Assessment of lighting equipment related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields

This International Standard applies to the assessment of lighting equipment related to human
exposure to electromagnetic fields. The assessment consists of the induced internal electric
field for frequencies from 20 kHz to 10 MHz and the specific absorption rate (SAR) for
frequencies from 100 kHz to 300 MHz around lighting equipment.
Included in the scope of this standard are:
– all lighting equipment with a primary function of generating and/or distributing light
intended for illumination purposes, and intended either for connection to the low voltage
electricity supply or for battery operation; used indoor and/or outdoor;
– lighting part of multi-function equipment where one of the primary functions of this is
illumination;
– independent auxiliaries exclusively for the use with lighting equipment;
– lighting equipment including intentional radiators for wireless communication or control.
Excluded from the scope of this standard are:
– lighting equipment for aircraft and airfields;
– lighting equipment for road vehicles; (except lighting used for the illumination of passenger
compartments in public transport)
– lighting equipment for agriculture;
– lighting equipment for boats/vessels;
– photocopiers, slide projectors;
– apparatus for which the requirements of electromagnetic fields are explicitly formulated in
other IEC standards.
NOTE The methods described in this standard are not suitable for comparing the fields from different lighting
equipment.
This standard does not apply to built-in components for luminaires such as electronic
controlgear.

Beurteilung von Beleuchtungseinrichtungen bezüglich der Exposition von Personen gegenüber elektromagnetischen Feldern

Évaluation d’un équipement d’éclairage relativement à l'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques

L'IEC 62439:2015 traite de l'évaluation d'un équipement d'éclairage relativement à l'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques. L'évaluation comprend le champ électrique interne induit pour les fréquences comprises entre 20 kHz et 10 MHz et le débit d'absorption spécifique (DAS) pour les fréquences comprises entre 100 kHz et 300 MHz autour de l'équipement d'éclairage. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition, parue en 2009. Cette édition constitue une révision technique. La présente édition inclut les modifications techniques significatives suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: a) identification des types de produits d'éclairage considérés comme satisfaisant à la norme sans qu'il soit nécessaire de procéder à des essais; b) suppression de la condition préalable consistant à se conformer à la norme CISPR 15 pour satisfaire aux exigences de l'IEC 62493; c) inclusion des conséquences des lignes directrices de l'ICNIPR 2010 (jusqu'à 100 kHz); d) ajout de recommandations pour la "méthode de la tête d'essai de Van der Hoofden" afin d'améliorer la reproductibilité des résultats; e) inclusion de la méthode de démonstration de conformité des produits dotés d'éléments rayonnants intentionnels.

Ocenjevanje opreme za razsvetljavo z vidika izpostavljenosti ljudi elektromagnetnim poljem

Ta mednarodni standard se uporablja za ocenjevanje opreme za razsvetljavo z vidika izpostavljenosti ljudi elektromagnetnim poljem. Ocenjevanje zajema inducirano notranje električno polje za frekvence od 20 kHz do 10 MHz in specifično hitrost absorpcije (SAR) za frekvence od 100 kHz do 300 MHz okrog opreme za razsvetljavo.
Področje uporabe tega standarda zajema:
– vso opremo za razsvetljavo s primarno funkcijo proizvodnje in/ali porazdelitve svetlobe, namenjeno razsvetljavi in predvideno za povezavo na električni vir nizke napetosti ali za baterijsko napajanje, ki se uporablja znotraj in/ali zunaj;
– svetlobni del večnamenske opreme, kjer je ena od primarnih funkcij razsvetljava;
– neodvisne pomožne naprave, ki so namenjene samo za uporabo s svetlobno opremo;
– opremo za razsvetljavo, vključno z namenskimi radiatorji za brezžično komunikacijo ali krmiljenje.
Ta standard ne zajema:
– opreme za razsvetljavo za letala in letališča;
– opreme za razsvetljavo za cestna vozila (razen razsvetljave, namenjene osvetljevanju potniških oddelkov v javnem prevozu);
– opreme za razsvetljavo za kmetijstvo;
– opreme za razsvetljavo za čolne/plovila;
– fotokopirnih strojev, diaprojektorjev;
– aparatov, za katere so zahteve glede elektromagnetnih polj izrecno navedene v drugih standardih IEC.
OPOMBA: Metode iz tega standarda niso primerne za primerjavo polj, ki jih proizvaja drugačna oprema za razsvetljavo. Ta standard se ne uporablja za vgrajene komponente za svetilke, kot je elektronsko krmilje.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Aug-2015
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
15-Jun-2015
Due Date
20-Aug-2015
Completion Date
17-Aug-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62493:2015
01-september-2015
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 62493:2010
Ocenjevanje opreme za razsvetljavo z vidika izpostavljenosti ljudi
elektromagnetnim poljem

