Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Evaluation of thermal environments in vehicles - Part 2: Determination of equivalent temperature (ISO 14505-2:2006)

This part of ISO 14505 provides guidelines for the assessment of the thermal conditions inside a vehicle compartment. It can also be applied to other confined spaces with asymmetric climatic conditions. It is primarily intended for assessment of thermal conditions, when deviations from thermal neutrality are relatively small. Appropriate methodology as given in this par t of ISO 14505 can be chosen for inclusion in specific performance standards for testing of HVAC-systems for vehicles and similar confined spaces.

Ergonomie der thermischen Umgebung - Beurteilung der thermischen Umgebung in Fahrzeugen - Teil 2: Bestimmung der Äquivalenttemperatur (ISO 14505-2:2006)

Dieser Teil von ISO 14505 enthält Leitlinien für die Beurteilung der thermischen Bedingungen in einem Fahrzeug. Er kann auch für andere geschlossene Räume mit asymmetrischen Klimabedingungen angewendet werden. Er ist in erster Linie für die Beurteilung der thermischen Bedingungen vorgesehen, wenn die Abweichungen von der thermischen Neutralität relativ klein sind.  Eine geeignete Methodologie, wie sie in diesem Teil von ISO 14505 angegeben ist, kann ausgewählt werden, um in speziellen Anforderungsnormen zur Prüfung von HVAC Anlagen für Fahrzeuge und ähnliche geschlossene Räume berücksichtigt zu werden.

Ergonomie des ambiances thermiques - Évaluation des ambiances thermiques dans les véhicules - Partie 2: Détermination de la température équivalente (ISO 14505-2:2006)

L'ISO 14505-2:2006 donne des lignes directrices relatives à l'évaluation des conditions thermiques à l'intérieur d'un habitacle de véhicule. Elle peut également s'appliquer à d'autres espaces confinés où règnent des conditions climatiques asymétriques. Elle est essentiellement destinée à l'évaluation des conditions thermiques, lorsque les écarts par rapport à la neutralité thermique sont relativement faibles. L'une des méthodes appropriées décrite dans l'ISO 14505-2:2006 peut être choisie pour être incluse dans des normes de performance spécifiques en vue d'essayer les systèmes de chauffage, de ventilation et de climatisation (système CVCA) des véhicules et les espaces confinés analogues.

Ergonomija toplotnega okolja – Vrednotenje toplotnega okolja v vozilih – 2. del: Ugotavljanje ekvivalentne temperature (ISO 14505-2:2006)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Mar-2007
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Apr-2007
Due Date
01-Apr-2007
Completion Date
01-Apr-2007

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14505-2:2007
01-april-2007
Ergonomija toplotnega okolja – Vrednotenje toplotnega okolja v vozilih – 2. del:
Ugotavljanje ekvivalentne temperature (ISO 14505-2:2006)

Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Evaluation of thermal environments in vehicles

- Part 2: Determination of equivalent temperature (ISO 14505-2:2006)
Ergonomie der thermischen Umgebung - Beurteilung der thermischen Umgebung in
Fahrzeugen - Teil 2: Bestimmung der Äquivalenttemperatur (ISO 14505-2:2006)

Ergonomie des ambiances thermiques - Évaluation des ambiances thermiques dans les

véhicules - Partie 2: Détermination de la température équivalente (ISO 14505-2:2006)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14505-2:2006
ICS:
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
43.020 Cestna vozila na splošno Road vehicles in general
SIST EN ISO 14505-2:2007 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 14505-2
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2006
ICS 13.180; 43.020
English Version
Ergonomics of the thermal environment - Evaluation of thermal
environments in vehicles - Part 2: Determination of equivalent
temperature (ISO 14505-2:2006)

Ergonomie des ambiances thermiques - Évaluation des Ergonomie der thermischen Umgebung - Beurteilung der

ambiances thermiques dans les véhicules - Partie 2: thermischen Umgebung in Fahrzeugen - Teil 2:

Détermination de la température équivalente (ISO 14505- Bestimmung der Äquivalenttemperatur (ISO 14505-2:2006)

