = D60/D10) dimensionless Cx Mass percentage of particles smaller than x (mm)

(e.g. C0,063 < 5 %:

the content of fines is less than 5 % of the soil mass) dimensionless (%) D Particle size (representative diameter) mm SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 8 Dx Particle size at which x % are smaller (e.g. D60 = 3,5 mm: the particle size, at which 60 % of soil mass are smaller, is 3,5 mm) mm Dmax Maximum diameter of particles in a soil mass mm IDG Coefficient of degradability (by DG test) dimensionless IFR Coefficient of fragmentability (by FR test) dimensionless IP Plasticity index (IP = wL - wP) dimensionless (%) MB, MBf Methylene blue values, determined acc.

to EN 933-9 g/1000g VBS Methylene blue value (fraction 0/50 mm) g/100g Vp Compression wave velocity m/s wL Liquid limit dimensionless (%) wP Plastic limit dimensionless (%) d Dry density Mg/m3 di Intact dry density (by IDD test) Mg/m3 Symbols for soil and rock groups See Tables 3 to 9 in Clause 6. Symbols for state parameters of rock See Tables 10 and 11 in Clause 7. 4 Principles of classification Soils, rocks and other materials shall be placed into groups (based on intrinsic properties) and classes (based on state properties) which have similar behaviour for one or more earthworks procedures (excavation, transport, treatment, placement and compaction) and which will have similar engineering properties in an earth structure after completion of the earthwork procedures. The system of classes or classification system shall be defined on the basis of experience from previous works and is influenced by the geological and climatic conditions that prevail in each country. The classification system may represent national practices, local practices based on experiences with particular materials or project based. It may be limited to materials for which previous experience exists. Variations between countries are allowed to account for national experiences. The national regulations mentioned in the annexes to EN 16907-1:2018 may be used where appropriate. When a new classification system is prepared or an existing system is used, experience shall refer to: — the satisfactory behaviour of completed earth-structures made of a class of material using specific construction procedures, — the suitability of particular construction procedures for a given class of material. The engineering behaviour of the completed earth-structure shall be assessed according to the type of structure, see EN 16907-1:2018. The mineralogy and particle size distribution of soils and the origin, fragmentability and degradability of rocks are important properties from the point of view of engineering behaviour. The sensitivity of fine grained soils to water has a major effect on the execution of works and the water content of fine soils shall be considered, when relevant, in the classification system. SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 9 The description of the ground mass is part of the information needed for identifying zones of homogenous character and thus in the design of earthworks. Therefore, the classification based on samples alone is not sufficient to characterize a given source of natural materials. 5 The process of description and classification 5.1 General The ground shall be described and classified into materials of similar material properties and homogenous areas, a process which is typically supported by testing. This should involve three stages as given in Table 1: 1) The soil and rock materials shall be described in their in situ condition; 2) Classification into groups of similar material properties and homogenous areas based on the intrinsic properties shall be made as part of the design and planning process. Classification of the materials generally requires an adequate suite of testing;

3) Classification shall be made during the design, planning and construction stages, on the basis of the state properties. Classification by state properties should be used to plan, specify and control the works and to demonstrate that the product required by the design and the specification has been achieved. Depending on project conditions other application fields for the different classification levels may be considered. For the use of recycled mineral materials and by-products in earthworks, the approaches in Table 1 may also be applicable. Where the material is not natural its mineralogy, properties and origin shall be stated. SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 10 Table 1 — The stages of description and classification Stage Definition Basis Application Description Engineering geological description of the soil and rock to record those features of the ground that will control the ease of excavation and influence the use of the material but that may be destroyed in sampling or earthwork procedures such as layering, variability and discontinuities. Observation in the field and laboratory. Description of material and mass characteristics. Grouping into areas of similar characteristics; determine layers, areas or zones of similar properties or homogenous character. Stratum descriptions aid the scheduling of testing which leads to classification. Classification (intrinsic) see Tables 2 to 9 Classification based on the intrinsic properties, those which are not changed by the effects of sampling or the earthwork procedures Assignment of soil and rock materials to soil and rock groups Selection of appropriate tests in order to determine the mineralogy and properties such as grain size and

