Geographic information - Rights expression language for geographic information - GeoREL

ISO 19149:2011 defines an XML-based vocabulary or language to express rights for geographic information in order that digital licenses can be created for such information and related services. This language, GeoREL, is an extension of the rights expression language in ISO/IEC 21000-5 and is to be used to compose digital licenses. Each digital license will unambiguously express those particular rights that the owners (or their agent) of a digital geographic resource extend to the holders of that license. The digital rights management system in which these licenses are used can then offer ex ante (before the fact) protection for all such resources.
NOTE The proper use of a GeoREL includes the preservation of rights access by formula expressed in usage licenses. Thus, data in the public or private domain, when protected, remain in their respective domains if the usage rights granted so state.  
These "rights" are not always covered by copyright law, and are often the result of contracts between individuals that specify the proper and allowed uses of resources, as opposed to the threat of copyright litigations which is an ex post facto (after the fact) remediation measure, not an ex ante protection measure. ISO 19149:2011 is not a reflection of, or extension of, copyright law.
Mechanisms for the enforcement and preservation of those contract rights are specified in ISO/IEC 21000, and it is not the intention of ISO 19149:2011 to replace nor redefine those mechanisms, but to use them as previously standardized.

Information géographique - Langue sur l'expression des droits pour l'utilisation de l'information géographique - GeoREL

Geografske informacije - Jezik izražanja pravic za geografske informacije - GeoREL

Ta mednarodni standard določa slovar ali jezik na osnovi XML za izražanje digitalnih pravic za geografske informacije, da se lahko za tovrstne informacije in povezane storitve ustvarijo digitalna dovoljenja. Ta jezik, GeoREL, je razširitev jezika izražanja digitalnih pravic iz standarda ISO/IEC 21000-5 in je namenjen oblikovanju digitalnih dovoljenj. Vsako digitalno dovoljenje nedvoumno izraža te posebne pravice, ki jih lastniki (ali njihov agent) digitalnega geografskega vira podelijo imetnikom tega dovoljenja. Sistem upravljanja digitalnih pravic, v katerem se ta dovoljenja uporabljajo, lahko nato zagotovi predhodno (vnaprejšnjo) zaščito za vse tovrstne vire.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Apr-2010
Publication Date
09-Feb-2012
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Feb-2012
Due Date
08-Apr-2012
Completion Date
10-Feb-2012

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19149
First edition
2011-11-15
Geographic information — Rights
expression language for geographic
information — GeoREL
Information géographique — Langue sur l'expression des droits pour
l'utilisation de l'information géographique — GeoREL
Reference number
ISO 19149:2011(E)
ISO 2011
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19149:2011(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2011

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19149:2011(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ vi

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vii

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 2

4 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and abbreviated terms .......................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Symbols used for common XML namespaces ................................................................................... 3

6 Digital rights management systems .................................................................................................... 3

7 Requirements for the expression of digital licenses for geographic resources ............................ 4

8 Geographic rights expression language extensions — GeoREL ..................................................... 5

8.1 Technical approach ............................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 Spatial entities used in conditions ...................................................................................................... 6

8.3 Resources .............................................................................................................................................. 8

8.3.1 Resources from ISO/IEC 21000 ............................................................................................................ 8

8.3.2 GeoResource ......................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3.3 Data resources: GeoInformation resource metadata ........................................................................ 9

8.3.4 Service resources: GeoProcessing resource metadata .................................................................. 11

8.4 Principals ............................................................................................................................................. 14

8.5 Rights .................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.5.1 Usage Rights ........................................................................................................................................ 15

8.5.2 Meta-rights ........................................................................................................................................... 21

8.6 Conditions ............................................................................................................................................ 21

8.6.1 Semantics ............................................................................................................................................. 21

8.6.2 Property conditions and grant component patterns ....................................................................... 21

8.6.3 Standards-defined operations ........................................................................................................... 21

8.6.4 Output conditions ................................................................................................................................ 22

8.6.5 Transfer right and sublicense conditions on meta-rights ............................................................... 22

8.6.6 Spatial temporal conditions ............................................................................................................... 23

8.6.7 Layer conditions .................................................................................................................................. 24

8.6.8 Implementation conditions ................................................................................................................. 24

8.6.9 Parameter range conditions ............................................................................................................... 24

8.6.10 Derived right conditions ..................................................................................................................... 24

8.6.11 Encoding condition ............................................................................................................................. 25