2:2006)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 December 2006.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

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© 2006 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14505-2:2006: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN ISO 14505-2:2006 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 14505-2:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159

"Ergonomics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 "Ergonomics", the secretariat

of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2007, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by June 2007.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14505-2:2006 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14505-2:2006 without any

modifications.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14505-2
First edition
2006-12-15
Ergonomics of the thermal
environment — Evaluation of thermal
environments in vehicles —
Part 2:
Determination of equivalent temperature
Ergonomie des ambiances thermiques — Évaluation des ambiances
thermiques dans les véhicules —
Partie 2: Détermination de la température équivalente
Reference number
ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
ISO 2006
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
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ii © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Assessment principles......................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 General description of equivalent temperature................................................................................. 2

4.2 General determination principle of equivalent temperature ............................................................ 3

5 Specific equivalent temperatures ....................................................................................................... 4

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Whole body equivalent temperature................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Segmental equivalent temperature..................................................................................................... 5

5.4 Directional equivalent temperature..................................................................................................... 5

5.5 Omnidirectional equivalent temperature............................................................................................ 6

6 Measuring instruments ........................................................................................................................ 7

7 Assessment........................................................................................................................................... 7

7.1 Determination of whole body equivalent temperature...................................................................... 8

7.2 Determination of local equivalent temperature ................................................................................. 8

Annex A (informative) Examples of measuring instruments......................................................................... 9

Annex B (informative) Characteristics and specifications of measuring instruments ............................. 12

Annex C (informative) Calibration and other determinations...................................................................... 18

Annex D (informative) Interpretation of equivalent temperature................................................................. 20

Annex E (informative) Examples..................................................................................................................... 23

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 25

© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 14505-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159, Ergonomics, Subcommittee SC 5,

Ergonomics of the physical environment.

ISO 14505 consists of the following parts, under the general title Ergonomics of the thermal environment —

Evaluation of thermal environments in vehicles:

⎯ Part 1: Principles and methods for assessment of thermal stress [Technical Specification]

⎯ Part 2: Determination of equivalent temperature
⎯ Part 3: Evaluation of thermal comfort using human subjects
iv © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
Introduction

The interaction of convective, radiative and conductive heat exchange in a vehicle compartment is very

complex. External thermal loads in combination with the internal heating and ventilation system of the vehicle

create a local climate that can vary considerably in space and time. Asymmetric thermal conditions arise and

these are often the main cause of complaints of thermal discomfort. In vehicles without or having a poor

heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system (HVAC-system), thermal stress is determined largely by the

impact of the ambient climatic conditions on the vehicle compartment. Subjective evaluation is integrative, as

the individual combines into one reaction the combined effect of several thermal stimuli. However, it is not

sufficiently detailed or accurate for repeated use. Technical measurements provide detailed and accurate

information, but require integration in order to predict the thermal effects on humans. Since several climatic

factors play a role for the final heat exchange of a person, an integrated measure of these factors,

representing their relative importance, is required.
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Evaluation of
thermal environments in vehicles —
Part 2:
Determination of equivalent temperature
1 Scope

This part of ISO 14505 provides guidelines for the assessment of the thermal conditions inside a vehicle

compartment. It can also be applied to other confined spaces with asymmetric climatic conditions. It is

primarily intended for assessment of thermal conditions, when deviations from thermal neutrality are relatively

small. Appropriate methodology as given in this part of ISO 14505 can be chosen for inclusion in specific

performance standards for testing of HVAC-systems for vehicles and similar confined spaces.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies
ISO 13731, Ergonomics of the thermal environment — Vocabulary and symbols
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13731 and the following apply.

