Safety of machinery - Indication, marking and actuation -- Part 1: Requirements for visual, acoustic and tactile signals

This part of IEC 61310 specifies requirements for visual, acoustic and tactile methods of indicating safety-related information, at the human-machine interface and to exposed persons. It specifies a system of colours, safety signs, markings and other warnings, intended for use in the indication of hazardous situations and health hazards and for meeting certain emergencies. It also specifies ways of coding visual, acoustic and tactile signals for indicators and actuators to facilitate the safe use and monitoring of the machinery. This standard is based on IEC 60073 with regard to coding by colour and alternative means, but is not limited to electrotechnical aspects.

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Anzeigen, Kennzeichen und Bedienen -- Teil 1: Anforderungen an sichtbare, hörbare und tastbare Signale

Sécurité des machines - Indication, marquage et manoeuvre -- Partie 1: Exigences pour les signaux visuels, acoustiques et tactiles

Spécifie des exigences concernant des méthodes visuelles, acoustiques et tactiles pour transmettre les informations relatives à la sécurité, à l'interface homme-machine et aux personnes exposées. Elle définit des règles générales pour un système de couleurs, de signaux de sécurité, de marquages et autres avertissements, destinées à être utilisées pour indiquer des situations dangereuses et des risques relatifs à la santé, et pour des cas d'urgence. Elle définit aussi comment coder les signaux visuels, acoustiques et tactiles des dispositifs indicateurs et des organes de commande, pour faciliter l'usage et la commande sûrs des machines. Comprend les modifications techniques significatives suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: Adaptation aux normes principales CEI 60073, CEI 60417, ISO 3864-1, ISO 7000 et ISO 7010.

Varnost strojev - Prikaz, oznaka in upravljanje - 1. del: Zahteve za vidne, zvočne in otipljive signale (IEC 61310-1:2007)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Apr-2008
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
27-Feb-2008
Due Date
01-Sep-2008
Completion Date
10-Apr-2008

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 61310-1:2008
01-junij-2008
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SIST EN 61310-1:1999

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Safety of machinery - Indication, marking and actuation - Part 1: Requirements for visual,

acoustic and tactile signals
Sicherheit von Maschinen - Anzeigen, Kennzeichen und Bedienen - Teil 1:
Anforderungen an sichtbare, hörbare und tastbare Signale

Sécurité des machines - Indication, marquage et manoeuvre - Partie 1: Exigences pour

les signaux visuels, acoustiques et tactiles
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 61310-1:2008
ICS:
01.080.20 *UDILþQLVLPEROL]DSRVHEQR Graphical symbols for use on
RSUHPR specific equipment
13.110 Varnost strojev Safety of machinery
SIST EN 61310-1:2008 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 61310-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2008
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.110 Supersedes EN 61310-1:1995
English version
Safety of machinery -
Indication, marking and actuation -
Part 1: Requirements for visual, acoustic and tactile signals
(IEC 61310-1:2007)
Sécurité des machines - Sicherheit von Maschinen -
Indication, marquage et manoeuvre - Anzeigen, Kennzeichen und Bedienen -
Partie 1: Exigences pour les signaux Teil 1: Anforderungen an sichtbare,
visuels, acoustiques et tactiles hörbare und tastbare Signale
(CEI 61310-1:2007) (IEC 61310-1:2007)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2007-12-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2008 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 61310-1:2008 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 61310-1:2008 – 2 –
Foreword

The text of document 44/540/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 61310-1, prepared by IEC TC 44, Safety of

machinery - Electrotechnical aspects, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was

approved by CENELEC as EN 61310-1 on 2007-12-01.
This European Standard supersedes EN 61310-1:1995.

EN 61310-1:2007 includes the following significant technical changes with respect to EN 61310-1:1995:

– adapted to the basic standards EN 60073, IEC 60417, ISO 3864-1, ISO 7000 and ISO 7010.