Assessment of lighting equipment related to human exposure to electromagnetic fields

Beurteilung von Beleuchtungseinrichtungen bezüglich der Exposition von Personen
gegenüber elektromagnetischen Feldern

Évaluation d’un équipement d’éclairage relativement à l'exposition humaine aux champs

électromagnétiques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62493:2015
ICS:
17.220.01 Elektrika. Magnetizem. Electricity. Magnetism.
Splošni vidiki General aspects
91.160.01 Razsvetljava na splošno Lighting in general
SIST EN 62493:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62493:2015
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SIST EN 62493:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 62493
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
May 2015
ICS 29.020; 29.140 Supersedes EN 62493:2010
English Version
Assessment of lighting equipment related to human exposure to
electromagnetic Field
(IEC 62493:2015)

Évaluation d'un équipement d'éclairage relativement à Beurteilung von Beleuchtungseinrichtungen bezüglich der

l'exposition humaine aux champs électromagnétiques Exposition von Personen gegenüber elektromagnetischen

(IEC 62493:2015) Feldern
(IEC 62493:2015)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2015-04-14. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 62493:2015 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62493:2015
EN 62493:2015 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 34/222/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 62493, prepared by IEC/TC 34 "Lamps and

related equipment" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as

EN 62493:2015.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2016-01-14
• latest date by which the document has to be
implemented at national level by
publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
• latest date by which the national (dow) 2018-04-14
standards conflicting with the
document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 62493:2010.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62493:2015 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

CISPR 15:2013 NOTE Harmonized as EN 55015:2013 (not modified).
CISPR 16-1-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 55016-1-2.
CISPR 16-4-2:2003 NOTE Harmonized as EN 55016-4-2:2004 (not modified).
IEC 62226-2-1:2004 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62226-2-1:2005 (not modified).
Superseded by EN 55016-4-2:2011 (CISPR 16-4-2:2011).
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 62493:2015
- 3 - EN 62493:2015
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 62209-2 2010 Human exposure to radio frequency fields EN 62209-2 2010
from hand-held and body-mounted
wireless communication devices - Human
models, instrumentation, and procedures -
Part 2: Procedure to determine the specific
absorption rate (SAR) for wireless
communication devices used in close
proximity to the human body (frequency
range of 30 MHz to 6 GHz)
IEC 62232 2011 Determination of RF field strength and - -
SAR in the vicinity of radiocommunication
base stations for the purpose of evaluating
human exposure
IEC 62311 (mod) 2007 Assessment of electronic and electrical EN 62311 2008
equipment related to human exposure
restrictions for electromagnetic fields
(0 Hz - 300 GHz)
IEC 62479 (mod) 2010 Assessment of the compliance of low EN 62479 2010
power electronic and electrical equipment
with the basic restrictions related to human
exposure to electromagnetic fields (10
MHz to 300 GHz)
CISPR 16-1-1 - Specification for radio disturbance and EN 55016-1-1 -
immunity measuring apparatus and
methods -
Part 1-1: Radio disturbance and immunity
measuring apparatus - Measuring
apparatus
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SIST EN 62493:2015
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SIST EN 62493:2015
IEC 62493
Edition 2.0 2015-03
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Assessment of lighting equipment related to human exposure to electromagnetic
field
Évaluation d’un équipement d’éclairage relativement à l'exposition humaine aux
champs électromagnétiques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.020, 29.140 ISBN 978-2-8322-2348-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62493:2015
– 2 – IEC 62493:2015 © IEC 2015
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms, definitions, physical quantities, units and abbreviations ..................................... 10

3.1 Terms and definitions ............................................................................................ 10

3.2 Physical quantities and units ................................................................................. 12

3.3 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................ 13

4 Limits ............................................................................................................................ 13

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 13

4.2 Unintentional radiating part of lighting equipment .................................................. 14

4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

4.2.2 Lighting equipment deemed to comply with the Van der Hoofden test

without testing ............................................................................................... 14

4.2.3 Application of limits........................................................................................ 14

4.3 Intentional radiating part of lighting equipment ...................................................... 14

5 General requirements Van der Hoofden test .................................................................. 15

5.1 Measurand ............................................................................................................ 15

5.2 Supply voltage and frequency ............................................................................... 15

5.3 Measurement frequency range .............................................................................. 16

5.4 Ambient temperature............................................................................................. 16

5.5 Measurement equipment requirements.................................................................. 16

5.6 Measurement instrumentation uncertainty ............................................................. 17

5.7 Test report ............................................................................................................ 17

