Liquid petroleum products - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in diesel engines and heating applications - Requirements and test methods

EN 14214 + A1 specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl esters (hereafter known as FAME) to be used either as fuel for diesel engines and for heating applications at 100 % concentration, or as an extender for distillate fuel for diesel engines in accordance with the requirements of EN 590 and for heating fuel. At 100 % concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engines and in heating applications designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100 % FAME.

Flüssige Mineralölerzeugnisse - Fettsäure-Methylester (FAME) zur Verwendung in Dieselmotoren und als Heizöl - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Diese Europäische Norm legt Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren für gehandelte und ausgelieferte Fettsäure-Methylester (en: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, FAME) für die Verwendung in Kraftfahrzeugen mit Dieselmotoren oder als Heizöl fest, entweder als Dieselkraftstoff bzw. Heizöl mit einer Konzentration von 100 %, oder als Blendkomponente für Diesel¬kraftstoff in Übereinstimmung mit den Anforderungen nach EN 590 bzw. für Heizöl. Bei einer Konzentration von 100 % ist FAME einsetzbar in Fahrzeugen mit Dieselmotoren und in Heizungsanlagen, welche für den Einsatz von 100 % FAME entwickelt oder nachträglich angepasst wurden.
ANMERKUNG   In dieser Europäischen Norm werden die Symbole „% (m/m)“ und „% (V/V)“ verwendet, um Massenanteile ( ) bzw. Volumenanteile ( ) in % auszudrücken.

Produits pétroliers liquides - Esters méthyliques d'acides gras (EMAG) pour moteurs diesel et comme combustible de chauffage - Exigences et méthodes d'essai

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les exigences et méthodes d'essais applicables aux esters méthyliques d'acides gras (dénommés EMAG par la suite), commercialisés et livrés comme carburant pour moteurs diesel et pour des applications de chauffage, soit à une concentration de 100 %, soit comme composant de distillats combustibles pour les moteurs diesel, conformément aux exigences de l'EN 590, et pour le fioul domestique. A la concentration de 100 %, elle est applicable aux carburants utilisés par les véhicules à moteur diesel et par des applications de chauffage conçus ou adaptés pour fonctionner avec 100 % d’EMAG. NOTE Dans le cadre de la présente Norme européenne, les termes "% (m/m)" et "% (V/V)" sont utilisés pour désigner respectivement la fraction massique, µ, et la fraction volumique  .

Goriva za motorna vozila - Metilni estri maščobnih kislin (FAME) za dizelske motorje in ogrevanje - Zahteve in preskusne metode

Dopolnilo k standardu, ki se nanaša na goriva za motorna vozila – metilni estri maščobnih kislin (FAME) za dizelske motorje – zahteve in preskusne metode.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
09-Feb-2014
Withdrawal Date
07-Mar-2019
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Mar-2019
Due Date
27-Mar-2019
Completion Date
08-Mar-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Flüssige Mineralölerzeugnisse - Fettsäure-Methylester (FAME) zur Verwendung in Dieselmotoren und als Heizöl - Anforderungen und PrüfverfahrenProduits pétroliers liquides - Esters méthyliques d'acides gras (EMAG) pour moteurs diesel et comme combustible de chauffage - Exigences et méthodes d'essaiLiquid petroleum products - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in diesel engines and heating applications - Requirements and test methods75.160.20Liquid fuelsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14214:2012+A1:2014SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014en,fr,de01-marec-2014SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 14214:2012+A1
January 2014 ICS 75.160.20 Supersedes EN 14214:2012
English Version

Liquid petroleum products - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in diesel engines and heating applications - Requirements and test methods

Produits pétroliers liquides - Esters méthyliques d'acides gras (EMAG) pour moteurs diesel et comme combustible de chauffage - Exigences et méthodes d'essai

Flüssige Mineralölerzeugnisse - Fettsäure-Methylester (FAME) zur Verwendung in Dieselmotoren und als Heizöl - Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren This European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 July 2012 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 10 November 2013.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 14214:2012+A1:2014 E SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014

EN 14214:2012+A1:2014 (E)