8.6.12 Side effect and associated conditions .............................................................................................. 25

Annex A (normative) Abstract test suite ........................................................................................................ 27

A.1 The two test cases ............................................................................................................................... 27

A.2 License conformance .......................................................................................................................... 27

A.2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 27

A.2.2 XML schema conformance ................................................................................................................. 27

A.2.3 Proper interpretation ........................................................................................................................... 28

A.3 Enforcement conformance ................................................................................................................. 28

Annex B (normative) geoRel.xsd .................................................................................................................... 29

Annex C (informative) Notes on the ISO REL, ISO/IEC 21000-5 ................................................................... 36

C.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 36

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 19149:2011(E)

C.2 License parts ........................................................................................................................................36

C.3 Issuer ....................................................................................................................................................37

C.4 For all declaration of variables ...........................................................................................................37

C.5 Renderer ...............................................................................................................................................38

Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................40

Examples and Schemata

Schema 1: GeoPlace ........................................................................................................................................... 6

Schema 2: Property and parameter schema ....................................................................................................... 7

Schema 3: Resource from ISO/IEC 21000 .......................................................................................................... 8

Schema 4: GeoResource and GeoProcess schema ........................................................................................... 9

Example 1: geoResource License ..................................................................................................................... 10

Example 2: geoResource License for a Restricted Area by Name ................................................................... 12

Example 3: geoProcess License ....................................................................................................................... 13

Example 4: “public user” geoPrincipal defined by functional property ............................................................... 15

Schema 5: GeoRight .......................................................................................................................................... 16

Schema 6: Use .................................................................................................................................................. 16

Schema 7: Display ............................................................................................................................................. 17

Schema 8: Merge ............................................................................................................................................... 17

Schema 9: Extract .............................................................................................................................................. 17

Schema 10: Transform ...................................................................................................................................... 18

Schema 11: Derive ............................................................................................................................................ 18

Schema 12: Edit ................................................................................................................................................. 18

Schema 13: Modify ............................................................................................................................................ 19

Schema 14: Derive Graphic ............................................................................................................................... 19

Schema 15: Encode ........................................................................................................................................... 19

Schema 16: Execute .......................................................................................................................................... 20

Example 5: geoProcess used as execute conditions ........................................................................................ 20

Schema 17: GeoCondition ................................................................................................................................. 21

Schema 18: Standard compliance conditions ................................................................................................... 22

Schema 19: Output format conditions ............................................................................................................... 22

Schema 20: Transfer conditions ........................................................................................................................ 22

iv © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19149:2011(E)

Schema 21: Spatial temporal conditions ............................................................................................................ 23

Schema 22: Derived right conditions .................................................................................................................. 24

Schema 23: Encoding conditions ....................................................................................................................... 25

Schema 24: Side Effects .................................................................................................................................... 25

Schema C.1: License Part from ISO REL .......................................................................................................... 36

Schema C.2: For all variable definition from ISO REL ....................................................................................... 37

Example C.1: Property for all elements using “certificate license” from ISO REL ............................................. 38

Schema C.3: Renderer from ISO REL, MX extension ....................................................................................... 39

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 19149:2011(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 19149 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics. A base

document was supplied by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.
vi © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19149:2011(E)
Introduction

The use of ubiquitous computing in geographic information is often obstructed by legal concerns about the

rights of the holders and owners of data and other intellectual property resources. It can be the case that once

data or other resource is released into any unconstrained and unprotected environment, the value of the

holding is decreased because the underlying data theoretically becomes available from other sources. The

multimedia industry has taken the lead in solving this problem by creating a general model for digital rights

protection, in which a language was developed in order that instances of those rights might be documented, a

rights expression language, specifically in ISO/IEC 21000-5, the ISO REL. This language, used in conjunction

with Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems, can protect the value of data and still allow it to be

distributed subject to a system of licensing, trust and enforcement.

This International Standard extends the ISO REL to encompass the concerns of holders of geographic data

and service resources to equally ensure their protection. This allows the geographic information market to

operate with minimal constraints derived from the need for the protection of intellectual property.

There are two major sources for foundational material for this work.

 The first source is ISO/IEC 21000, a multiple part standard that defines digital rights management in

general. There is no need to extend this basic foundation for expressing and enforcing rights for

resources except in those cases where the special requirements of geographic information and services

make it necessary.

