Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods - Part 1-6: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring appratus - EMC antenna calibration

Anforderungen an Geräte und Einrichtungen sowie Festlegung der Verfahren zur Messung der hochfrequenten Störaussendung (Funkstörungen) und Störfestigkeit - Teil 1-6: Geräte und Einrichtungen zur Messung der hochfrequenten Störaussendung (Funkstörungen) und Störfestigkeit - Kalibrierung von Antennen für EMV-Messungen

Spécification des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques - Partie 1-6: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques - Étalonnage des antennes CEM

Specifikacija za merilne naprave in metode za merjenje radijskih motenj in odpornosti - 1-6. del: Merilne naprave za merjenje radijskih motenj in odpornosti - Umerjanje EMC antene - Dopolnilo A2

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Jun-2022
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Jun-2022
Due Date
07-Aug-2022
Completion Date
16-Jun-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
01-julij-2022
Specifikacija za merilne naprave in metode za merjenje radijskih motenj in

odpornosti - 1-6. del: Merilne naprave za merjenje radijskih motenj in odpornosti -

Umerjanje EMC antene - Dopolnilo A2

Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and methods -

Part 1-6: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring appratus - EMC antenna calibration

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
ICS:
17.220.20 Merjenje električnih in Measurement of electrical
magnetnih veličin and magnetic quantities
33.100.20 Imunost Immunity
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM April 2022
ICS 33.100.10; 33.100.20
English Version
Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring
apparatus and methods - Part 1-6: Radio disturbance and
immunity measuring apparatus - EMC antenna calibration
(CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022)

Spécification des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des Anforderungen an Geräte und Einrichtungen sowie

perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité aux Festlegung der Verfahren zur Messung der hochfrequenten

perturbations radioélectriques - Partie 1-6: Appareils de Störaussendung (Funkstörungen) und Störfestigkeit - Teil 1-

mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de l'immunité 6: Geräte und Einrichtungen zur Messung der

aux perturbations radioélectriques - Étalonnage des hochfrequenten Störaussendung (Funkstörungen) und

antennes CEM Störfestigkeit - Kalibrierung von Antennen für EMV-
(CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022) Messungen
(CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022)

This amendment A2 modifies the European Standard EN 55016-1-6:2015; it was approved by CENELEC on 2022-04-07. CENELEC

members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this amendment the

status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This amendment exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the

responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as

the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022 (E)
European foreword

The text of document CIS/A/1362/FDIS, future CISPR 16-1-6/AMD2, prepared by CISPR SC A

"Radio-interference measurements and statistical methods" of CISPR "International special committee

on radio interference" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC

as EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2023-01-07

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2025-04-07

document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a Standardization Request given to CENELEC by the

European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national committee. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CENELEC website.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022 was approved by CENELEC as

a European Standard without any modification.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the

relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Add the following references:
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
CISPR 16-1-2 - Specification for radio disturbance and EN 55016-1-2 -
immunity measuring apparatus and
methods - Part 1-2: Radio disturbance and
immunity measuring apparatus - Coupling
devices for conducted disturbance
measurements
CISPR 16-1-4 2019 Specification for radio disturbance and EN IEC 55016-1-4 2019
immunity measuring apparatus and
methods - Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and
immunity measuring apparatus - Antennas
and test sites for radiated disturbance
measurements
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
CISPR 16-1-6
Edition 1.0 2022-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
INTERNATIONAL SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON RADIO INTERFERENCE
COMITÉ INTERNATIONAL SPÉCIAL DES PERTURBATIONS RADIOÉLECTRIQUES
BASIC EMC PUBLICATION
PUBLICATION FONDAMENTALE EN CEM
AMENDMENT 2
AMENDEMENT 2
Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and
methods –
Part 1-6: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – EMC antenna
calibration
Spécification des méthodes et des appareils de mesure des perturbations
radioélectriques et de l’immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques –
Partie 1-6: Appareils de mesure des perturbations radioélectriques et de
l'immunité aux perturbations radioélectriques – Étalonnage des antennes CEM
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.100.10; 33.100.20 ISBN 978-2-8322-1075-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
– 2 – CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022
© IEC 2022
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SPECIFICATION FOR RADIO DISTURBANCE AND
IMMUNITY MEASURING APPARATUS AND METHODS –
Part 1-6: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus –
EMC antenna calibration
AMENDMENT 2
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Amendment 2 to CISPR 16-1-6:2014 has been prepared by subcommittee CISPR A: Radio-

interference measurements and statistical methods, of IEC technical committee CISPR:

