Geographic information - Terminology

This Technical Specification is applicable to international communication in the field of geographic information. This Technical Specification provides the guidelines for collection and maintenance of terminology in the field of geographic information. It establishes criteria for selection of concepts to be included in other standards concerning geographic information, which are developed by ISO/TC 211, specifies the structure of the terminological record, and describes the principles for definition writing. This Technical Specification also lays down the guidelines for maintenance of a Terminology Repository (see Annex A).

Information géographique - Terminologie

Geografske informacije - Terminologija

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Public Enquiry End Date
31-May-2009
Publication Date
17-Aug-2009
Withdrawal Date
08-Nov-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Nov-2016
Due Date
01-Dec-2016
Completion Date
09-Nov-2016

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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 19104
First edition
2008-11-15
Geographic information — Terminology
Information géographique — Terminologie
Reference number
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
ISO 2008
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2008

The reproduction of the terms and definitions contained in this International Standard is permitted in teaching manuals, instruction

booklets, technical publications and journals for strictly educational or implementation purposes. The conditions for such reproduction are:

that no modifications are made to the terms and definitions; that such reproduction is not permitted for dictionaries or similar publications

offered for sale; and that this International Standard is referenced as the source document.

With the sole exceptions noted above, no other part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope............................................................................................................................................................1

2 Conformance ...............................................................................................................................................1

3 Normative references..................................................................................................................................1

4 Terms and definitions.................................................................................................................................1

5 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................................................................4

6 Criteria for the selection of concepts........................................................................................................4

7 Structure of the terminological record......................................................................................................4

7.1 Record content ........................................................................................................................................4

7.2 Mandatory data fields..............................................................................................................................5

7.3 Term equivalents.....................................................................................................................................5

Annex A (normative) Maintenance of the Terminology Repository ..............................................................6

A.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................................................6

A.2 Terminology Repository .........................................................................................................................6

A.3 Terminology status review process ......................................................................................................7

Annex B (normative) Terms and Definitions from ISO/TC 211 International Standards and

Technical Specifications ..........................................................................................................................11

Annex C (normative) Principles for definition writing ..................................................................................95

C.1 Basic principles.....................................................................................................................................95

C.2 Developing definitions ..........................................................................................................................95

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................97

Alphabetical index............................................................................................................................................99

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In other circumstances, particularly when there is an urgent market requirement for such documents, a

technical committee may decide to publish other types of document:

— an ISO Publicly Available Specification (ISO/PAS) represents an agreement between technical experts in

an ISO working group and is accepted for publication if it is approved by more than 50 % of the members

of the parent committee casting a vote;

— an ISO Technical Specification (ISO/TS) represents an agreement between the members of a technical

committee and is accepted for publication if it is approved by 2/3 of the members of the committee

casting a vote.

An ISO/PAS or ISO/TS is reviewed after three years in order to decide whether it will be confirmed for a

further three years, revised to become an International Standard, or withdrawn. If the ISO/PAS or ISO/TS is

confirmed, it is reviewed again after a further three years, at which time it must either be transformed into an

International Standard or be withdrawn.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TS 19104 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

iv © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Introduction

This Technical Specification, along with a repository of geographic information system (GIS) terminology in

the form of a terminological database, is expected to be a central reference for the shared language between

participants and users alike. It defines the criteria for including concepts in the vocabulary, specifies the

terminological data to be recorded, and, within the electronically processable repository, introduces an initial

set of concepts with definitions that will be subject to ongoing maintenance.

This Technical Specification describes the structure of entries and the types of terminological data that are to

be recorded. In addition, it includes principles for definition writing as outlined in ISO 10241 and ISO 704. The

structure of a terminological record is given in Clause 7.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Geographic information — Terminology
1 Scope

This Technical Specification is applicable to international communication in the field of geographic information.

This Technical Specification provides the guidelines for collection and maintenance of terminology in the field

of geographic information. It establishes criteria for selection of concepts to be included in other standards

concerning geographic information, which are developed by ISO/TC 211, specifies the structure of the

terminological record, and describes the principles for definition writing.

This Technical Specification also lays down the guidelines for maintenance of a Terminology Repository

(see Annex A).
2 Conformance

Any product that claims conformance with this Technical Specification shall comply with the requirements

described in the normative clauses and annexes.

Where a new term has been created for an existing concept, or an existing term has been incorrectly applied,

the candidate document shall not be in conformance. Concepts and their definitions may be included with the

candidate terms until conformance is demonstrated.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 639-2, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country

codes
ISO 10241, International terminology standards — Preparation and layout
ISO 19108:2002, Geographic information — Temporal schema
4 Terms and definitions

The core list of terms and definitions from the ISO/TC 211 geographic information International Standards and

Technical Specifications is given in Annex B.
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
4.1
abbreviation

designation formed by omitting words or letters from a longer form and designating the same concept

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.2
admitted term

term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as a synonym for a preferred term

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.3
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics
[ISO 1087-1:2000]

NOTE Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular languages. They are, however, influenced by the social or

cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.
4.4
concept harmonization

activity leading to the establishment of a correspondence between two or more closely related or overlapping

concepts having professional, technical, scientific, social, economic, linguistic, cultural or other differences, in

order to eliminate or reduce minor differences between them
[ISO 860:2007]
NOTE The purpose of concept harmonization is to improve communication.
4.5
concept system
set of concepts structured according to the relations among them
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.6
definition

representation of a concept by a descriptive statement which serves to differentiate it from related concepts

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.7
deprecated term
term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as undesired
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.8
designation
designator
representation of a concept by a sign which denotes it

NOTE In terminology work, three types of designations are distinguished: symbols, appellations and terms.

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
2 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
4.9
extension
totality of objects to which a concept corresponds
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.10
language
system of signs for communications, usually consisting of vocabulary and rules
[ISO 5127-1]

NOTE In this Technical Specification, language refers to natural language or special languages but not to programming

languages or artificial languages unless specifically identified.
4.11
language identifier
information in a terminological entry which indicates the name of a language
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.12
obsolete term
term which is no longer in common use
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.13
preferred term

term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as the primary term for a given concept

[ISO 1087-1]
4.14
subordinate concept
narrower concept
concept which is either a specific concept or a partitive concept
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.15
term
verbal designation of a general concept in a specific subject field
[ISO 1087-1]

NOTE A term may contain symbols and can have variants, e.g. different forms of spelling.