 The second source is ISO 19153 (originally an Open Geospatial Abstract Specification volume), which

enumerates these special cases for geographic information as well as providing an overall reference

model using common geographic information terms that ties the work of the ISO/IEC 21000 work into this

spatial standard.

Given these two foundations, the purpose of this International Standard is to extend the ISO REL, consistent

with the requirements for such extensions given in ISO/IEC 21000-5, to cover the special cases enumerated

in ISO 19153.
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved vii
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19149:2011(E)
Geographic information — Rights expression language for
geographic information — GeoREL
1 Scope

This International Standard defines an XML-based vocabulary or language to express rights for geographic

information in order that digital licenses can be created for such information and related services. This

language, GeoREL, is an extension of the rights expression language in ISO/IEC 21000-5 and is to be used to

compose digital licenses. Each digital license will unambiguously express those particular rights that the

owners (or their agent) of a digital geographic resource extend to the holders of that license. The digital rights

management system in which these licenses are used can then offer ex ante (before the fact) protection for all

such resources.

NOTE The proper use of a GeoREL includes the preservation of rights access by formula expressed in usage

licenses. Thus, data in the public or private domain, when protected, remain in their respective domains if the usage rights

granted so state.

These “rights” are not always covered by copyright law, and are often the result of contracts between

individuals that specify the proper and allowed uses of resources, as opposed to the threat of copyright

litigations which is an ex post facto (after the fact) remediation measure, not an ex ante protection measure.

This International Standard is not a reflection of, or extension of, copyright law.

Mechanisms for the enforcement and preservation of those contract rights are specified in ISO/IEC 21000,

and it is not the intention of this International Standard to replace nor redefine those mechanisms, but to use

them as previously standardized.
2 Conformance

The license language vocabulary is expressed as an XML schema extending the ISO/IEC 21000-5 REL. A

conformant license expression is a well-formed and complete XML document (or its equivalent) that

expresses the semantics described in the standard and that is properly protected from modification by the

mechanisms described and specified in ISO/IEC 21000.

A license compliant to this International Standard will be consistent with the XML schema for ISO/IEC 21000-5

and the XML schema associated with this International Standard (see requirements in Clause 6).

A software system compliant to this International Standard shall interpret any compliant license in a manner

consistent with the semantics expressed in ISO/IEC 21000 and the abstract test suite given in Annex A.

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 19149:2011(E)
3 Normative references

The following referenced standards are indispensable for the application of this International Standard. For

dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

standard (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 19153 , Geospatial Digital Rights Management Reference Model (GeoDRM RM)

ISO/IEC 21000 (all parts), Information technology — Multimedia framework (MPEG-21)

4 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 21000 apply .

The terms “constraint” and “condition” are used interchangeably, and no distinction is meant in terms of the

license based on which term is used. This differs from other cases where constraints are expressed as the

contrapositive of conditions.

Following the precedent set in ISO/IEC 21000, the alternative English (Oxford English Dictionary) spelling of

the word license has been used in all instances, except when used in proper names. This is in contradiction to

the ISO 19153, and the preferred English usage, where the word “license” is usually a verb and the word

“licence” is a noun. Both US and UK English dictionaries accept the “s” spellings for the noun, and so this is

not in variance with any current dictionary in either dialect. The basic reason for this is to not confuse the

spelling of the XML elements (which use the ISO/IEC 21000 spellings) with the spellings in the text. No

semantic difference is meant by this typographic convention.
5 Symbols and abbreviated terms
5.1 Abbreviated terms
The following symbols and abbreviated terms are used in this document.
DRM Digital Rights Management

GeoREL Rights Expression Language for Geographic Information (including the ISO REL and the

extension defined in this International Standard)
GeoDRM Digital Rights Management for Geographic Information

ISO REL Rights Expression Language from ISO/IEC 21000-5 (see Annex C for notes on ISO REL)

LBS Location Based Service
REL Rights Expression Language
UDDI Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
URI Uniform Resource Identifier
1) To be published.