2 Contents Page Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 6 3 Sampling ................................................................................................................................................. 8 4 Pump marking ........................................................................................................................................ 8 5 Requirements and test methods .......................................................................................................... 8 5.1 Dyes and markers .................................................................................................................................. 8 5.2 Additives ................................................................................................................................................. 8 5.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 8 5.2.2 Oxidation stability enhancing additives .............................................................................................. 8 5.2.3 Non-FAME components ........................................................................................................................ 9 5.3 Generally applicable requirements and related test methods .......................................................... 9 5.4 Climate dependent requirements and related test methods ........................................................... 11 5.4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 11 5.4.2 FAME being used at 100 % as fuel for diesel engines and heating applications ......................... 11 5.4.3 FAME being used as blend component in diesel fuel ..................................................................... 12 5.5 Precision and dispute ......................................................................................................................... 13 Annex A (normative)

Details of interlaboratory test programme ............................................................... 15 Annex B (normative)

Correction factor for calculation of density of FAME ............................................. 17 Annex C (informative)

Background information for national climate grades selection .......................... 18 C.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 18 C.2 Calculation model for saturated monoglycerides in pure FAME ................................................... 19 C.3 Calculation of EN 590 diesel fuel saturated monoglyceride content ............................................. 19 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 21 SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014

EN 14214:2012+A1:2014 (E)

Foreword This document (EN 14214:2012+A1:2014) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 19 “Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of petroleum, synthetic and biological origin”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by July 2014, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by July 2014. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 14214:2012. This document includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 2013-11-10. The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags . This document has originally been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). Deleted text Significant technical changes between this European Standard and the previous edition are: — extension towards distillate heating fuels. The former specification for FAME for heating fuel applications (EN 14213) also needed to be aligned, but effectively only one quality was supplied and required by heating fuel suppliers in the European market; — further clarification regarding the use of dyes and markers due to its new heating fuel application; — an update of the specification in the perspective of blending at up to 10 % (V/V) of FAME in automotive diesel fuel; — removal of identification of parallel existence with EN 590 as FAME is being used for more than one blending purpose; — discrimination between climate requirements for use for 100 % as fuel for diesel engines and for use as blend component in diesel fuel. This is done by introducing a new Table 3 for seasonal grades to be set nationally. It thus requires countries to present two sets of seasonal choices in a national annex to this standard; — introduction of additional requirements for FAME for use as a blending component as a first, intermediate, step towards solving precipitation problems observed in the market during cold periods. Further work towards limitation of impurities, more specifically steryl-glycosides, and SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014

EN 14214:2012+A1:2014 (E)

4 regarding monoglyceride determination is on-going. A performance test, such as a filterability test, is anticipated to solve this issue in the longer term; — a decrease of the monoglycerides content limit from 0,8 % (m/m) to 0,7 % (m/m); — deletion of the requirement on carbon residue as it is no longer considered necessary; — an increase of the oxidation stability requirement from 6 h minimum to 8 h minimum; — introduction of additionally developed test methods for iodine value, phosphorus content CFPP and sulfur content, EN 16300, EN 16294, EN 16329 and EN ISO 13032, respectively. Plus updating towards revised sulfur and sulfated ash content determination test methods; — updating of test methods on esters, (mono) glycerides, polyunsaturated fatty acids oxidation stability, total contamination, and stability characteristics of FAME, resulting from work under CEN/TC 19 and in cooperation with CEN/TC 307, either as final publication or as technically assessed and accepted draft texts. The test method procedure for total contamination (EN 12662) has been technically updated to specifically allow improved applicability to FAME (see CEN/TC 19/N 1512R, report I); — combination of all sub-clauses dealing with additives in one and aligning them with similar requirements in EN 590. — a re-evaluation of Table A.1 has been executed and it was agreed to complete Annex A by presenting reproducibility information for all test methods that is mainly of interest to people handling the product. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014

EN 14214:2012+A1:2014 (E)