5.8 Evaluation of results ............................................................................................. 18

6 Measurement procedure for the Van der Hoofden test ................................................... 18

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

6.2 Operating conditions ............................................................................................. 18

6.2.1 Operating conditions for lighting equipment ................................................... 18

6.2.2 Operating conditions for specific lighting equipment ...................................... 18

6.2.3 Operating conditions for lighting equipment with intentional radiators ............ 19

6.3 Measurement distance .......................................................................................... 19

6.4 Measurement set-up ............................................................................................. 19

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

6.4.2 Measurement set-up for specific lighting equipment ....................................... 20

6.5 Location of measurement test head ...................................................................... 20

6.6 Calculation of the results ...................................................................................... 20

7 Assessment procedure intentional radiators................................................................... 20

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

7.2 Low-power exclusion method ................................................................................ 20

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

7.2.2 Determination of the total radiated power ...................................................... 21

7.2.3 Determination of the low-power exclusion level .............................................. 21

7.2.4 Summation of multiple transmitters ................................................................ 21

7.3 Application of the EMF product standard for body worn-equipment ....................... 21

7.4 Application of the EMF product standard for base stations .................................... 21

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SIST EN 62493:2015
IEC 62493:2015 © IEC 2015 – 3 –

7.5 Application of another EMF standard .................................................................... 21

Annex A (normative) Measurement distances ...................................................................... 23

Annex B (informative) Location of measurement test head ................................................... 24

Annex C (informative) Exposure limits ................................................................................. 29

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 29

C.2 ICNIRP ................................................................................................................. 29

C.2.1 ICNIRP 1998 ................................................................................................. 29

C.2.2 ICNIRP 2010 ................................................................................................. 29

C.3 IEEE ..................................................................................................................... 29

Annex D (informative) Rationale measurement and assessment method .............................. 31

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 31

D.2 Induced internal electric field ................................................................................ 31

D.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 31

D.2.2 Induced electric field due to the magnetic field; E (f ,d ) ..................... 33

eddy i loop

D.2.3 Induced electric field due to the electric field; E (f ,d) ................................. 38

cap i

D.3 Thermal effects from 100 kHz to 300 GHz ............................................................. 41

D.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 41

D.3.2 The 100 kHz to 30 MHz contribution to the thermal effects ............................ 42

D.3.3 The 30 MHz to 300 MHz contribution to the thermal effects ........................... 43

D.3.4 Overall conclusion for the contribution to thermal effects ............................... 44

Annex E (normative) Practical internal electric-field measurement and assessment

method ................................................................................................................................. 45

E.1 Measurement of induced internal electric field....................................................... 45

E.2 Calculation program .............................................................................................. 45

E.3 Compliance criterion for the Van der Hoofden head test ........................................ 46

Annex F (normative) Protection network .............................................................................. 47

F.1 Calibration of the protection network ..................................................................... 47

F.2 Calculation of the theoretical characteristic of the protection network .................... 48

Annex G (informative) Measurement instrumentation uncertainty ......................................... 50

Annex H (informative) Equipment deemed to comply ........................................................... 52

Annex I (informative) Intentional radiators ............................................................................ 54

I.1 General ................................................................................................................. 54

I.2 Intentional radiators in lighting equipment ............................................................. 54

I.3 Properties of antennas in lighting applications ...................................................... 54

I.4 Exposure assessment approach............................................................................ 60

I.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 60

I.4.2 Determination of average total radiated power P .................................. 60

int,rad

I.4.3 Determination of the low-power exclusion level P .................................... 61

max

I.5 Multiple transmitters in a luminaire ........................................................................ 61

I.6 Exposure to multiple luminaires ............................................................................ 62

I.7 References in Annex I ........................................................................................... 62

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 64

Figure 1 – Compliance routes and pass/fail criteria for lighting equipment ............................ 15

Figure 2 – The Van der Hoofden test head ............................................................................ 16

Figure 3 – Example of a protection circuit ............................................................................. 17

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SIST EN 62493:2015
– 4 – IEC 62493:2015 © IEC 2015

Figure 4 – Measurement set-up ............................................................................................ 19

Figure 5 – Compliance demonstration procedure for the intentional-transmitter part of

the lighting equipment ........................................................................................................... 22

Figure B.1 – Location of measurement point in the transverse direction of lighting

equipment – side view .......................................................................................................... 24

Figure B.2 – Location of measurement points in the longitude direction of lighting

equipment – side view .......................................................................................................... 24

Figure B.3 – Location of measurement points in the longitude direction of lighting

equipment; in the direction of illumination ............................................................................. 25