2) This International Standard does not include an abstract model. It depends on the models in ISO/IEC 21000 and

ISO 19153.
2 © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19149:2011(E)
WFS Web Feature Service (ISO 19142)
WSDL Web Services Definition Language
XML Extensible Markup Language
5.2 Symbols used for common XML namespaces

The following namespace prefixes are used in the in-text XML and XML Schema fragments:

grm Namespace prefix for the geoRel.xsd license extensions

xsd Namespace prefix for the XML Schema basic types, used in defining schema elements

r Namespace prefix for rel-r.xsd in ISO/IEC 21000, representing the namespace
urn:mpeg:mpeg21:2003:01-REL-R-NS
sx Namespace prefix for rel-sx.xsd in ISO/IEC 21000, representing the namespace
urn:mpeg:mpeg21:2003:01-REL-SX-NS
mx Namespace prefix for rel-mx.xsd in ISO/IEC 21000, representing the namespace
urn:mpeg:mpeg21:2003:01-REL-MX-NS

Examples in this International Standard are given as informative illustrations of ideas, and are not valid

licenses, since they lack the appropriate signature values that would allow them to be recognized by a

qualified security system as well-formed. Other than the absence of signature keys, the fragments are valid, in

the sense that within a properly signed license document, they would be valid and correctly parsed and

interpreted if correctly placed in the larger context of a license. They do conform to the XML schemas using

the above namespace prefixes, unless abbreviated elements are used, and in those cases, the abbreviations

are noted in the text, or in the use of ellipsis marks (…) between opening and closing element tags.

To make the requirements expressed in this International Standard easier to find, normative statements

specifying either requirements or recommendations have been presented in a bold font.

6 Digital rights management systems

This International Standard is written within the model defined in ISO 19153 and within the model defined in

ISO/IEC 21000, including all of its parts. The license structure is defined in ISO/IEC 21000-5 and this

International Standard only addresses the extension of that license format for the purpose of creating a

licensing vocabulary for geographic resources, both data and services, using as much of the existing

ISO/IEC 21000-defined framework as possible. An informative description of the entire MPEG-21 systems as

[6]

defined in ISO/IEC 21000 is given in The MPEG-21 Book cited in the Bibliography.

For this purpose, this International Standard defines extensions only to license parts appearing in grants as

defined by ISO/IEC 21000-5 and whose semantics are described in ISO 19153. All security, principal identity,

and generic resource descriptions and identity descriptions remain as defined in ISO/IEC 21000.

In all cases, licenses valid under this International Standard shall be consistent with the schema given

in Annex B and those schemas imported by it, and shall carry a valid digital signature of the resource

owner or of one of the owner's recognized agents.

A software system compliant to this International Standard shall interpret any compliant license in a

manner consistent with the semantics expressed in ISO/IEC 21000 and this International Standard.

These dependencies on ISO/IEC 21000 and ISO 19153 provide the context for this International Standard.

ISO/IEC 21000 provides a general system description for digital rights management, license construction and

interpretation, and covers the security techniques that make such systems feasible. ISO 19153 provides a

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 19149:2011(E)

reference model including those items in the realm of geographic information that require the protection of a

licensing system. The extension to the ISO REL as presented in this International Standard is where these

two dependencies interact. ISO/IEC 21000 gives requirements for the mechanism for extending the ISO REL

and ISO 19153 provides the semantics for those same extensions.
7 Requirements for the expression of digital licenses for geographic resources

A license in a rights expression language has as its major component a sequence of grants which specifies

which individuals (represented by principals) may commit which acts (represented by rights) against which

items (represented as resources) under which circumstances (represented by conditions). Within an ISO REL

grant (XML element r:grant; see Figure 1), these four types of items are specified in the following order,

including:
1) Principal – the parties to whom the licensed right is granted, the licensee;
2) Rights – the act or actions covered by the rights licensed by this grant;
3) Resources – the items to be licensed, and hence to which rights are granted;
4) Conditions – conditions on any parts specific to this grant.

Descriptive terms associated with resources, rights and principals because of their geographic nature are

needed in the license extension defined by this International Standard. These terms are given in geoCondition

elements, using references to the described Principal, Right or Resource using standard ISO/IEC 21000-5

mechanisms. The most obvious requirements deal with geographic constraints within a database resource.

Less obvious, but just as important, is the description of geographic processing resources or services that

may be associated in particular or in kind to other resources.

These descriptions can link across multiple licenses to create behaviours of the licensing system as required.

EXAMPLE

 A license can be given to each emergency management professional for a given area as proof of his status.

 A license can be associated with each data or service resource that gives emergency management professionals

access to use the resource but triggers a side effect that records that access.

 In an emergency, the emergency management professional can use his “proof of status” license to gain access to the

resources in the group above.

This is a simple implementation strategy for a “break the glass” use of normally restricted data by authorized

personnel.