3.1
equivalent temperature

temperature of a homogenous space, with mean radiant temperature equal to air temperature and zero air

velocity, in which a person exchanges the same heat loss by convection and radiation as in the actual

conditions under assessment
3.2
whole body equivalent temperature
eq,whole

temperature of an imaginary enclosure with the same temperature in air and on surrounding surfaces and with

air velocity equal to zero in which a full-scale, human shaped, heated sensor will exchange the same dry heat

by radiation and convection as in the actual non-uniform environment
3.3
segmental equivalent temperature
eq,segment

uniform temperature of an imaginary enclosure with the same temperature in air and on surrounding surfaces

and with air velocity equal to zero in which one or more selected zones of a thermal manikin will exchange the

same dry heat by radiation and convection as in the actual non-uniform environment

© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
3.4
directional equivalent temperature
eq,direct

uniform temperature of an imaginary enclosure with the same temperature in air and on surrounding surfaces

and with air velocity equal to zero in which a small flat heated surface will exchange the same dry heat by

radiation and convection as in the actual non-uniform environment
3.5
omnidirectional equivalent temperature
eq,omni

uniform temperature of an imaginary enclosure with the same temperature in air and on surrounding surfaces

and with air velocity equal to zero in which a heated ellipsoid will exchange the same dry heat by radiation and

convection as in the actual non-uniform environment
3.6
segment

part of a human-shaped sensor, normally corresponding to a real body-part, consisting of one or several

whole zones, for which a segmental equivalent temperature, t , is presented
eq, segment
3.7
zone

physical partition of a manikin, which is independently regulated and within which the surface temperature and

heat exchange is measured
3.8
HVAC-system
heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system of the vehicle and/or cabin
4 Assessment principles

The assessment principle is based on the measurement of the equivalent temperature. The equivalent

temperature provides a unified, physical measure of the climatic effects on the human dry heat exchange. On

the basis of the actual value for, and the variation in, equivalent temperature, it is possible to predict the

conditions for heat balance under conditions in or close to the thermoneutral zone. People’s thermal sensation

is primarily influenced by general and local levels and variations in skin surface heat flux. Values for the

equivalent temperature of a defined environment have been found to be closely related to how people

perceive thermal conditions when exposed to the same environment. This can be used for the interpretation of

the t value and assessment of the quality of the environment.

The climate is assessed in terms of a total equivalent temperature, which describes the level of thermal

neutrality.

The climate is also assessed for local effects on defined parts of the human body surface. The local

equivalent temperatures determine to what extent the actual body parts fall within the range of acceptable

levels of heat loss (local discomfort).
4.1 General description of equivalent temperature

The equivalent temperature is a pure physical quantity, that in a physically sound way integrates the

independent effects of convection and radiation on human body heat exchange. This relationship is best

described for the overall (whole body) heat exchange. There is limited experience with relations between local

dry heat exchange and local equivalent temperature. The standardized definition of t applies only for the

whole body. Therefore, the definition has to be modified for the purposes of this part of ISO 14505. t does

not take into account human perception and sensation or other the subjective aspects. However, empirical

studies show that t values are well related to the subjective perception of the thermal effect.

2 © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
4.2 General determination principle of equivalent temperature

Determination of t is based on equations for convective and radiative heat transfer for clothed persons. Heat

exchange by conduction is assumed to be small and accounted for by radiation and convection.

R=−ht()t (1)
rsk r
Ch=−()t t (2)
csk a
where
R is heat exchange by radiation, in watts per square metre (W/m );
C is heat exchange by convection, in watts per square metre (W/m );
h is the radiation heat transfer coefficient, in watts per square metre (W/m );
h is the convection heat transfer coefficient, in watts per square metre (W/m );
t is the skin temperature, in degrees Celsius (°C);
t is the mean radiant temperature, in degrees Celsius (°C);
t is the ambient air temperature, in degrees Celsius (°C).
In practice the equivalent temperature is determined and defined by
tt=− (3)
eq s
cal
where
t is the surface temperature;
t is the temperature of the standard environment;

Q is the measured convective and radiative heat loss during the actual conditions,

QR=+C (4)

h is the combined heat transfer coefficient, determined during calibration in a standard environment.

cal

The standard environment comprises homogenous, uniform thermal conditions with t = t and air velocity, v ,

a r a
< 0,1 m/s. A suitable calibration procedure is described in Annex C.
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
5 Specific equivalent temperatures
5.1 General