International special committee on radio interference.
The text of this Amendment is based on the following documents:
Draft Report on voting
CIS/A/1362/FDIS CIS/A/1365/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this Amendment is English.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022 – 3 –
© IEC 2022

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications/.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under webstore.iec.ch in the data related to the

specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
_____________
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
– 4 – CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022
© IEC 2022
2 Normative references
Add to the existing list the following new references:

CISPR 16-1-2, Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and

methods – Part 1-2: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – Coupling devices

for conducted disturbance measurements

CISPR 16-1-4:2019, Specification for radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus and

methods – Part 1-4: Radio disturbance and immunity measuring apparatus – Antennas and test

sites for radiated disturbance measurements
3.1.2.5
magnetic field antenna factor
Replace the existing Note 1 to entry and Note 2 to entry as follows:

Note 1 to entry: The symbol F is used only when antenna factor is expressed in dB. The quantity F is expressed

aH aH
−1 −1
in dB(S/m) or dB(Ω m ).

Note 2 to entry: The unit dB(pT/µV) is used in some standards (but not in CISPR 16-1-6), which can be converted

to dB(S/m) by subtracting 2 dB.
Add Note 3 to entry:

Note 3 to entry: CISPR 16-1-4 specifies loop antennas for magnetic field strength measurements in the frequency

range of 9 kHz to 30 MHz.
3.2 Abbreviations
Add to the existing list the following new abbreviations:
CPM current probe method
SFM standard field method
5.2.1 General
Replace the second and third paragraphs by the following five new paragraphs:

Several techniques have been developed for calibrating loop antennas or measuring magnetic

field antenna factors [74]. Reference [18] provides a useful overview. Reference [15] provides

a simplified version of the standard field method (SFM) ([32] and [16]), and the TAM is described

in [35]. This subclause and Annex H specify acceptable calibration methods for loop antennas.

The TAM and the TEM cell method yield a standard uncertainty of measured antenna factor of

approximately ± 0,5 dB, while application of the TEM cell method is restricted to the frequency

range below the first resonant frequency of the TEM cell.

The current probe method (CPM) [15] is an improved SFM based on IEEE Std 291 [32]. In the

original method, the current flowing in the transmit loop antenna was measured using an RF

vacuum thermocouple built into the loop element; however, a thermocouple is typically small

and fragile, and therefore is not suitable for use in routine calibration measurements.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022 – 5 –
© IEC 2022

The Helmholtz coil method [34], categorized as a SFM, is accurate to 0,7 % (0,06 dB) up to

150 kHz, and better than ± 0,5 dB up to 10 MHz (see Annex H), but its applicable frequency

range depends on the coil size.

A sufficient signal-to-{receiver noise} ratio of at least 34 dB is necessary to obtain low

measurement uncertainties, if using a VNA as described in 6.2.4. In addition, it is important to

attach attenuators to the transmit loop antenna and the receive loop antenna, to reduce

mismatch uncertainties if using a signal generator and a receiver. When calibrating a loop

antenna in free-space conditions, the distance between the transmit antenna or the receive

antenna and any nearby reflecting objects, including any metallic ground plane, should be

greater than 1,3 m; the clearance required also depends on the spacing between the antennas.

Add, at the end of the existing 5.2.2.2, the following new subclauses:
5.2.3 Three antenna method (TAM)
5.2.3.1 General

Antenna calibration using the TAM requires three antennas (numbered as 1, 2, and 3) to form

three antenna pairs. Prior knowledge of the AF of any of the three antennas is not needed with

the TAM (see also 4.3.3 about the TAM).