Since the actions against these types of resources cannot be defined completely within the purview of

multimedia, the rights associated with geographic data and processing resources require further description

within a geo-license than they would in a baseline ISO/IEC 21000 license.

With new actions (rights) and geographic resources, the conditions placed on grants require more description

to fully meet the need of the geographic information and processing communities. Conditions describe how

the license part is constrained, using the property or Boolean expression that needs to be matched by that

part.

The other parts of a license, including the security specifications and identification, are not affected by the

association of geographic properties to the licensed res
...

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Geografske informacije - Jezik izražanja pravic za geografske informacije - GeoRELInformation géographique - Langue sur l'expression des droits pour l'utilisation de l'information géographique - GeoRELGeographic information - Rights expression language for geographic information - GeoREL35.060Jeziki, ki se uporabljajo v informacijski tehniki in tehnologijiLanguages used in information technology07.040Astronomija. Geodezija. GeografijaAstronomy. Geodesy. GeographyICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:ISO 19149:2011SIST ISO 19149:2012en,fr01-marec-2012SIST ISO 19149:2012SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST ISO 19149:2012
Reference numberISO 19149:2011(E)© ISO 2011

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO19149First edition2011-11-15Geographic information — Rights expression language for geographic information — GeoREL Information géographique — Langue sur l'expression des droits pour l'utilisation de l'information géographique — GeoREL

SIST ISO 19149:2012
ISO 19149:2011(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT

ISO 2011 All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO's member body in the country of the requester. ISO copyright office Case postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20 Tel.

+ 41 22 749 01 11 Fax
+ 41 22 749 09 47 E-mail
copyright@iso.org Web
www.iso.org Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved
SIST ISO 19149:2012
ISO 19149:2011(E) © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved

iii Contents Page Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................ vi Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vii 1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 2 Conformance ......................................................................................................................................... 1 3 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 2 4 Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................... 2 5 Symbols and abbreviated terms .......................................................................................................... 2 5.1 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 2 5.2 Symbols used for common XML namespaces ................................................................................... 3 6 Digital rights management systems .................................................................................................... 3 7 Requirements for the expression of digital licenses for geographic resources ............................ 4 8 Geographic rights expression language extensions — GeoREL ..................................................... 5 8.1 Technical approach ............................................................................................................................... 5 8.2 Spatial entities used in conditions ...................................................................................................... 6 8.3 Resources .............................................................................................................................................. 8 8.3.1 Resources from ISO/IEC 21000 ............................................................................................................ 8 8.3.2 GeoResource ......................................................................................................................................... 8 8.3.3 Data resources: GeoInformation resource metadata ........................................................................ 9 8.3.4 Service resources: GeoProcessing resource metadata .................................................................. 11 8.4 Principals ............................................................................................................................................. 14 8.5 Rights .................................................................................................................................................... 15 8.5.1 Usage Rights ........................................................................................................................................ 15 8.5.2 Meta-rights ........................................................................................................................................... 21 8.6 Conditions ............................................................................................................................................ 21 8.6.1 Semantics ............................................................................................................................................. 21 8.6.2 Property conditions and grant component patterns ....................................................................... 21 8.6.3 Standards-defined operations ........................................................................................................... 21 8.6.4 Output conditions ................................................................................................................................ 22 8.6.5 Transfer right and sublicense conditions on meta-rights ............................................................... 22 8.6.6 Spatial temporal conditions ............................................................................................................... 23 8.6.7 Layer conditions .................................................................................................................................. 24 8.6.8 Implementation conditions ................................................................................................................. 24 8.6.9 Parameter range conditions ............................................................................................................... 24 8.6.10 Derived right conditions ..................................................................................................................... 24 8.6.11 Encoding condition ............................................................................................................................. 25 8.6.12 Side effect and associated conditions .............................................................................................. 25 Annex A (normative)

Abstract test suite ........................................................................................................ 27 A.1 The two test cases ............................................................................................................................... 27 A.2 License conformance .......................................................................................................................... 27 A.2.1 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 27 A.2.2 XML schema conformance ................................................................................................................. 27 A.2.3 Proper interpretation ........................................................................................................................... 28 A.3 Enforcement conformance ................................................................................................................. 28 Annex B (normative)

geoRel.xsd .................................................................................................................... 29 Annex C (informative)

Notes on the ISO REL, ISO/IEC 21000-5 ................................................................... 36 C.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................... 36 SIST ISO 19149:2012