5 Introduction This European Standard gives all relevant characteristics, requirements and test methods for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), which are known at this time to be necessary to define the product to be used as automotive diesel fuel and in heating applications. Many of the test methods included in this European Standard have been the subject of several interlaboratory testing to determine their applicability and their precision in relation to different sources of FAME. These FAMEs were produced from vegetable oils available in the market at the time, mainly rapeseed, palm, soy and sunflower oil. This does not imply any restrictions towards the feedstock for the fats and oils from which the FAME is made to comply with this European Standard (see Foreword). Concerning total contamination, an interlaboratory study with field samples, following a study with artificial samples, is pending and therefore the repeatability and reproducibility of EN 12662 have not yet been fully established. The precision for FAME is investigated. Concerning cold temperature properties of diesel blends related to the quality of the FAME used as a blending component, strong indications towards the relationship with saturated mono-glycerides and steryl-glycosides have become known. As no test method to detect those components separately has yet been developed, an interim solution in setting CFPP and cloud point limitations has been included in this standard (see Table 3). A study within CEN has indicated that FAME conforms to the current precision statements of EN 116 and EN 23015. Although there are technical indications that iodine value can be removed as an indication for FAME stability, relaxation at this time would be premature. Until the stability safeguards introduced by this revision have been proven in the market, it is maintained, also preventing unnecessarily high usage of anti-oxidant additives. In order to meet the needs of the latest technology engines, lowering of the phosphorus limit and the limit of sodium and potassium is under investigation. SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014

EN 14214:2012+A1:2014 (E)

6 1 Scope This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered fatty acid methyl esters (hereafter known as FAME) to be used either as fuel for diesel engines and for heating applications at 100 % concentration, or as an extender for distillate fuel for diesel engines in accordance with the requirements of EN 590 and for heating fuel. At 100 % concentration it is applicable to fuel for use in diesel engines and in heating applications designed or subsequently adapted to run on 100 % FAME. NOTE For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, m. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 116:1997, Diesel and domestic heating fuels - Determination of cold filter plugging point EN 590, Automotive fuels - Diesel - Requirements and test methods EN 12662:20131), Liquid petroleum products — Determination of total contamination in middle distillates, diesel fuels and fatty acid methyl esters EN 14103:2011, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of ester and linolenic acid methyl ester contents EN 14104:2003, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of acid value EN 14105:2011, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of free and total glycerol and mono-, di-, triglyceride contents EN 14106:2003, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of free glycerol content EN 14107:2003, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of phosphorus content by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectrometry EN 14108:2003, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of sodium content by atomic absorption spectrometry EN 14109:2003, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of potassium content by atomic absorption spectrometry EN 14110:2003, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of methanol content EN 14111:2003, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of iodine value EN 14112:2003, Fat and oil derivatives - Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) - Determination of oxidation stability (accelerated oxidation test)

1) Under publication. SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014
EN 14214:2012+A1:2014 (E)

7 EN 14538:2006, Fat and oil derivatives — Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) — Determination of Ca, K, Mg and Na content by optical emission spectral analysis with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES) prEN 15751:20122), Automotive fuels — Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fuel and blends with diesel fuel — Determination of oxidation stability by accelerated oxidation method EN 15779:2009, Petroleum products and fat and oil derivates — Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for diesel engines — aetermination of polyunsaturated (≥ 4 double bondsc fatty acid methyl esters (mrcAc by gas chromatography EN 16294:2012, Petroleum products and fat and oil derivatives - Determination of phosphorus content in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) - Optical emission spectral analysis with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES) EN 16300:2012, Automotive fuels - Determination of iodine value in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) - Calculation method from gas chromatographic data EN 16329:2013, Diesel and domestic heating fuels - Determination of cold filter plugging point - Linear cooling bath method EN 23015:1994, Petroleum products - Determination of cloud point (ISO 3015:1992) EN ISO 2160:1998, Petroleum products - Corrosiveness to copper - Copper strip test (ISO 2160:1998) EN ISO 2719:2002, Determination of flash point - Pensky-Martens closed cup method (ISO 2719:2002) EN ISO 3104:1996, Petroleum products - Transparent and opaque liquids - Determination of kinematic viscosity and calculation of dynamic viscosity (fpl m1M4:1994c EN ISO 3170:2004, Petroleum liquids - Manual sampling (fpl m17M:lMM4c EN ISO 3171:1999, Petroleum liquids - Automatic pipeline sampling (ISO 3171:1988) EN ISO 3675:1998, Crude petroleum and liquid petroleum products - Laboratory determination of density - Hydrometer method (ISO 3675:1998) EN ISO 3679:2004, Determination of flash point - oapid equilibrium closed cup method (fpl mp79:lMM4c EN ISO 4259:2006, Petroleum products - Determination and application of precision data in relation to methods of test (fpl 4lo9:lMMpc EN ISO 5165:1998, Petroleum products - Determination of the ignition quality of diesel fuels - Cetane engine method (ISO 5165:1998) EN ISO 12185:1996, Crude petroleum and petroleum products - Determination of density - lscillating r-tube method (ISO 12185:1996) EN ISO 12937:2000, Petroleum products - Determination of water - Coulometric Karl Fischer titration method (ISO 12937:2000) EN ISO 13032:2012, Petroleum products - Determination of low concentration of sulfur in automotive fuels - Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (ISO 13032:2012) EN ISO 20846:2011, Petroleum products - Determination of sulfur content of automotive fuels - rltraviolet fluorescence method (fpl lMr4p:2011)