4.16
term equivalent
term in another language which designates the same concept

NOTE A term equivalent should be accompanied by a definition of the designated concept expressed in the same

language as the term equivalent.
4.17
term instance classification
classification identifying the status of a term
4.18
terminological record
structured collection of terminological data relevant to one concept
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
4.19
terminological record identifier

unique, unambiguous, and linguistically neutral identifier assigned to a terminological record

4.20
terminology repository

data store or document in which terms and their associated definitions are stored or recorded

5 Abbreviated terms
CD committee draft
DIS draft International Standard
FDIS final draft International Standard
GIS geographic information system
IT information technology
IUT implementation under test
ODP open distributed processing
PT project team
TC technical committee
TMG terminology maintenance group
WD working draft
WG working group
6 Criteria for the selection of concepts

Any concept requiring a definition for the clarity of reading of any of the ISO/TC 211 geographic information

International Standards or Technical Specifications shall be included in that document and within Annex B of

this Technical Specification, subject to the following conditions:

a) the term that represents the concept is not a trade name, name of research project, or colloquial term

(local informal term to describe a formal term e.g. “guy” instead of “man”);

b) the concept is not selected if its definition in general language dictionaries corresponds to its definition in

the field of geographic information;
c) only concepts with a single definition are included;

d) the concept is central to understanding the standard and is not self-explanatory.

7 Structure of the terminological record
7.1 Record content

The terminological record may contain the following terminological data fields, in the order listed below:

a) record number – a terminological record identifier;
4 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)

b) entry language identifier – the code representing natural language utilized for the terminological record

based on ISO 639-2;
c) preferred term;

d) abbreviation – if preferred, the abbreviation shall precede the full form, otherwise an abbreviated form

shall follow the full form;

e) admitted term(s) – if these are national variants, they shall be followed by a code as defined in

ISO 3166-1; the numeric 3-digit code is used for the IT interface (i.e. stored in the database), while the

meaning of this code is presented in the human language used by the user (i.e. the human interface);

f) definition – if taken from another normative document, a reference shall be added in square brackets after

the definition; or, if referring to another concept in the vocabulary, that concept shall be named by its

preferred term and presented in bold face characters; the principles for definition writing are given in

ISO 704 (see Annex C);
g) deprecated or obsolete terms (in alphabetical order);
h) references to related entries;
i) examples of term usage;

j) notes – may be used to provide additional information (if a definition has been adapted from a source, this

may be explained in a note);
k) term instance status (for online repository only);
l) beginning date of the instance (for online repository only) (see ISO 19108);
m) ending date of the instance (for online repository only) (see ISO 19108).

Provision shall be made for specifying language identifiers and, if needed, country codes for equivalents in

other languages.
7.2 Mandatory data fields

The following terminological data fields are mandatory for a terminological record. The rest of the data fields

listed in 7.1 are optional.
a) entry number;
b) preferred term;
c) definition;
d) beginning date of the instance;
e) term instance status (for online repository only).
7.3 Term equivalents

Term equivalents in national languages may be submitted by national bodies and class A liaisons to the

Terminology Maintenance Group for consideration. Term equivalents shall be preceded by:

a) the numeric 3 character country code as defined in ISO 3166-1, if needed;

b) the language code as defined in ISO 639-2 (e.g. “fra” for French, “deu” for German);

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Annex A
(normative)
Maintenance of the Terminology Repository
A.1 Introduction

A Terminology Repository will be maintained by the TMG, see A.3.1. Maintenance mechanisms have been

developed that will

— enable proposed terms (and their associated definitions) to be added to, or amended in, the Terminology

Repository as required, and

— facilitate the assessment and harmonization of proposed terms prior to their parent draft standards

becoming final.
A.2 Terminology Repository
A.2.1 Overview

A Terminology Repository shall be maintained for ISO geographic information standards.

The Terminology Repository shall take the form of an online computer database.

Online read-only access will be available to all ISO/TC 211 members. Write and update access will be

available to WG convenors, PT leaders and editors. Public access to terms and definition that appear in

published ISO/TC 211 International Standards shall be made available. All terms (existing and proposed)

defined in ISO geographic information standards and drafts shall be included in the Terminology Repository.

A.2.2 Terminology entry and update

The relevant WG convenor or PT leader will be responsible for electronically submitting all terms and

definitions from a new ISO geographic information standard WD, CD, DIS or FDIS to the Repository. The

person responsible for entering the term shall also be responsible for entering the status of the term and any

related useful terms from outside ISO/TC 211.

All concepts, terms and definitions submitted to the Terminology Repository shall satisfy the criteria for the

selection of concepts as specified in Clause 6.
All terminological records shall be structured as specified in Clause 7.

At the time of entry to the Repository, terms shall be classified as being Candidate, regardless of whether the

same term is classified as being Draft or Harmonized elsewhere in the Repository.

A.2.3 Attribution and classification of terms

Every term in the Terminology Repository shall be accompanied by its parent document's ISO standard

number (for example, ISO 19107) where applicable, the document type (for example, WD or CD) and the date

of entry. A term may also have a status type indicating that it is to be deleted or requires harmonization.

Specific fields will be included in each Terminology Repository record to accommodate this information.

Each term in the Terminology Repository shall be assigned one of the following six status types.

— Candidate – newly entered term, or a term that is associated with multiple definitions and/or concepts.

6 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)

— Draft – term that appears in a single draft ISO geographic information standard and that conforms to the

“one term, one definition, one concept” principle.

— Harmonized – term that appears in multiple ISO geographic information draft standards but for which the

“one term, one definition, one concept” principle has been negotiated by the relevant working groups.

— Normative – term that has already been published in an International Standard or Technical Specification

and does not conflict with the terms and definitions in the ISO geographic information standards.

— Normative/Conflict – term that has been published in more than one International Standard or Technical

Specification with different definitions in different standards.
— Deleted – term that has been identified for deletion from the repository.

These status types will be assigned to a code list to be referred to as “term instance classification” as

illustrated in Table A.1.
Table A.1 — Term instance status
Instance status code Status type
001 Candidate
002 Draft
003 Harmonized
004 Normative
005 Normative/Conflict
006 Deleted

Progression of a term from Candidate to Draft to Harmonized status will depend on either

— an assessment by the TMG, or
— harmonization consultations between affected working groups.