Figure B.4 – Location of measurement point for lighting equipment with rotationally

symmetrical dimensions ........................................................................................................ 25

Figure B.5 – Location of measurement point for lighting equipment with rotationally

symmetrical dimensions; in the direction of illumination ........................................................ 26

Figure B.6 – Location of measurement point for lighting equipment with the same

dimensions in the x- and y- axis ............................................................................................ 26

Figure B.7 – Location of measurement point(s) for lighting equipment with single

capped lamp (360° illumination) ............................................................................................ 27

Figure B.8 – Location of measurement points for lighting equipment with a remote

controlgear ........................................................................................................................... 27

Figure B.9 – Location of measurement point for an independent electronic converter .......... 28

Figure B.10 – Location of measurement point(s) for an uplighter (floor

standing/suspended) ............................................................................................................. 28

Figure D.1 – Overview measurement and assessment method .............................................. 31

Figure D.2 – Distances of the head, loop and measurement set-up ....................................... 33

Figure D.3 – Maximum current in the 2 m LLA as function of the frequency .......................... 35

Figure D.4 – Induced internal electric field and associated limit levels .................................. 37

Figure D.5 – Example of magnetic-field test result using the LLA .......................................... 38

Figure D.6 – Distances of the head and measurement set-up ............................................... 39

Figure D.7 – Plot of Equation (D.20) ..................................................................................... 39

Figure D.8 – Example of the CM-current measured using a conducted emission test ............ 43

Figure F.1 – Test set-up for normalization of the network analyser ........................................ 47

Figure F.2 – Test set-up for measurement of the voltage division factor using a

network analyser ................................................................................................................... 48

Figure F.3 – Calculated theoretical characteristic for the calibration of the protection

network ................................................................................................................................. 49

Figure H.1 – Flow chart to determine applicability deemed to comply without F factor

measurement ........................................................................................................................ 53

Figure I.1 – Luminaire with a transmitting antenna in a room................................................. 56

Figure I.2 – Impact of a conducting ceiling/plane .................................................................. 57

Figure I.3 – Electric field of a small electrical dipole: analytical formula vs far-field

approximation ....................................................................................................................... 58

Figure I.4 – Electric field as a function of distance, antenna gain and input power (far-

field approximation) .............................................................................................................. 59

Figure I.5 – Impact of pulsed signals on the average exposure ............................................. 60

Table 1 – Physical quantities and units ................................................................................. 13

Table 2 – Receiver or spectrum analyser settings ................................................................. 16

Table A.1 – Lighting equipment and measurement distances ................................................ 23

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SIST EN 62493:2015
IEC 62493:2015 © IEC 2015 – 5 –

Table C.1 – Basic restrictions for general public exposure to time varying electric and

magnetic fields for frequencies between 100 kHz and 10 GHz .............................................. 29

Table C.2 – Basic restrictions for general public exposure to time varying electric and

magnetic fields for frequencies up to 10 MHz ........................................................................ 29

Table C.3 – IEEE basic restrictions (BR) for the general public ............................................. 30

Table C.4 – IEEE basic restrictions (BR) between 100 kHz and 3 GHz for the general

public .................................................................................................................................... 30

Table D.1 – Induced internal electric field calculations .......................................................... 34

Table D.2 – Calculation main contributions ........................................................................... 40

Table D.3 – Frequency steps for the amplitude addition that equals 1,11 times B ................ 41

Table D.4 – Frequency steps for the power addition that equals 0,833 times B ................... 42

Table D.5 – Field strength limits according to CISPR 15 ....................................................... 43

Table E.1 – Conductivity as a function of frequency (see Table C.1 of IEC 62311:2007) ....... 46

Table G.1 – Uncertainty calculation for the measurement method described in Clauses

5 and 6 in the frequency range from 20 kHz to 10 MHz ......................................................... 50

Table G.2 – Comments and information to Table G.1 ............................................................ 51

Table I.1 – Overview of wireless radio technologies that might be applied in lighting

systems ................................................................................................................................ 55

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SIST EN 62493:2015
– 6 – IEC 62493:2015 © IEC 2015
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ASSESSMENT OF LIGHTING EQUIPMENT RELATED
TO HUMAN EXPOSURE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

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other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62493 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 34: Lamps

and related equipment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2009. This edition

constitutes a technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

a) identification of lighting product types deemed to comply with the standard without the

need for test;

b) deletion of the need for CISPR-15-compliance as a prerequisite for IEC 62493 compliance;

c) inclusion of the consequences of the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines for (up to 100 kHz);

d) adding some guidance to the Van der Hoofden test head method to improve reproducibility

...

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