As there is no method available for measurement of the true total or local t , four specific equivalent

temperatures are calculated according to different principles, according to 5.2 to 5.5. Depending on different

measuring principles, they are defined as
a) whole body equivalent temperature,
b) segmental equivalent temperature,
c) directional equivalent temperature,
d) omnidirectional equivalent temperature.
5.2 Whole body equivalent temperature
5.2.1 Determination principle

The principle of determination is to measure the total heat flow from a human-sized test manikin consisting of

several zones, each with a specific measured surface temperature similar to that of a human being.

Theoretically whole body equivalent temperature can be measured with thermal manikins or a large number of

flat heated sensors attached to an unheated manikin. The accuracy of the result is depending on surface

temperature, size of body, number and division of zones, posture etc. An appropriate method to use is a

thermal manikin divided into separate, individually heated zones covering the whole body, with surface

temperatures close to that of a real human being. A human-sized manikin with only one zone will not

determine a realistic whole body t because the thermal conditions vary too much over the surface. The more

zones the manikin has, the more correct value it will measure.
5.2.2 Calculation
whole
tt=− (5)
eq,whole sk,whole
cal,whole
()tA×
∑ sk,nn
(6)
t =
sk,whole
∑ n
()QA×
∑ nn
Q = (7)
whole
where
h is determined by calibration in a standard environment (see Annex C);
cal, whole
n is the number of zones of the body (0 < n u N).

In order to be able to compare results from other manikins, the measured t should be presented together

with specifications of the manikin used, such as regulation principle, skin temperature, number of zones etc.

(see Annexes A and B).
4 © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
5.3 Segmental equivalent temperature
5.3.1 Determination principle

The principle of determination is to measure the total heat flow from a segment consisting of one or more

zones, each with a specific measured surface temperature similar to that of a human being.

The segmental t is based on the heat flow from a certain part of the body, i.e. a segment, such as hand,

head or chest. The segmental t can only be measured with a full-sized, human-shaped heated sensor, e.g.

a thermal manikin. The number of zones and the partition between them must at least be such that it

corresponds to the actual segment that the segmental t should be measured for. Some segments, e.g. thigh,

need to be divided into at least two zones within the segment, because the thermal conditions are different on

the front and the rear (seat contact) side in the case of the thigh.
5.3.2 Calculation
segment
tt=− (8)
eq, segment sk, segment
cal, segment
()tA×
∑ sk,nn
t = (9)
sk, segment
∑ n
()QA×
∑ nn
Q = (10)
segment
∑ n
where
h is determined by calibration in a standard environment (see Annex C);
cal, segment
n is the number of zones of the body (0 < n u N).

The segment can be freely chosen, but it must consist of one or more whole zones. Normally body parts like

head, hands, arms, feet, legs, chest, back and seat are chosen. To be able to compare results from other

measurements, the measured t should be presented with specifications about the segment used, such as

regulation principle, surface temperature, which body part, number, size and partition of zones of the segment

(see Annexes A and B).
5.4 Directional equivalent temperature
5.4.1 Determination principle

The principle of determination is to measure the total heat flow from a small flat surface with a measured

surface temperature. The directional t can be described as a normal vector to the measuring plane in every

point, defined by magnitude and direction. It refers to the heat exchange within the half-sphere in front of the

infinitesimal plane. The directional t can only be measured with a flat sensor, which might or might not be

attached to an unheated manikin or other positioning device. Several sensors can be used simultaneously to

determine directional t at other locations or in other directions, provided that they are positioned so that they

do not influence each other.
5.4.2 Calculation
direct
tt=− (11)
eq, direct sk, direct
cal, direct
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
where
t is the surface temperature of the sensor;
sk,direct
Q is the heat flow from the sensor;
direct

h is determined by calibration of the sensor in a standard environment (see Annex C).

cal,direct

A local equivalent temperature, t , can be calculated as an average value from several measurements at

eq, local

the same location but in different directions. It can be calculated as an arithmetic mean value without weighing

factors or with weighing to simulate a certain body posture.
eq, direct,n
t = (12)
eq, local
where n is the number of directions.
tt=×()A
eq, local eq, direct,nn
(13)
where n is the number of locations, with Σ(A ) = 1.