Draft or Harmonized status indicates that significant stability has been achieved as regards the term and its

definition. Progression to Normative status can only occur when the term, with its associated definition, is

published in an International Standard or Technical Specification.
A.2.4 Authority of the Terminology Repository

The Terminology Repository and its associated maintenance processes are not a substitute for normal ISO

practices in relation to standards development. The Repository provides a summary for existing and proposed

ISO/TC 211 terminology and helps facilitate harmonization where necessary. The Candidate, Draft and

Harmonized status types have no official meaning or authority beyond the Terminology Repository.

A.3 Terminology status review process
A.3.1 Terminology Maintenance Group (TMG)
Assessment of Candidate terms shall be the responsibility of the TMG.
The TMG shall comprise:
— a convenor;

— at least two members from each ISO/TC 211 working group (preferably representing different national

bodies); ideally there should be more than one language represented;
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)

— additional members as necessary to ensure the representation of at least two languages, the inclusion of

terminology expertise and the engagement of national bodies and liaisons.

Membership of the TMG shall be for a two-year term or for the balance of a two-year term in the case of a

working group that is established part-way through a term. Each term shall commence on 1st January of

even-numbered years (2002, 2004, etc.). Members of the TMG will be eligible for reappointment for further

terms.

In the event of a working group being dissolved (for example, as a result of all its work items being

completed), the representatives from the working group shall remain members of the TMG until all related

terminology issues have been resolved. They will then withdraw.

In the event of all working groups being dissolved, the chair of ISO/TC 211, upon the completion of all related

terminology work, shall suspend the TMG until such time as new work items are introduced.

A.3.2 Responsibilities

The Chair of ISO/TC 211 shall be responsible for ensuring the existence of the TMG and for nominating the

convenor.

Each ISO/TC 211 working group leader shall be responsible for nominating representatives to the TMG and

for advising the convenor of the availability of relevant new documents.
The convenor shall be responsible for the operation of the TMG.

The convenor shall be responsible for advising members of the TMG regarding the availability of new

documents and for ensuring the update of the status of terms.
A.3.3 Assessment by TMG
A.3.3.1 Objective

The TMG shall review Candidate terms within two months of receipt. The objective of the review shall be to

ensure that Candidate terms conform to the “one term, one definition, one concept” criterion (i.e. a one-to-one

correspondence between a term and a concept, and a one-to-one association between a definition and a

concept) and do not conflict with existing terminology. Candidate terms that satisfy the criterion shall be

nominated as Draft terms pending their publication in an International Standard or Technical Specification.

Candidate terms that do not satisfy the criterion shall retain their Candidate status and be referred for

harmonization. The TMG will work online whenever possible and, when necessary, convene meetings in

accordance with the ISO directives.

NOTE In instances where a Candidate term/definition conflicts with an existing Draft term/definition, the existing

term/definition shall retain its status pending harmonization deliberations.
A.3.3.2 Candidate terms

The review process shall consider each Candidate term individually and shall proceed as follows.

a) Perform Concept, Structure and Circularity Tests;

1) Determine if the criteria for the selection of concepts in Clause 6 have been satisfied.

2) Determine if the terminological record is currently structured in the parent document according to

Clause 7.
3) Determine if the definition can be understood and is non-circular.

4) Refer terms from working drafts that fail to satisfy the above requirements back to the appropriate

working group for correction. Terms from committee drafts or later that fail to satisfy the above

requirements will be referred back through appropriate national body comments.
8 © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
b) Perform the “One Concept, One Definition” Test;

1) Determine if there are other records for the same concept in the Repository originating from other

standards or earlier drafts of the standard in question. If yes, extract all definition records for the

concept from the Repository. If no, classify the concept as having satisfied the “One Concept, One

Definition” criterion but requiring “One Term, One Concept” testing.

2) If a record for the same concept, originating from an earlier draft of the same standard, has been

extracted from the Repository, determine if the definitions are identical. If yes, classify the earlier

record for removal from the Repository. If no, retain the concept's Candidate status and document

the need for harmonization with other standards that have adopted the definition in the earlier draft.

3) If other records for the same concept, originating from other draft standards, have been extracted

from the Repository, determine if all definitions are identical to those of the Candidate term. If yes,

reclassify the Candidate concept as Draft. If no, retain the concept's Candidate status and document

the need for harmonization.

4) If other records for the same concept, originating from published International Standards or Technical

Specifications, have been extracted from the Repository, determine if all definitions are identical to

those of the Candidate concept. If yes, the concept is already Normative. Ensure that

cross-referencing is correct. If no, retain the concept's Candidate status and document the need for

harmonization.
c) Perform the “One Term, One Concept” Test;

Each Candidate term that has not previously appeared in other standards or earlier drafts of the standard

in question will be subjected to a “One Term, One Concept” test by members of the TMG. The members

shall individually examine the Terminology Repository to determine whether the concept described by the

definition is already adequately described by another term. Consultation with relevant working groups will

be required. If an alternative term exists, retain the term's Candidate status and classify it as requiring

harmonization. Do not change the status of the alternative term. If no alternative term is identified, classify

the term as being Draft.
A.3.
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
01-september-2009
Geografske informacije - Terminologija
Geographic information - Terminology
Information géographique - Terminologie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TS 19104:2008
ICS:
01.040.35 Informacijska tehnologija. Information technology.
Pisarniški stroji (Slovarji) Office machines
(Vocabularies)
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 19104
First edition
2008-11-15
Geographic information — Terminology
Information géographique — Terminologie
Reference number
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
ISO 2008
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2008

The reproduction of the terms and definitions contained in this International Standard is permitted in teaching manuals, instruction

booklets, technical publications and journals for strictly educational or implementation purposes. The conditions for such reproduction are:

that no modifications are made to the terms and definitions; that such reproduction is not permitted for dictionaries or similar publications

offered for sale; and that this International Standard is referenced as the source document.