ISO 19149:2011(E) iv

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved C.2 License parts ........................................................................................................................................36 C.3 Issuer ....................................................................................................................................................37 C.4 For all declaration of variables ...........................................................................................................37 C.5 Renderer ...............................................................................................................................................38 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................................40

Examples and Schemata Schema 1: GeoPlace ........................................................................................................................................... 6 Schema 2: Property and parameter schema ....................................................................................................... 7 Schema 3: Resource from ISO/IEC 21000 .......................................................................................................... 8 Schema 4: GeoResource and GeoProcess schema ........................................................................................... 9 Example 1: geoResource License ..................................................................................................................... 10 Example 2: geoResource License for a Restricted Area by Name ................................................................... 12 Example 3: geoProcess License ....................................................................................................................... 13 Example 4: “public user” geoPrincipal defined by functional property ............................................................... 15 Schema 5: GeoRight .......................................................................................................................................... 16 Schema 6: Use .................................................................................................................................................. 16 Schema 7: Display ............................................................................................................................................. 17 Schema 8: Merge ............................................................................................................................................... 17 Schema 9: Extract .............................................................................................................................................. 17 Schema 10: Transform ...................................................................................................................................... 18 Schema 11: Derive ............................................................................................................................................ 18 Schema 12: Edit ................................................................................................................................................. 18 Schema 13: Modify ............................................................................................................................................ 19 Schema 14: Derive Graphic ............................................................................................................................... 19 Schema 15: Encode ........................................................................................................................................... 19 Schema 16: Execute .......................................................................................................................................... 20 Example 5: geoProcess used as execute conditions ........................................................................................ 20 Schema 17: GeoCondition ................................................................................................................................. 21 Schema 18: Standard compliance conditions ................................................................................................... 22 Schema 19: Output format conditions ............................................................................................................... 22 Schema 20: Transfer conditions ........................................................................................................................ 22 SIST ISO 19149:2012

ISO 19149:2011(E) © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved

v Schema 21: Spatial temporal conditions ............................................................................................................ 23 Schema 22: Derived right conditions .................................................................................................................. 24 Schema 23: Encoding conditions ....................................................................................................................... 25 Schema 24: Side Effects .................................................................................................................................... 25 Schema C.1: License Part from ISO REL .......................................................................................................... 36 Schema C.2: For all variable definition from ISO REL ....................................................................................... 37 Example C.1: Property for all elements using “certificate license” from ISO REL ............................................. 38 Schema C.3: Renderer from ISO REL, MX extension ....................................................................................... 39

SIST ISO 19149:2012
ISO 19149:2011(E) vi

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization. International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. ISO 19149 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics. A base document was supplied by the Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc.

SIST ISO 19149:2012
ISO 19149:2011(E) © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved

vii Introduction The use of ubiquitous computing in geographic information is often obstructed by legal concerns about the rights of the holders and owners of data and other intellectual property resources. It can be the case that once data or other resource is released into any unconstrained and unprotected environment, the value of the holding is decreased because the underlying data theoretically becomes available from other sources. The multimedia industry has taken the lead in solving this problem by creating a general model for digital rights protection, in which a language was developed in order that instances of those rights might be documented, a rights expression language, specifically in ISO/IEC 21000-5, the ISO REL. This language, used in conjunction with Digital Rights Management (DRM) systems, can protect the value of data and still allow it to be distributed subject to a system of licensing, trust and enforcement. This International Standard extends the ISO REL to encompass the concerns of holders of geographic data and service resources to equally ensure their protection. This allows the geographic information market to operate with minimal constraints derived from the need for the protection of intellectual property. There are two major sources for foundational material for this work.  The first source is ISO/IEC 21000, a multiple part standard that defines digital rights management in general. There is no need to extend this basic foundation for expressing and enforcing rights for resources except in those cases where the special requirements of geographic information and services make it necessary.  The second source is ISO 19153 (originally an Open Geospatial Abstract Specification volume), which enumerates these special cases for geographic information as well as providing an overall reference model using common geographic information terms that ties the work of the ISO/IEC 21000 work into this spatial standard. Given these two foundations, the purpose of this International Standard is to extend the ISO REL, consistent with the requirements for such extensions given in ISO/IEC 21000-5, to cover the special cases enumerated in ISO 19153.