A total equivalent temperature can be calculated as a weighted mean value of local equivalent temperatures.

tt=×()A
eq, local ∑ eq, local,nn
(14)

where n is the number of measurements, with Σ(A ) = 1, and A represents body postures.

In order to be able to compare results from other measurements, the measured t should be presented with

specifications about the sensor used, such as regulation principle, surface temperature, size and also location

and direction of the sensor (see Annexes A and B). Whole body t and total t is not the same. In an

eq eq

asymmetric climate and with seat contact the difference between them will be considerable.

5.5 Omnidirectional equivalent temperature
5.5.1 Determination principle

The principle of determination is to measure the total heat flow from the surface of an ellipsoid with a

measured surface temperature. The omnidirectional t can be described as the weighted mean value of the

directional t in all directions. The weighing factors for the different directions are dependent of the form

of the ellipsoid. It refers to the heat exchange in all directions. The omnidirectional t can only be measured

with an ellipsoid sensor with uniform heat flow over the surface. One or more sensors can be used

simultaneously. If more than one sensor is used, it must be pointed out that the sensors will influence each

other as hot surfaces in the sphere that is measured.
5.5.2 Calculation
omni
tt=−
(15)
eq, omni sk, omni
cal, omni
where
t is the surface temperature of the sensor;
sk,omni
Q is the heat flow from the sensor;
omni

h is determined by calibration of the sensor in a standard environment (see Annex C).

cal,omni
6 © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14505-2:2006(E)

Omnidirectional t determined with one ellipsoid sensor in an asymmetric climate is a local t . A total t can

eq eq eq

be calculated as an arithmetic mean value from sensors at different locations with weighing factors for

different body parts according to SAE J 2234.
tt=×()A (16)
eq, total ∑ eq, local,nn
where n is the number of locations, with Σ(A ) = 1.

In order to be able to compare results from other measurements, the measured t should be presented with

specifications about the sensor used, such as regulation principle, surface temperature, size and also location

and direction of the sensor (see Annexes A and B).
6 Measuring instruments

Several measurement methods and instruments, representing different measuring principles, are given in

Annexes A and B. Depending on needs, a method as given in Annex A should be selected.

Measurement values obtained with principally different methods are not comparable with each other. They

represent different levels in terms of
⎯ reliability,
⎯ relevance,
⎯ validity,
⎯ repeatability,
⎯ accuracy,
⎯ integration,
⎯ complexity
⎯ cost, and
⎯ availability

Performance and requirements of the specific methods are given in Annex B. Requirements for calibration

procedures are given in Annex C.
7 Assessment

The equivalent temperature represents a quantitative assessment of the conditions for physical heat

exchange. The numeric value of t is a temperature level that can come close to “normal” expected room

temperatures. Higher t values indicate lower heat losses (“warmer”), while lower t values indicate higher

eq eq
heat losses (“colder”).

The interpretation of equivalent temperature in terms of anticipated perceived thermal sensation is based on

series of experiments with subjects in which the different types of equivalent temperature have been

measured. Examples of interpretation are given in Annex C. For some types of equivalent temperature, data

are not available for comparison with human responses. Nevertheless, these kinds of measurement can be

used for differential measurements of thermal conditions.
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 14505-2:2006(E)
7.1 Determination of whole body equivalent temperature

Determination of whole body equivalent temperature should preferably be done with measurements using a

thermal manikin or by integration of discrete measurements using omnidirectional sensors placed at defined

positions in the vehicle cabin.
7.1.1 Determination with omnidirectional sensors

Omnidirectional sensors are described in Annexes A and B. Sensors are placed on a stand simulating a

person and placed in a seat of the vehicle. At least six sensors are placed in relevant positions and

measurements are made when steady state
...

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