SIL for antenna calibration is usually measured with a calibrated network analyzer, to reduce

mismatch errors that may occur between the signal output port and the transmit loop antenna,

as well as between the signal receiving port and the receive loop antenna. Alternatively, a

combination of signal/tracking-generator and measuring receiver can be used; in this case,

padding attenuators are required to reduce standing waves on the cables.

Different from TAM calibrations above 30 MHz, which are based on the Friis transmission

equation, the TAM method for loop antenna calibrations is based on a modified Neumann

mutual inductance formula [75], which is approximately expressed by the so-called Greene’s

formula [70].

The separation distance between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna shall be small

compared to the distance to the surroundings. Therefore, coupling between the antennas is

maximized, while coupling to the surroundings is minimized. A specific site validation criterion

is not required, but the influences from the site on the magnetic field antenna factor results shall

be estimated; see the discussion in 5.2.3.2.
5.2.3.2 Calibration procedure
(i,j),

For antenna pairs coaxially aligned as shown in Figure 21, the site insertion loss, A

between antenna i and antenna j is measured in a free-space environment [35], and is described

by Equation (61).
A(i, j)= F (i)+ F ( j)+ 45,9+ 20lg( f )− 20lg[K(i, j)] (61)
in dB
i aH aH MHz

From data on the A (i,j) for the three antenna pairs, the magnetic field antenna factors F of

i aH
each antenna can be determined using Equations (62).
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SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
– 6 – CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022
© IEC 2022
F (1)= [− 45,9− 20lg f + A(1,2)+ A(1,3)− A(2,3)+ K(1,2)+ K(1,3)− K(2,3)]
aH MHz i i i

F (2)= [− 45,9− 20lg f + A(1,2)− A(1,3)+ A(2,3)+ K(1,2)− K(1,3)+ K(2,3)] in dB(S/m)

(62)
aH MHz i i i
[ ]
F (3)= − 45,9− 20lg f − A(1,2)+ A(1,3)+ A(2,3)− K(1,2)+ K(1,3)+ K(2,3)
aH MHz i i i
where
f is the frequency in MHz;
MHz

A (i,j) is the SIL between antenna i and antenna j; when it is measured using a network

analyzer, the site insertion loss is given by Equation (63).
A(i, j)=−20lg S (i, j) in dB;
(63)
i 21

K(i,j) is the function shown in Equation (64), based on a modified Neumann equation for

antenna pair (i,j)
− jβ R
1 e
K ij, 20lg dss⋅ d in dB(m )
( ) (64)
i j
∫∫
CC
4πSS R
and
2 2
S ,S are the geometric areas (r π) in m of antennas i and j, respectively;
i j

C ,C are the closed curves encircling the loop element of antennas i and j, respectively;

i j

ds ,ds are infinitesimal segment vectors of the loop elements of antennas i and j, respectively;

i j
R is the distance in m between the segments ds and ds .
i j

If the three loop antennas are true circles and a homogeneous current distribution along each

loop is assumed, Equation (64) can be expressed approximately by the following form:

2 4
 
 
2 2
   
 1+β R (i, j) r r r r 
15 315
i j i j
  −3
   
K(i, j) 20lg 1 in dB(m )
= + + (65)
 
3 2 2
   
 
8 64
2π R (i, j) R (i, j) R (i, j)
 0 0 0 
   
 
 
 
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022 – 7 –
© IEC 2022
Equation (65) is called Greene’s formula [70], where
(66)
2 2 2
R (i, j)= d + r + r in m
0 ij i j
r ,r are the radii in m of antennas i and j, respectively;
i j
d is the distance, in m, between the loop centres of antennas i and j;
β is the wave number (=2π/λ) in m .

Equation (65) is valid under the conditions that βR (i, j)≤ 1,0 and r r R (i, j)≤ 1 16 . Equation (64)

0 i j 0

and Equation (65) can be fulfilled if the current distribution on both loop antennas is uniform.

To calibrate loop antennas accurately, the radius of the loop antenna driven as the transmit

loop shall be within derived limits; for example, Table 15 shows suitable combinations for r , r ,

i j

and d , and indicates the error of Greene’s formula at the highest frequency of 30 MHz. The

frequency dependency of the error is shown in Figure 22. The loop centre distance between a

pair of antennas, d , should be selected to fulfil the conditions, and shall be as small as possible

to minimize influences from the surroundings. It should be noted that other uncertainty terms,

such as the positioning uncertainty increase as the separation reduces.