SIST ISO 19149:2012
SIST ISO 19149:2012

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19149:2011(E) © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 1 Geographic information — Rights expression language for geographic information — GeoREL 1 Scope This International Standard defines an XML-based vocabulary or language to express rights for geographic information in order that digital licenses can be created for such information and related services. This language, GeoREL, is an extension of the rights expression language in ISO/IEC 21000-5 and is to be used to compose digital licenses. Each digital license will unambiguously express those particular rights that the owners (or their agent) of a digital geographic resource extend to the holders of that license. The digital rights management system in which these licenses are used can then offer ex ante (before the fact) protection for all such resources. NOTE The proper use of a GeoREL includes the preservation of rights access by formula expressed in usage licenses. Thus, data in the public or private domain, when protected, remain in their respective domains if the usage rights granted so state. These “rights” are not always covered by copyright law, and are often the result of contracts between individuals that specify the proper and allowed uses of resources, as opposed to the threat of copyright litigations which is an ex post facto (after the fact) remediation measure, not an ex ante protection measure. This International Standard is not a reflection of, or extension of, copyright law. Mechanisms for the enforcement and preservation of those contract rights are specified in ISO/IEC 21000, and it is not the intention of this International Standard to replace nor redefine those mechanisms, but to use them as previously standardized. 2 Conformance The license language vocabulary is expressed as an XML schema extending the ISO/IEC 21000-5 REL. A conformant license expression is a well-formed and complete XML document (or its equivalent) that expresses the semantics described in the standard and that is properly protected from modification by the mechanisms described and specified in ISO/IEC 21000. A license compliant to this International Standard will be consistent with the XML schema for ISO/IEC 21000-5 and the XML schema associated with this International Standard (see requirements in Clause 6). A software system compliant to this International Standard shall interpret any compliant license in a manner consistent with the semantics expressed in ISO/IEC 21000 and the abstract test suite given in Annex A. SIST ISO 19149:2012

ISO 19149:2011(E) 2
© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved

3 Normative references The following referenced standards are indispensable for the application of this International Standard. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced standard (including any amendments) applies. ISO 191531), Geospatial Digital Rights Management Reference Model (GeoDRM RM) ISO/IEC 21000 (all parts), Information technology — Multimedia framework (MPEG-21) 4 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 21000 apply2). The terms “constraint” and “condition” are used interchangeably, and no distinction is meant in terms of the license based on which term is used. This differs from other cases where constraints are expressed as the contrapositive of conditions. Following the precedent set in ISO/IEC 21000, the alternative English (Oxford English Dictionary) spelling of the word license has been used in all instances, except when used in proper names. This is in contradiction to the ISO 19153, and the preferred English usage, where the word “license” is usually a verb and the word “licence” is a noun. Both US and UK English dictionaries accept the “s” spellings for the noun, and so this is not in variance with any current dictionary in either dialect. The basic reason for this is to not confuse the spelling of the XML elements (which use the ISO/IEC 21000 spellings) with the spellings in the text. No semantic difference is meant by this typographic convention. 5 Symbols and abbreviated terms 5.1 Abbreviated terms The following symbols and abbreviated terms are used in this document. DRM Digital Rights Management GeoREL Rights Expression Language for Geographic Information (including the ISO REL and the extension defined in this International Standard) GeoDRM Digital Rights Management for Geographic Information ISO REL Rights Expression Language from ISO/IEC 21000-5 (see Annex C for notes on ISO REL) LBS Location Based Service REL Rights Expression Language UDDI Universal Description, Discovery and Integration URI Uniform Resource Identifier 1) To be published. 2) This International Standard does not include an abstract model. It depends on the models in ISO/IEC 21000 and ISO 19153. SIST ISO 19149:2012