With the sole exceptions noted above, no other part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope............................................................................................................................................................1

2 Conformance ...............................................................................................................................................1

3 Normative references..................................................................................................................................1

4 Terms and definitions.................................................................................................................................1

5 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................................................................4

6 Criteria for the selection of concepts........................................................................................................4

7 Structure of the terminological record......................................................................................................4

7.1 Record content ........................................................................................................................................4

7.2 Mandatory data fields..............................................................................................................................5

7.3 Term equivalents.....................................................................................................................................5

Annex A (normative) Maintenance of the Terminology Repository ..............................................................6

A.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................................................6

A.2 Terminology Repository .........................................................................................................................6

A.3 Terminology status review process ......................................................................................................7

Annex B (normative) Terms and Definitions from ISO/TC 211 International Standards and

Technical Specifications ..........................................................................................................................11

Annex C (normative) Principles for definition writing ..................................................................................95

C.1 Basic principles.....................................................................................................................................95

C.2 Developing definitions ..........................................................................................................................95

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................97

Alphabetical index............................................................................................................................................99

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In other circumstances, particularly when there is an urgent market requirement for such documents, a

technical committee may decide to publish other types of document:

— an ISO Publicly Available Specification (ISO/PAS) represents an agreement between technical experts in

an ISO working group and is accepted for publication if it is approved by more than 50 % of the members

of the parent committee casting a vote;

— an ISO Technical Specification (ISO/TS) represents an agreement between the members of a technical

committee and is accepted for publication if it is approved by 2/3 of the members of the committee

casting a vote.

An ISO/PAS or ISO/TS is reviewed after three years in order to decide whether it will be confirmed for a

further three years, revised to become an International Standard, or withdrawn. If the ISO/PAS or ISO/TS is

confirmed, it is reviewed again after a further three years, at which time it must either be transformed into an

International Standard or be withdrawn.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TS 19104 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

iv © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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Introduction

This Technical Specification, along with a repository of geographic information system (GIS) terminology in

the form of a terminological database, is expected to be a central reference for the shared language between

participants and users alike. It defines the criteria for including concepts in the vocabulary, specifies the

terminological data to be recorded, and, within the electronically processable repository, introduces an initial

set of concepts with definitions that will be subject to ongoing maintenance.

This Technical Specification describes the structure of entries and the types of terminological data that are to

be recorded. In addition, it includes principles for definition writing as outlined in ISO 10241 and ISO 704. The

structure of a terminological record is given in Clause 7.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Geographic information — Terminology
1 Scope

This Technical Specification is applicable to international communication in the field of geographic information.

This Technical Specification provides the guidelines for collection and maintenance of terminology in the field

of geographic information. It establishes criteria for selection of concepts to be included in other standards

concerning geographic information, which are developed by ISO/TC 211, specifies the structure of the

terminological record, and describes the principles for definition writing.

This Technical Specification also lays down the guidelines for maintenance of a Terminology Repository

(see Annex A).
2 Conformance

Any product that claims conformance with this Technical Specification shall comply with the requirements

described in the normative clauses and annexes.

Where a new term has been created for an existing concept, or an existing term has been incorrectly applied,

the candidate document shall not be in conformance. Concepts and their definitions may be included with the

candidate terms until conformance is demonstrated.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 639-2, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country

codes
ISO 10241, International terminology standards — Preparation and layout
ISO 19108:2002, Geographic information — Temporal schema
4 Terms and definitions

The core list of terms and definitions from the ISO/TC 211 geographic information International Standards and

Technical Specifications is given in Annex B.
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
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4.1
abbreviation

designation formed by omitting words or letters from a longer form and designating the same concept

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.2
admitted term

term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as a synonym for a preferred term

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.3
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics
[ISO 1087-1:2000]

NOTE Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular languages. They are, however, influenced by the social or

cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.
4.4
concept harmonization

activity leading to the establishment of a correspondence between two or more closely related or overlapping

concepts having professional, technical, scientific, social, economic, linguistic, cultural or other differences, in

order to eliminate or reduce minor differences between them
[ISO 860:2007]
NOTE The purpose of concept harmonization is to improve communication.
4.5
concept system
set of concepts structured according to the relations among them
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.6
definition

representation of a concept by a descriptive statement which serves to differentiate it from related concepts

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.7
deprecated term
term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as undesired
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.8
designation
designator
representation of a concept by a sign which denotes it

NOTE In terminology work, three types of designations are distinguished: symbols, appellations and terms.

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
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4.9
extension
totality of objects to which a concept corresponds
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.10
language
system of signs for communications, usually consisting of vocabulary and rules
[ISO 5127-1]

NOTE In this Technical Specification, language refers to natural language or special languages but not to programming

languages or artificial languages unless specifically identified.
4.11
language identifier
information in a terminological entry which indicates the name of a language
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.12
obsolete term
term which is no longer in common use
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.13
preferred term

term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as the primary term for a given concept

[ISO 1087-1]
4.14
subordinate concept
narrower concept
concept which is either a specific concept or a partitive concept
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.15
term
verbal designation of a general concept in a specific subject field
[ISO 1087-1]

NOTE A term may contain symbols and can have variants, e.g. different forms of spelling.

4.16
term equivalent
term in another language which designates the same concept

NOTE A term equivalent should be accompanied by a definition of the designated concept expressed in the same

language as the term equivalent.
4.17
term instance classification
classification identifying the status of a term
4.18
terminological record
structured collection of terminological data relevant to one concept
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4.19
terminological record identifier

unique, unambiguous, and linguistically neutral identifier assigned to a terminological record

4.20
terminology repository

data store or document in which terms and their associated definitions are stored or recorded

5 Abbreviated terms
CD committee draft
DIS draft International Standard
FDIS final draft International Standard
GIS geographic information system
IT information technology
IUT implementation under test
ODP open distributed processing
PT project team
TC technical committee
TMG terminology maintenance group
WD working draft
WG working group
6 Criteria for the selection of concepts

Any concept requiring a definition for the clarity of reading of any of the ISO/TC 211 geographic information

International Standards or Technical Specifications shall be included in that document and within Annex B of

this Technical Specification, subject to the following conditions:

a) the term that represents the concept is not a trade name, name of research project, or colloquial term

(local informal term to describe a formal term e.g. “guy” instead of “man”);

b) the concept is not selected if its definition in general language dictionaries corresponds to its definition in

the field of geographic information;
c) only concepts with a single definition are included;

d) the concept is central to understanding the standard and is not self-explanatory.