plasticity Classification to determine material applicability in different zones of the proposed earthwork. Available tests can be selected from those listed in Annex A. Classification (state) See Tables 10 to 13 Characterization on the basis of the state of the ground, that is by those properties that can change by sampling or by the earthwork procedures Selection of appropriate tests to determine properties such as water content, strength, stiffness and stability. The properties to be measured will depend on the particle size of the soil and the strength of the particles Classification to determine classes depending on engineering properties at excavation, transport, deposition and compaction. Available tests can be selected from those listed in Annex A. NOTE: The details given in the Column “application” are taken as examples only. 5.2 Description The materials present at the site should be described by systematic recording of the material and mass characteristics of the soil or rock. Description of the materials is usually related to the geological succession, which may be subdivided into subgroups depending on the variability. Geological input should be incorporated so as to ensure a full and accurate description. The soils and rocks that may be used in the earthwork shall be described in accordance with EN ISO 14688-1 and EN ISO 14689 on the basis of visual and manual techniques in the field applied in trial pits or in samples recovered from boreholes and/or in the laboratory. Description of soils is based on particle size distribution, plasticity and organic content. The size fractions defined in EN ISO 14688-1 shall be used, which are — Very coarse soils (boulders and cobbles); — Coarse soils (gravel and sand); — Fine soils (silt and clay). SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 11 The description enables the in situ condition of the ground, including its ease of excavation and variability, to be assessed. Laboratory testing is not normally required within description. The mass properties include fracture spacing and weathering which are generally not amenable to testing. The description should identify those characteristics of the soil or rock relevant to the excavation, transport, deposition and compaction of the material and its inclusion in the earthwork. Characteristics of the in situ soil or rock that could be of interest should include strength, structure such as layering, or the spacing of discontinuities that may affect the ease of excavation. The availability of a description of the materials may allow interpolation between test results in those areas or materials where field or laboratory testing has not been carried out. The descriptions enable the identification of zones of homogenous character and the scheduling of appropriate field or laboratory tests for classification. Descriptions should appear on the field reports of the investigation points (for example trial pits, boreholes); the disposition of the materials across the site should normally be displayed as plans and sections as appropriate. The requirements of field and investigation reports are detailed in EN ISO 22475-1 and EN 1997-2. 5.3 Classification Where relevant the classification process in Table 1 shall be followed together with the reference to Tables 2 to 11 which summarize the typical classification system of materials available for the earthworks project. Classification at a site should initially use an existing national classification system which allows a project to link into precedent experience. The classification systems adopted for the project may be amended as more information on the ground conditions at a site becomes available. Classification should comprise definition of material groups based on intrinsic properties and definition of classes based on material groups in addition to further state properties. The grouping of soils or rocks based on their intrinsic properties can be used as a basis for specifications of the requirements of the materials to be used in the earth structures. In combination with the state properties, this can also then help to identify appropriate earthworks construction procedures which should enable the establishment of project orientated classes. The definition of these classes should be supported by field and/or laboratory testing. 6 Classification by intrinsic parameters 6.1 General All materials that are used for earthworks shall be classified into material groups on the basis of the intrinsic properties. NOTE The earthworks classification into groups helps to identify which materials are suitable or potentially suitable for use in an earth structure, subject to meeting the design objectives as defined in EN 16907-1:2018. Classification on the basis of intrinsic properties does not necessarily demonstrate suitability for re-use as earth fill as that depends on the state properties and the achievement of satisfactory compaction. SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 12 6.2 Definition of soil groups Soil shall be classified for use in earthworks using groups designated by group symbols as described in Tables 2 to 5, which are based on the intrinsic properties, or using a well-established national system. Soil grouping according to this standard considers the following main groups: — Very Coarse Soils containing particles with diameters larger than of 63 mm

(Dmax > 63 mm), see Table 2 — Soils with particles of diameters not larger than 63 mm (Dmax

¶ 63 mm) and with organic content not more than 2 % (COM
¶ 2 %), subdivided into —
mm diameter) not more than 15 % (C0,063

¶ 15 %), using the parameters “particle size fractions” and “uniformity coefficient” for subgrouping (Table 3a) — Intermediate Soils and Fine Soils with content of fines more than 15 % (C0,063 > 15 %), using the parameters “particle size fraction of fines” and either “Liquid limit” or “Plasticity Index”

or “Methylene Blue Value” for subgrouping (Table 3b) — Organic Soils (COM > 2 %) (Table 4) — Anthropogenic