ISO 19149:2011(E) © ISO 2011 – All rights reserved 3 WFS Web Feature Service (ISO 19142) WSDL Web Services Definition Language XML Extensible Markup Language 5.2 Symbols used for common XML namespaces The following namespace prefixes are used in the in-text XML and XML Schema fragments: grm Namespace prefix for the geoRel.xsd license extensions xsd Namespace prefix for the XML Schema basic types, used in defining schema elements r Namespace prefix for rel-r.xsd in ISO/IEC 21000, representing the namespace urn:mpeg:mpeg21:2003:01-REL-R-NS sx Namespace prefix for rel-sx.xsd in ISO/IEC 21000, representing the namespace urn:mpeg:mpeg21:2003:01-REL-SX-NS mx Namespace prefix for rel-mx.xsd in ISO/IEC 21000, representing the namespace urn:mpeg:mpeg21:2003:01-REL-MX-NS Examples in this International Standard are given as informative illustrations of ideas, and are not valid licenses, since they lack the appropriate signature values that would allow them to be recognized by a qualified security system as well-formed. Other than the absence of signature keys, the fragments are valid, in the sense that within a properly signed license document, they would be valid and correctly parsed and interpreted if correctly placed in the larger context of a license. They do conform to the XML schemas using the above namespace prefixes, unless abbreviated elements are used, and in those cases, the abbreviations are noted in the text, or in the use of ellipsis marks (…) between opening and closing element tags. To make the requirements expressed in this International Standard easier to find, normative statements specifying either requirements or recommendations have been presented in a bold font. 6 Digital rights management systems This International Standard is written within the model defined in ISO 19153 and within the model defined in ISO/IEC 21000, including all of its parts. The license structure is defined in ISO/IEC 21000-5 and this International Standard only addresses the extension of that license format for the purpose of creating a licensing vocabulary for geographic resources, both data and services, using as much of the existing ISO/IEC 21000-defined framework as possible. An informative description of the entire MPEG-21 systems as defined in ISO/IEC 21000 is given in The MPEG-21 Book [6] cited in the Bibliography. For this purpose, this International Standard defines extensions only to license parts appearing in grants as defined by ISO/IEC 21000-5 and whose semantics are described in ISO 19153. All security, principal identity, and generic resource descriptions and identity descriptions remain as defined in ISO/IEC 21000. In all cases, licenses valid under this International Standard shall be consistent with the schema given in Annex B and those schemas imported by it, and shall carry a valid digital signature of the resource owner or of one of the owner's recognized agents. A software system compliant to this International Standard shall interpret any compliant license in a manner consistent with the semantics expressed in ISO/IEC 21000 and this International Standard. These dependencies on ISO/IEC 21000 and ISO 19153 provide the context for this International Standard. ISO/IEC 21000 provides a general system description for digital rights management, license construction and interpretation, and covers the security techniques that make such systems feasible. ISO 19153 provides a SIST ISO 19149:2012

ISO 19149:2011(E) 4

© ISO 2011 – All rights reserved reference model including those items in the realm of geographic information that require the protection of a licensing system. The extension to the ISO REL as presented in this International Standard is where these two dependencies interact. ISO/IEC 21000 gives requirements for the mechanism for extending the ISO REL and ISO 19153 provides the semantics for those same extensions. 7 Requirements for the expression of digital licenses for geographic resources A license in a rights expression language has as its major component a sequence of grants which specifies which individuals (represented by principals) may commit which acts (represented by rights) against which items (represented as resources) under which circumstances (represented by conditions). Within an ISO REL grant (XML element r:grant; see Figure 1), these four types of items are specified in the following order, including: 1) Principal – the parties to whom the licensed right is granted, the licensee; 2) Rights – the act or actions covered by the rights licensed by this grant; 3) Resources – the items to be licensed, and hence to which rights are granted; 4) Conditions – conditions on any parts specific to this grant.

Descriptive terms associated with resources, rights and principals because of their geographic nature are needed in the license extension defined by this International Standard. These terms are given in geoCondition elements, using references to the described Principal, Right or Resource using standard ISO/IEC 21000-5 mechanisms. The most obvious requirements deal with geographic constraints within a database resource. Less obvious, but just as important, is the description of geographic processing resources or services that may be associated in particular or in kind to other resources. These descriptions can link across multiple licenses to create behaviours of the licensing system as required. EXAMPLE  A license can be given to each emergency management professional for a given area as proof of his status.  A license can be associated with each data or service resource that gives emergency management professionals access to use the resource but triggers a side effect that records that access.  In an emergency, the emergency management professional can use his “proof of status” license to gain access to the resources in the group above. This is a simple implementation strategy for a “break the glass” use of normally restricted data by authorized personnel. Since the actions against these types of resources cannot be defined completely within the purview of multimedia, the rights associated with geographic data and processing resources require further description within a geo-license than they would in a baseline ISO/IEC 21000 license. With new actions (rights) and geographic resources, the conditions placed on grants require more description to fully meet the need of the geographic information and processing communities. Conditions describe how the license part is constrained, using the property or Boolean expression that needs to be matched by that part. The other parts of a license, including the security specifications and identification, are not affected by the association of geograph

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