An estimate for the influence of a ground plane with different loop separation distances d

ranging from 0,1 m to 1,0 m is given in Figure 23. Figure 23 is obtained by normalizing the SILs

between two loop antennas with 60 cm diameter placed 1,3 m and 2,5 m above a ground plane

to the SILs in free space. An OATS or a SAC can be used as the calibration test site, and the

particular influence of the calibration test site shall be taken into consideration for the calibration

measurement uncertainty estimation. The influence of the ground plane also depends on the

position of the feed gaps of the two loop antennas.

Alternatively to Equations (62), Equations (67) can be used, which are based on a numerical

simulation approach. The advantage of the numerical simulation approach is that the

inhomogeneous current distribution is taken into account. The conditions required for the

application of Greene’s formula do not apply for the numerical simulation approach. It is not

necessary to take into account the error given in Table 15.
F 1 AAA1,2+ 1,3− 2,3− A 1,2− A 1,3+ A 2,3
() ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
aH iii N N N
 in dB(S/m) (67)
F (2) A(1,2)−+A(1,3) A(2,3)− A (1,2)+ A (1,3)− A (2,3)
aH i i i NNN
F 3=−AA1,2+ 1,3+ A 2,3+ A 1,2− A 1,3− A 2,3
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
aH i i i N N N
where

A (i,j) is the SIL between antenna i and antenna j; when it is measured using a network

analyzer, the site insertion loss is given by Equation (63).
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
– 8 – CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022
© IEC 2022

A (i,j) is the normalized site insertion loss (NSIL) calculated by NEC. The same loop

geometry shall be used for simulation and calibration. Further information about

normalized site attenuation calculation is planned for inclusion in future editions of

CISPR 16-1-4.

Greene’s formula does not apply if the antennas do not have circular shapes. For square shapes,

it is feasible to modify Equation (65) by a correction factor for r or r where
i j
(68)
r= 1,13(s 2) and r = 1,13(s 2)
i i j j
r r are the radii, in m, of antennas i and j, respectively;
i, j
s ,s are the side lengths, in m, of the square loops i and j, respectively.
i j

To obtain K(i,j) for square shapes accurately, or to obtain K(i,j) for other loop antenna shapes,

K(i,j) should be calculated per Equation (64) using numerical integration.

The accuracy of Greene’s formula is estimated by calculating the difference per Equation (69)

of the magnetic field antenna factor found by the application of Greene’s formula and the

magnetic field antenna factor found by numerical simulation. The accuracy of the integral

formula of Equation (64) is estimated by calculating the difference per Equation (71) of the

magnetic field antenna factor found by the application of the integral formula and the magnetic

field antenna factor found by numerical simulation. The results are shown in Figure 22, where

a decreased accuracy at the upper frequency end can be observed.
(69)
∆=F FF−
aH,G aH,G aH,num
(70)
∆F= FF−
aH,I aH,I aH,num
F is the magnetic field antenna factor found by application of Greene’s formula,
aH,G

F is the magnetic field antenna factor found by application of the integral formula;

aH,I
F is the magnetic field antenna factor found by numerical simulation.
aH,num
____________

1 As discussed in e.g. 10.6 of CIS/A/1240/RM, a project is ongoing for amending CISPR 16-1-4 to include site

validation below 30 MHz; at the time of preparation of this FDIS the most recent documents for that project are

CIS/A/1323/CDV and CIS/A/1288/CC.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022 – 9 –
© IEC 2022
NOTE The feed points may be placed at the top of the loop antennas.
Figure 21 – Loop antenna pair arrangements for the TAM
Table 15 – Examples for valid use of Equation (65)
Error due to
non-constant
Loop radius Loop radius Distance
β R (ij,) rr R (i, j) current
r [m] r [m] d [m] 0 ij 0
i j ij
distribution at
30 MHz [dB]
0,05 0,3 0,39 0,31 0,061 3 0,13
0,15 0,3 0,78 0,53 0,062 4 0,33
0,05 0,15 0,31 0,22 0,061 9 0,07
0,15 0,15 0,57 0,38 0,060 8 0,18
0,05 (NOTE 1) 0,05 0,2 0,13 0,055 6 0,05
0,3 (NOTE 2) 0,3 1,2 0,8 0,055 6 0,53

NOTE 1 If both loop radii are very small, the accuracy of Greene’s formula is excellent and with an error of

only 0,05 dB.