Materials (Table 5) The grouping of soils for earthwork should be made according to the following Tables 2 to 5 (see also the following notes). NOTE 1 Alternative national classifications are presented in EN 16907-1:2018. NOTE 2 Assessment of the material characteristics under the influence of frost and for frost heave potential varies nationally. The soil classification criteria, which correspond to intrinsic soil properties, should include at least: — Particle size distribution; — Plasticity; — Organic content. The evaluation of parameters should be supported by laboratory examination and testing. For soils containing salts, the classification should be made according to Table 9. SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 13 Table 2 — Soil groups for earthworks - Materials containing particles larger than 63 mm Group name Soil group symbol Grouping parameters Comments Very coarse soil VC1 The range of particle sizes present and their proportions by mass are estimated in the field by description. The behaviour in fill is controlled by the fraction > 63 mm. The fraction

¶ 63 mm should be placed into groups as an additional parameter according to Table 3. Size of blocks shall be considered for excavation and placement Soil may need to be processed before using in earth structures Soil with very coarse particles VC2 The range of particle sizes present and their proportions by mass are estimated in the field by description. The behaviour in fill is controlled by the fraction

¶ 63 mm. The fraction
¶ 63 mm shall be placed into groups according to Table 3. SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 14 Table 3 — Soil groups for earthworks – Materials containing particles not larger than 63 mm

and with organic matter content not more than 2 % Table 3a — Soils with fines content not more than 15 % - Coarse soils and Composite soils Main Group Group name Soil group symbol Particle fractions Further Grouping Parameters (intrinsic properties) Comments

Fines content C0,063 Sand fraction 0,063 mm < D
2 mm Gravel fraction 2 mm < D
63 mm Uniformity coefficient Cu
Coarse soil Gravel widely graded G1 < 5 % less than
gravel fraction more than
sand fraction

6 Normally soil is usable in earth structure. Gravel narrowly graded G2 < 6 Sand widely graded S1 more than

gravel fraction less than
sand fraction

6 Sand narrowly graded S2 < 6 Composite soil Gravel-Fines mixture widely graded G3 5 to 15 % less than

gravel fraction more than
sand fraction

6 Gravel-Fines mixture narrowly graded G4 < 6 Sand-Fines mixture widely graded S3 more than

gravel fraction less than
sand fraction
6 Sand-Fines mixture narrowly graded S4 < 6 NOTE
The coefficient of curvature CC

is also useful for classification. Approaches and limiting values vary widely in different countries. SIST EN 16907-2:2019

EN 16907-2:2018 (E) 15 Table 3b — Soils with fines content C0,063

of more than 15 % - Intermediate Soils and Fine Soils Main Group Group name Soil group symbol Fines Content C0,063 Further Grouping Parameters (see Note 1) Comments

Liquid Limit wL Plasticity Index
IP (Methylene Blue Value VBS)
Intermediate soil (see Note 2) Intermediate soil — low plasticity I1
> 15 to 35 %
12 %
Normally soil is usable in earth structure IL
35 %
Intermediate soil — medium to high plasticity I2
> 12 % (>1,5) IM
> 35 %
Fine soil Low plasticity
fine soil F1
> 35 %
12 %

Normally soil is usable in earth structure. Distinction between Silt and Clay in fine soils may be made on the basis of the A line (see Figure 1) FL

35 %
Medium plasticity fine soil F2
> 12 to 22 % (>2,5 to 6) FM
> 35 to 50 %
High plasticity
fine soil F3
> 22 to 40 % (>6) FH
> 50 to 70 %
Very high plasticity fine soil F4

> 40 % (n/a) These soils should be presumed to be not usable unless testing, local experience, or treatment demonstrate otherwise FV

> 70 %

NOTE 1 Intermediate soils and fine soils may be grouped using Liquid limit or Plasticity Index or Methylene Blue Value VBS (but only using one parameter at a time); the parameter used in classification is stated using the group codes above. NOTE 2 More detailed grouping of intermediate soils may be achieved by adding the group o

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