7 Structure of the terminological record
7.1 Record content

The terminological record may contain the following terminological data fields, in the order listed below:

a) record number – a terminological record identifier;
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b) entry language identifier – the code representing natural language utilized for the terminological record

based on ISO 639-2;
c) preferred term;

d) abbreviation – if preferred, the abbreviation shall precede the full form, otherwise an abbreviated form

shall follow the full form;

e) admitted term(s) – if these are national variants, they shall be followed by a code as defined in

ISO 3166-1; the numeric 3-digit code is used for the IT interface (i.e. stored in the database), while the

meaning of this code is presented in the human language used by the user (i.e. the human interface);

f) definition – if taken from another normative document, a reference shall be added in square brackets after

the definition; or, if referring to another concept in the vocabulary, that concept shall be named by its

preferred term and presented in bold face characters; the principles for definition writing are given in

ISO 704 (see Annex C);
g) deprecated or obsolete terms (in alphabetical order);
h) references to related entries;
i) examples of term usage;

j) notes – may be used to provide additional information (if a definition has been adapted from a source, this

may be explained in a note);
k) term instance status (for online repository only);
l) beginning date of the instance (for online repository only) (see ISO 19108);
m) ending date of the instance (for online repository only) (see ISO 19108).

Provision shall be made for specifying language identifiers and, if needed, country codes for equivalents in

other languages.
7.2 Mandatory data fields

The following terminological data fields are mandatory for a terminological record. The rest of the data fields

listed in 7.1 are optional.
a) entry number;
b) preferred term;
c) definition;
d) beginning date of the instance;
e) term instance status (for online repository only).
7.3 Term equivalents

Term equivalents in national languages may be submitted by national bodies and class A liaisons to the

Terminology Maintenance Group for consideration. Term equivalents shall be preceded by:

a) the numeric 3 character country code as defined in ISO 3166-1, if needed;

b) the language code as defined in ISO 639-2 (e.g. “fra” for French, “deu” for German);

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Annex A
(normative)
Maintenance of the Terminology Repository
A.1 Introduction

A Terminology Repository will be maintained by the TMG, see A.3.1. Maintenance mechanisms have been

developed that will

— enable proposed terms (and their associated definitions) to be added to, or amended in, the Terminology

Repository as required, and

— facilitate the assessment and harmonization of proposed terms prior to their parent draft standards

becoming final.
A.2 Terminology Repository
A.2.1 Overview

A Terminology Repository shall be maintained for ISO geographic information standards.

The Terminology Repository shall take the form of an online computer database.

Online read-only access will be available to all ISO/TC 211 members. Write and update access will be

available to WG convenors, PT leaders and editors. Public access to terms and definition that appear in

published ISO/TC 211 International Standards shall be made available. All terms (existing and proposed)

defined in ISO geographic information standards and drafts shall be included in the Terminology Repository.

A.2.2 Terminology entry and update

The relevant WG convenor or PT leader will be responsible for electronically submitting all terms and

definitions from a new ISO geographic information standard WD, CD, DIS or FDIS to the Repository. The

person responsible for entering the term shall also be responsible for entering the status of the term and any

related useful terms from outside ISO/TC 211.

All concepts, terms and definitions submitted to the Terminology Repository shall satisfy the criteria for the

selection of concepts as specified in Clause 6.
All terminological records shall be structured as specified in Clause 7.

At the time of entry to the Repository, terms shall be classified as being Candidate, regardless of whether the

same term is classified as being Draft or Harmonized elsewhere in the Repository.

A.2.3 Attribution and classification of terms

Every term in the Terminology Repository shall be accompanied by its parent document's ISO standard

number (for example, ISO 19107) where applicable, the document type (for example, WD or CD) and the date

of entry. A term may also have a status type indicating that it is to be deleted or requires harmonization.

Specific fields will be included in each Terminology Repository record to accommodate this information.

Each term in the Terminology Repository shall be assigned one of the following six status types.

— Candidate – newly entered term, or a term that is associated with multiple definitions and/or concepts.

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— Draft – term that appears in a single draft ISO geographic information standard and that conforms to the

“one term, one definition, one concept” principle.

— Harmonized – term that appears in multiple ISO geographic information draft standards but for which the

“one term, one definition, one concept” principle has been negotiated by the relevant working groups.

— Normative – term that has already been published in an International Standard or Technical Specification

and does not conflict with the terms and definitions in the ISO geographic information standards.

— Normative/Conflict – term that has been published in more than one International Standard or Technical

Specification with different definitions in different standards.
— Deleted – term that has been identified for deletion from the repository.

These status types will be assigned to a code list to be referred to as “term instance classification” as

illustrated in Table A.1.
Table A.1 — Term instance status
Instance status code Status type
001 Candidate
002 Draft
003 Harmonized
004 Normative
005 Normative/Conflict
006 Deleted

Progression of a term from Candidate to Draft to Harmonized status will depend on either

— an assessment by the TMG, or
— harmonization consultations between affected working groups.

Draft or Harmonized status indicates that significant stability has been achieved as regards the term and its

definition. Progression to Normative status can only occur when the term, with its associated definition, is

published in an International Standard or Technical Specification.
A.2.4 Authority of the Terminology Repository

The Terminology Repository and its associated maintenance processes are not a substitute for normal ISO

practices in relation to standards development. The Repository provides a summary for existing and proposed

ISO/TC 211 terminology and helps facilitate harmonization where necessary. The Candidate, Draft and

Harmonized status types have no official meaning or authority beyond the Terminology Repository.

A.3 Terminology status review process
A.3.1 Terminology Maintenance Group (TMG)
Assessment of Candidate terms shall be the responsibility of the TMG.
The TMG shall comprise:
— a convenor;

— at least two members from each ISO/TC 211 working group (preferably representing different national

bodies); ideally there should be more than one language represented;
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— additional members as necessary to ensure the representation of at least two languages, the inclusion of

terminology expertise and the engagement of national bodies and liaisons.

Membership of the TMG shall be for a two-year term or for the balance of a two-year term in the case of a

working group that is established part-way through a term. Each term shall commence on 1st January of

even-numbered years (2002, 2004, etc.). Members of the TMG will be eligible for reappointment for further

terms.

In the event of a working group being dissolved (for example, as a result of all its work items being

completed), the representatives from the working group shall remain members of the TMG until all related

terminology issues have been resolved. They will then withdraw.

In the event of all working groups being dissolved, the chair of ISO/TC 211, upon the completion of all related

terminology work, shall suspend the TMG until such time as new work items are introduced.

A.3.2 Responsibilities

The Chair of ISO/TC 211 shall be responsible for ensuring the existence of the TMG and for nominating the

convenor.

Each ISO/TC 211 working group leader shall be responsible for nominating representatives to the TMG and

for advising the convenor of the availability of relevant new documents.
The convenor shall be responsible for the operation of the TMG.