NOTE 2 If a transmit antenna and also a receive antenna with a large radius are used, the effect of the

inhomogeneous current distribution can lead to a relatively large error of 0,53 dB.

---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
– 10 – CISPR 16-1-6:2014/AMD2:2022
© IEC 2022
Figure 22 – Accuracy of Greene’s formula and integral formula
vs. frequency for r = 0,05 m, r = 0,3 m, and d = 0,39 m
i j
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SIST EN 55016-1-6:2015/A2:2022
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a) 1,3 m above ground plane
b) 2,5 m above ground plane
Figure 23 – Examples of influence of ground plane on SIL in free-space condition
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© IEC 2022
5.2.3.3 Measurement uncertainties for TAM calibration results

An example of the uncertainty budget estimated for TAM calibration F results at 30 MHz is

shown in Table 16 and Table 18. The combined standard uncertainties for the A (i,j) SIL results

and the K(i,j) geometry parameter are used as inputs for the F expanded uncertainty in

Table 18.

The expanded uncertainty of F measurement results depends significantly on the size of the

AUC because K(i,j) per Equation (65) is a function of the separation distance, the radii of both

of the loop antennas, and misalignment.

Figure 24 shows the definitions of the parameters used in the uncertainty evaluation for K(i,j):

a) misalignment in the x-axis, uncertainty of m (not shown in Figure 24);
b) misalignment in the y-axis, uncertainty of d ;
c) misalignment in the z-axis, uncertainty of l (z-axis offset);
d) misalignment around the x-axis, uncertainty of θ and θ ;
i j

e) misalignment around the y-axis, uncertainty of Θ and Θ (not shown in Figure 24);

i j

f) misalignment around the z-axis, uncertainty of φ and φ (not shown in Figure 24).

i j

It is not possible to derive the influence of misalignment with Greene’s formula, so NEC

simulations are used instead. The uncertainty component in K (given as δA ) is derived from

SIL
differences in the calculated NEC SIL values.

An easy solution to calculate measurement uncertainty is to use a mixed approach. The

uncertainty of K is calculated by a numerical method, while the remaining uncertainty

contributions are combined using the propagation of uncertainties law.
The measurement function for F is given in Equation (71).
 (71)
F (1)=−−45,9 20lgf + A(1,2)+ A(1,3)− A(2,3)+ KKK(1,2)+ (1,3)− (2,3)
aH MHz iii

Because the frequency inaccuracy can be neglected, the contribution from the term f is

MHz
neglected in the analysis.
The measurement function for A (i,j) is given in Equation (72).
δ A(i, j) δδA+ A++δA δA+δA (72)
i LIN M L SNR BS
The measurement function for K(i,j) is given in Equation (73).
δK i,j δA r ,δr ,r ,δr ,d ,δd ,δm,δl,δθ ,δθ ,δΘΘ,δ ,δφ ,δφ
( ) ( )
SIL 1 1 2 2 12 12 1 2 1 2 1 2
(73)
++δA δA
coup approx
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© IEC 2022

An example source code for a measurement uncertainty Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) (e.g.

[7]) is given in Annex J.
Figure 24 – Definitions of the parameters used in
measurement uncertainty evaluation for K(i,j)
Table 16 – Example of an uncertainty budget for site insertion loss A (i,j)
Source of uncertainty
Probability
Value Divisor Sensitivity
or quantity X
distribution
dB dB
Linearity of receiver in the network
0,10 Rectangular 1 0,06
LIN 3
analyzer
Transmit antenna mismatch and receive
0,17 U-shaped 1 0,12
M 2
antenna mismatch
Leakage between coaxial cables 0,09 Rectangular 1 0,05
L 3
Signal to noise ratio 0,01 Rectangular 1 0,01
SNR 3
...

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