2) To be replaced by the final standard once published. SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014

EN 14214:2012+A1:2014 (E)

8 EN ISO 20884:2011, Petroleum products - Determination of sulfur content of automotive fuels - Wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (fpl lMrr4:lM11c ISO 3987:2010, Petroleum products — Determination of sulfated ash in lubricating oils and additives DIN 51900-2, Testing of solid and liquid fuels - Determination of the gross calorific value by the bomb calorimeter and calculation of the net calorific value - Part 2: Method using isoperibol or static jacket calorimeter DIN 51900-3, Testing of solid and liquid fuels - Determination of gross calorific value by the bomb calorimeter and calculation of net calorific value - Part 3: Method using adiabatic jacket 3 Sampling Samples shall be taken as described in EN ISO 3170 or EN ISO 3171 and/or in accordance with the requirements of national standards or regulations for the sampling of automotive diesel fuel or heating fuel. The national requirements shall be set out in a national annex to this European Standard, either in detail or by reference only. In view of the sensitivity of some of the test methods referred to in this European Standard, particular attention shall be paid to compliance with any guidance on sampling containers, which is included in the respective test method standard. 4 Pump marking Information to be marked on dispensing pumps used for delivering FAME diesel fuel, and the dimensions of the mark shall be in accordance with the requirements of national standards or regulations for the marking of pumps for automotive diesel fuel. Such requirements shall be set out in detail or shall be referred to by reference in a national annex to this European Standard. 5 Requirements and test methods 5.1 Dyes and markers The use of dyes or markers is allowed provided they do not affect the performance of legally required dyes or markers in finished fuels. 5.2 Additives 5.2.1 General In order to improve performance, the use of additives is allowed. Suitable fuel additives without known harmful side effects are recommended in the appropriate amount to help avoid deterioration of driveability and emissions control durability. Other technical means with equivalent effect may also be used. NOTE Deposit forming tendency test methods suitable for routine control purposes have not yet been identified and developed. 5.2.2 Oxidation stability enhancing additives In order to improve the oxidation stability of FAME, it is strongly recommended to add oxidation stability enhancing additives to FAME at the production stage and before storage, providing an oxidation stability similar to that obtained with 1 000 mg/kg of 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT). SIST EN 14214:2012+A1:2014

EN 14214:2012+A1:2014 (E)

9 CAUTION — There is a potential risk of precipitate formation with oxidation stability enhancing additives at low temperatures in low aromatic arctic fuel. Caution should therefore be taken in the choice of oxidation stability enhancing additives to arctic grade FAME. 5.2.3 Non-FAME components The addition of non-FAME components (other than additives) such as diesel or other hydrocarbons prior to testing FAME for compliance with the EN 14214 specification is not permitted. 5.3 Generally applicable requirements and related test methods 5.3.1 W

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