The convenor shall be responsible for advising members of the TMG regarding the availability of new

documents and for ensuring the update of the status of terms.
A.3.3 Assessment by TMG
A.3.3.1 Objective

The TMG shall review Candidate terms within two months of receipt. The objective of the review shall be to

ensure that Candidate terms conform to the “one term, one definition, one concept” criterion (i.e. a one-to-one

correspondence between a term and a concept, and a one-to-one association between a definition and a

concept) and do not conflict with existing terminology. Candidate terms that satisfy the criterion shall be

nominated as Draft terms pending their publication in an International Standard or Technical Specification.

Candidate terms that do not satisfy the criterion shall retain their Candidate status and be referred for

harmonization. The TMG will work online whenever possible and, when necessary, convene meetings in

accordance with the ISO directives.

NOTE In instances where a Candidate term/definition conflicts with an existing Draft term/definition, the existing

term/definition shall retain its status pending harmonization deliberations.
A.3.3.2 Candidate terms

The review process shall consider each Candidate term individually and shall proceed as follows.

a) Perform Concept, Structure and Circularity Tests;

1) Determine if the criteria for the selection of concepts in Clause 6 have been satisfied.

2) Determine if the terminological record is currently structured in the parent document according to

Clause 7.
3) Determine if the definition can be understood and is non-circular.

4) Refer terms from working drafts that fail to satisfy the above requirements back to the appropriate

working group for correction. Terms from committee drafts or later that fail to satisfy the above

requirements will be referred back through appropriate national body comments.
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b) Perform the “One Concept, One Definition” Test;

1) Determine if there are other records for the same concept in the Repository originating from other

standards or earlier drafts of the standard in question. If yes, extract all definition records for the

concept from the Repository. If no, classify the concept as having satisfied the “One Concept, One

Definition” criterion but requiring “One Term, One Concept” testing.

2) If a record for the same concept, originating from an earlier draft of the same standard, has been

extracted from the Repository, determine if the definitions are identical. If yes, classify the earlier

record for removal from the Repository. If no, retain the concept's Candidate status and document

the need for harmonization with other standards that have adopted the definition in the earlier draft.

3) If other records for the same concept, originating from other draft standards, have been extracted

from the Repository, determine if all definitions are identical to those of the Candidate term. If yes,

reclassify the Candidate concept as Draft. If no, retain the concept's
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
01-maj-2009
Geografske informacije - Terminologija
Geographic information - Terminology
Information géographique - Terminologie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TS 19104:2008
ICS:
01.040.35 Informacijska tehnologija. Information technology.
Pisarniški stroji (Slovarji) Office machines
(Vocabularies)
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
oSIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
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oSIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 19104
First edition
2008-11-15
Geographic information — Terminology
Information géographique — Terminologie
Reference number
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
ISO 2008
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oSIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
PDF disclaimer

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shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

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the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2008

The reproduction of the terms and definitions contained in this International Standard is permitted in teaching manuals, instruction

booklets, technical publications and journals for strictly educational or implementation purposes. The conditions for such reproduction are:

that no modifications are made to the terms and definitions; that such reproduction is not permitted for dictionaries or similar publications

offered for sale; and that this International Standard is referenced as the source document.

With the sole exceptions noted above, no other part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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oSIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope............................................................................................................................................................1

2 Conformance ...............................................................................................................................................1

3 Normative references..................................................................................................................................1

4 Terms and definitions.................................................................................................................................1

5 Abbreviated terms.......................................................................................................................................4

6 Criteria for the selection of concepts........................................................................................................4

7 Structure of the terminological record......................................................................................................4

7.1 Record content ........................................................................................................................................4

7.2 Mandatory data fields..............................................................................................................................5

7.3 Term equivalents.....................................................................................................................................5

Annex A (normative) Maintenance of the Terminology Repository ..............................................................6

A.1 Introduction..............................................................................................................................................6

A.2 Terminology Repository .........................................................................................................................6

A.3 Terminology status review process ......................................................................................................7

Annex B (normative) Terms and Definitions from ISO/TC 211 International Standards and

Technical Specifications ..........................................................................................................................11

Annex C (normative) Principles for definition writing ..................................................................................95

C.1 Basic principles.....................................................................................................................................95

C.2 Developing definitions ..........................................................................................................................95

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................97

Alphabetical index............................................................................................................................................99

© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved iii
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In other circumstances, particularly when there is an urgent market requirement for such documents, a

technical committee may decide to publish other types of document:

— an ISO Publicly Available Specification (ISO/PAS) represents an agreement between technical experts in

an ISO working group and is accepted for publication if it is approved by more than 50 % of the members

of the parent committee casting a vote;

— an ISO Technical Specification (ISO/TS) represents an agreement between the members of a technical

committee and is accepted for publication if it is approved by 2/3 of the members of the committee

casting a vote.

An ISO/PAS or ISO/TS is reviewed after three years in order to decide whether it will be confirmed for a

further three years, revised to become an International Standard, or withdrawn. If the ISO/PAS or ISO/TS is

confirmed, it is reviewed again after a further three years, at which time it must either be transformed into an

International Standard or be withdrawn.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TS 19104 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

iv © ISO 2008 – All rights reserved
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oSIST-TS ISO/TS 19104:2009
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Introduction

This Technical Specification, along with a repository of geographic information system (GIS) terminology in

the form of a terminological database, is expected to be a central reference for the shared language between

participants and users alike. It defines the criteria for including concepts in the vocabulary, specifies the

terminological data to be recorded, and, within the electronically processable repository, introduces an initial

set of concepts with definitions that will be subject to ongoing maintenance.

This Technical Specification describes the structure of entries and the types of terminological data that are to

be recorded. In addition, it includes principles for definition writing as outlined in ISO 10241 and ISO 704. The

structure of a terminological record is given in Clause 7.
© ISO 2008 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 19104:2008(E)
Geographic information — Terminology
1 Scope

This Technical Specification is applicable to international communication in the field of geographic information.

This Technical Specification provides the guidelines for collection and maintenance of terminology in the field

of geographic information. It establishes criteria for selection of concepts to be included in other standards

concerning geographic information, which are developed by ISO/TC 211, specifies the structure of the

terminological record, and describes the principles for definition writing.

This Technical Specification also lays down the guidelines for maintenance of a Terminology Repository

(see Annex A).
2 Conformance

Any product that claims conformance with this Technical Specification shall comply with the requirements

described in the normative clauses and annexes.

Where a new term has been created for an existing concept, or an existing term has been incorrectly applied,

the candidate document shall not be in conformance. Concepts and their definitions may be included with the

candidate terms until conformance is demonstrated.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 639-2, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code

ISO 704, Terminology work — Principles and methods

ISO 3166-1, Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 1: Country

codes
ISO 10241, International terminology standards — Preparation and layout
ISO 19108:2002, Geographic information — Temporal schema
4 Terms and definitions

The core list of terms and definitions from the ISO/TC 211 geographic information International Standards and

Technical Specifications is given in Annex B.
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
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4.1
abbreviation

designation formed by omitting words or letters from a longer form and designating the same concept

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.2
admitted term

term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as a synonym for a preferred term

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.3
concept
unit of knowledge created by a unique combination of characteristics
[ISO 1087-1:2000]

NOTE Concepts are not necessarily bound to particular languages. They are, however, influenced by the social or

cultural background which often leads to different categorizations.
4.4
concept harmonization

activity leading to the establishment of a correspondence between two or more closely related or overlapping

concepts having professional, technical, scientific, social, economic, linguistic, cultural or other differences, in

order to eliminate or reduce minor differences between them
[ISO 860:2007]
NOTE The purpose of concept harmonization is to improve communication.
4.5
concept system
set of concepts structured according to the relations among them
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.6
definition

representation of a concept by a descriptive statement which serves to differentiate it from related concepts

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.7
deprecated term
term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as undesired
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.8
designation
designator
representation of a concept by a sign which denotes it

NOTE In terminology work, three types of designations are distinguished: symbols, appellations and terms.

[ISO 1087-1:2000]
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4.9
extension
totality of objects to which a concept corresponds
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.10
language
system of signs for communications, usually consisting of vocabulary and rules
[ISO 5127-1]

NOTE In this Technical Specification, language refers to natural language or special languages but not to programming

languages or artificial languages unless specifically identified.
4.11
language identifier
information in a terminological entry which indicates the name of a language
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.12
obsolete term
term which is no longer in common use
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.13
preferred term

term rated according to the scale of the term acceptability rating as the primary term for a given concept

[ISO 1087-1]
4.14
subordinate concept
narrower concept
concept which is either a specific concept or a partitive concept
[ISO 1087-1:2000]
4.15
term
verbal designation of a general concept in a specific subject field
[ISO 1087-1]

NOTE A term may contain symbols and can have variants, e.g. different forms of spelling.

4.16
term equivalent
term in another language which designates the same concept

NOTE A term equivalent should be accompanied by a definition of the designated concept expressed in the same

language as the term equivalent.
4.17
term instance classification
classification identifying the status of a term
4.18
terminological record
structured collection of terminological data relevant to one concept
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4.19
terminological record identifier

unique, unambiguous, and linguistically neutral identifier assigned to a terminological record

4.20
terminology repository

data store or document in which terms and their associated definitions are stored or recorded

5 Abbreviated terms
CD committee draft
DIS draft International Standard
FDIS final draft International Standard
GIS geographic information system
IT information technology
IUT implementation under test
ODP open distributed processing
PT project team
TC technical committee
TMG terminology maintenance group
WD working draft
WG working group
6 Criteria for the selection of concepts

Any concept requiring a definition for the clarity of reading of any of the ISO/TC 211 geographic information

International Standards or Technical Specifications shall be included in that document and within Annex B of

this Technical Specification, subject to the following conditions:

a) the term that represents the concept is not a trade name, name of research project, or colloquial term

(local informal term to describe a formal term e.g. “guy” instead of “man”);

b) the concept is not selected if its definition in general language dictionaries corresponds to its definition in

the field of geographic information;
c) only concepts with a single definition are included;

d) the concept is central to understanding the standard and is not self-explanatory.

7 Structure of the terminological record
7.1 Record content

The terminological record may contain the following terminological data fields, in the order listed below:

a) record number – a terminological record identifier;
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b) entry language identifier – the code representing natural language utilized for the terminological record

based on ISO 639-2;
c) preferred term;

d) abbreviation – if preferred, the abbreviation shall precede the full form, otherwise an abbreviated form

shall follow the full form;

e) admitted term(s) – if these are national variants, they shall be followed by a code as defined in

ISO 3166-1; the numeric 3-digit code is used for the IT interface (i.e. stored in the database), while the

meaning of this code is presented in the human language used by the user (i.e. the human interface);

f) definition – if taken from another normative document, a reference shall be added in square brackets after

the definition; or, if referring to another concept in the vocabulary, that concept shall be named by its

preferred term and presented in bold face characters; the principles for definition writing are given in

ISO 704 (see Annex C);
g) deprecated or obsolete terms (in alphabetical order);
h) references to related entries;
i) examples of term usage;

j) notes – may be used to provide additional information (if a definition has been adapted from a source, this

may be explained in a note);
k) term instance status (for online repository only);
l) beginning date of the instance (for online repository only) (see ISO 19108);
m) ending date of the instance (for online repository only) (see ISO 19108).

Provision shall be made for specifying language identifiers and, if needed, country codes for equivalents in

other languages.
7.2 Mandatory data fields

The following terminological data fields are mandatory for a terminological record. The rest of the data fields

listed in 7.1 are optional.
a) entry number;
b) preferred term;
c) definition;
d) beginning date of the instance;
e) term instance status (for online repository only).
7.3 Term equivalents

Term equivalents in national languages may be submitted by national bodies and class A liaisons to the

Terminology Maintenance Group for consideration. Term equivalents shall be preceded by:

a) the numeric 3 character country code as defined in ISO 3166-1, if needed;

b) the language code as defined in ISO 639-2 (e.g. “fra” for French, “deu” for German);

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Annex A
(normative)
Maintenance of the Terminology Repository
A.1 Introduction

A Terminology Repository will be maintained by the TMG, see A.3.1. Maintenance mechanisms have been

developed that will

— enable proposed terms (and their associated definitions) to be added to, or amended in, the Terminology

Repository as required, and

— facilitate the assessment and harmonization of proposed terms prior to their parent draft standards

becoming final.
A.2 Terminology Repository
A.2.1 Overview

A Terminology Repository shall be maintained for ISO geographic information standards.

The Terminology Repository shall take the form of an online computer database.

Online read-only access will be available to all ISO/TC 211 members. Write and update access will be

available to WG convenors, PT leaders and editors. Public access to terms and definition that appear in

published ISO/TC 211 International Standards shall be made available. All terms (existing and proposed)

defined in ISO geographic information standards and drafts shall be included in the Terminology Repository.

A.2.2 Terminology entry and update

The relevant WG convenor or PT leader will be responsible for electronically submitting all terms and

definitions from a new ISO geographic information standard WD, CD, DIS or FDIS to the Repository. The

person responsible for entering the term shall also be responsible for entering the status of the term and any

related useful terms from outside ISO/TC 211.

All concepts, terms and definitions submitted to the Terminology Repository shall satisfy the criteria for the

selection of concepts as specified in Clause 6.
All terminological records shall be structured as specified in Clause 7.

At the time of entry to the Repository, terms shall be classified as being Candidate, regardless of whether the

same term is classified as being Draft or Harmonized elsewhere in the Repository.

A.2.3 Attribution and classification of terms

Every term in the Terminology Repository shall be accompanied by its parent document's ISO standard

number (for example, ISO 19107) where applicable, the document type (for example, WD or CD) and the date

of entry. A term may also have a status type indicating that it is to be deleted or requires harmonization.

Specific fields will be included in each Terminology Repository record to accommodate this information.

Each term in the Terminology Repository shall be assigned one of the following six status types.

— Candidate – newly entered term, or a term that is associated with multiple definitions and/or concepts.

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— Draft – term that appears in a single draft ISO geographic information standard and that conforms to the

“one term, one definition, one concept” principle.

— Harmonized – term that appears in multiple ISO geographic information draft standards but for which the

“one term, one definition, one concept” principle has been negotiated by the relevant working groups.

— Normative – term that has already been published in an International Standard or Technical Specification

and does not conflict with the terms and definitions in the ISO geographic information standards.

— Normative/Conflict – term that has been published in more than one International Standard or Technical

Specification with different definitions in different standards.
— Deleted – term that has been identified for deletion from the repository.

These status types will be assigned to a code list to be referred to as “term instance classification” as

illustrated in Table A.1.
Table A.1 — Term instance status
Instance status code Status type
001 Candidate
002 Draft
003 Harmonized
004 Normative
005 Normative/Conflict
006 Deleted

Progression of a term from Candidate to Draft to Harmonized status will depend on either

— an assessment by the TMG, or
— harmonization consultations between affected working groups.

Draft or Harmonized status indicates that significant stability has been achieved as regards the term and its

definition. Progression to Normative status can only occur when the term, with its associated definition, is

published in an International Standard or Technical Specification.
A.2.4 Authority of the Terminology Repository

The Terminology Repository and its associated maintenance processes are not a substitute for normal ISO

practices in relation to standards development. The Repository provides a summary for existing and proposed

ISO/TC 211 terminology and helps facilitate harmonization where necessary. The Candidate, Draft and

Harmonized status types have no official meaning or authority beyond the Terminology Repository.

A.3 Terminology status review process
A.3.1 Terminology Maintenance Group (TMG)
Assessment of Candidate terms shall be the responsibility of the TMG.
The TMG shall comprise:
— a convenor;

— at least two members from each ISO/TC 211 working group (preferably representing different national

bodies); ideally there should be more than one language represented;
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— additional members as necessary to ensure the representation of at least two languages, the inclusion of

terminology expertise and the engagement of national bodies and liaisons.

Membership of the TMG shall be for a two-year term or for the balance of a two-year term in the case of a

working group that is established part-way through a term. Each term shall commence on 1st January of

even-numbered years (2002, 2004, etc.). Members of the TMG will be eligible for reappointment for further

terms.

In the event of a working group being dissolved (for example, as a result of all its work items being

completed), the representatives from the working group shall remain members of the TMG until all related

terminology issues have been resolved. They will then withdraw.

In the event of all working groups being dissolved, the chair of ISO/TC 211, upon the completion of all related

terminology work, shall suspend the TMG until such time as new work items are introduced.

A.3.2 Responsibilities

The Chair of ISO/TC 211 shall be responsible for ensuring the existence of the TMG and for nominating the

convenor.

Each ISO/TC 211 working group leader shall be responsible for nominating representatives to the TMG and

for advising the convenor of the availability of relevant new documents.
The convenor shall be responsible for the operation of the TMG.

The convenor shall be responsible for advising members of the TMG regarding the availability of new

documents and for ensuring the update of the status of terms.
A.3.3 Assessment by TMG
A.3.3.1 Objective

The TMG shall review Candidate terms within two months of receipt. The objective of the review shall be to

ensure that Candidate terms conform to the “one term, one definition, one concept” criterion (i.e. a one-to-one

correspondence between a term and a concept, and a one-to-one association between a definition and a

concept) and do not conflict with existing terminology. Candidate terms that satisfy the criterion shall be

nominated as Draft terms pending their publication in an International Standard or Technical Specification.

Candidate terms that do not satisfy the criterion shall retain their Candidate status and be referred for

harmonization. The TMG will work online whenever possible and, when necessary, convene meetings in

accordance with the ISO directives.

NOTE In instances where a Candidate term/definition conflicts with an existing Draft term/definition, the existing

term/definition shall retain its status pending harmonization deliberations.
A.3.3.2 Candidate terms

The review process shall consider each Candidate term individually and shall proceed as follows.

a) Perform Concept, Structure and Circularity Tests;

1) Determine if the criteria for the selection of concepts in Clause 6 have been satisfied.

2) Determine if the terminological record is currently structured in the parent document according to

Clause 7.
3) Determine if the definition can be understood and is non-circular.

4) Refer terms from working drafts that fail to satisfy the above requirements back to the appropriate

working group for correction. Terms from committee drafts or later that fail to satisfy the above

requirements will be referred back through appropriate national body comments.
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b) Perform the “One Concept, One Definition” Test;

1) Determine if there are other records for the same concept in the Repository originating from other

standards or earlier drafts of the standard in question. If yes, extract all definition records for the

concept from the Repository. If no, classify the concept as having satisfied the “One Concept, One

Definition” criterion but requiring “One Term, One Concept” testing.

2) If a record for the same concept, originating from an earlier draft of the same standard, has been

extracted from the Repository, determine if the definitions are identical. If yes, classify the earlier

record for removal from the Repository. If no, retain the concept's Candidate status and document

the need for harmonization with other standards that have adopted the definition in the earlier draft.

3) If other records for the same concept, originating from other draft standards, have been extracted

from the Repository, determine if all definitions are identical to those of the Candidate term. If yes,

reclassify the Candidate concept as Draft. If no, retain t
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