The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2008-09-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2010-12-01

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association and covers essential requirements of

EC Directives MD (98/37/EC) and MD (2006/42/EC). See Annex ZZ.
Annexes ZA and ZZ have been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61310-1:2007 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 80416 NOTE Harmonized in EN 80416 series (not modified).
IEC 61310-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 61310-3:2008 (not modified).
ISO 9241-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 29241-3:1993 (not modified).
ISO 12100-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN ISO 12100-1:2003 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 3 – EN 61310-1:2008
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60073 2002 Basic and safety principles for man-machine EN 60073 2002
interface, marking and identification - Coding
principles for indicators and actuators
IEC 60204-1 2005 Safety of machinery - Electrical equipment EN 60204-1 2006
(mod) of machines -
Part 1: General requirements
IEC 60417 Data Graphical symbols for use on equipment – –
base
ISO 3864-1 2002 Graphical symbols - Safety colours and – –
safety signs -
Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in
workplaces and public areas
ISO 7000 2004 Graphical symbols for use on equipment - – –
Index and synopsis
ISO 7010 2003 Graphical symbols - Safety colours and
– –
safety signs - Safety signs used in
workplaces and public areas
ISO 7731 2003 Ergonomics - Danger signals for public and EN ISO 7731 2005
work areas - Auditory danger signals
1) 2)
ISO 13850 – Safety of machinery - Emergency stop - EN ISO 13850 2006
Principles for design
Undated reference.
Valid edition at date of issue.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
EN 61310-1:2008 – 4 –
Annex ZZ
(informative)
Coverage of Essential Requirements of EC Directives
Annex ZZA
(informative)
Coverage of Essential Requirements of Directive 98/37/EC

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association and within its scope the standard covers the

following essential requirements out of those given in Annex I of the EC Directive 98/37/EC, amended by

Directive 98/79/EC:
– ER 1.7.0;
– ER 1.7.1.

Compliance with this standard provides one means of conformity with the specified essential

requirements of the Directive concerned.

WARNING: Other requirements and other EC Directives may be applicable to the products falling within

the scope of this standard.
Annex ZZB
(informative)
Coverage of Essential Requirements of Directive 2006/42/EC

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CENELEC by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association and within its scope the standard covers the

following essential requirements out of those given in Annex I of the EC Directive 2006/42/EC:

– ER 1.7.1;
– ER 1.7.1.1;
– ER 1.7.1.2.

Compliance with this standard provides one means of conformity with the specified essential

requirements of the Directive concerned.

WARNING: Other requirements and other EC Directives may be applicable to the products falling within

the scope of this standard.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
NORME CEI
INTERNATIONALE
IEC
61310-1
INTERNATIONAL
Deuxième édition
STANDARD
Second edition
2007-02
Sécurité des machines –
Indication, marquage, manœuvre
Partie 1:
Exigences pour les signaux visuels,
acoustiques et tactiles
Safety of machinery –
Indication, marking and actuation –
Part 1:
Requirements for visual, acoustic
and tactile signals
© IEC 2007 Droits de reproduction réservés ⎯ Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, PO Box 131, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

CODE PRIX
PRICE CODE
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
International Electrotechnical Commission
МеждународнаяЭлектротехническаяКомиссия
Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................5

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................9

1 Scope.............................................................................................................................11

2 Normative references .....................................................................................................11

3 Terms and definitions .....................................................................................................13

4 Presentation of safety-related information ......................................................................17

4.1 General .................................................................................................................17

4.2 Visual signals ........................................................................................................21

4.3 Acoustic signals ....................................................................................................25

4.4 Tactile signals .......................................................................................................27

5 Information coding..........................................................................................................27

5.1 General .................................................................................................................27

5.2 Coding of visual signals.........................................................................................27

5.3 Coding of acoustic signals.....................................................................................29

5.4 Coding of tactile signals ........................................................................................31

Annex A (informative) Graphical symbols related to the operation of actuators ....................35

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................43

Figure 1 – Open-loop control, action and information systems ................................................9

Figure 2 – Zones of vertical field of vision.............................................................................23

Figure 3 – Zones of horizontal field of vision.........................................................................23

Figure 4 – Examples of shapes that can be discriminated by touch alone .............................33

Table 1 – Examples of signals ..............................................................................................21

Table 2 – Meaning of colours for coding – General principles ...............................................29

Table 3 – Coding by supplementary means to colour (visual codes)......................................29

Table 4 – Acoustic signals ....................................................................................................31

Table 5 – Means of coding (acoustic codes) .........................................................................31

Table 6 – Means of coding (tactile codes) .............................................................................33

Table A.1 – Graphical symbols related to the operation of actuators .....................................35

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SAFETY OF MACHINERY –
INDICATION, MARKING AND ACTUATION –
Part 1: Requirements for visual, acoustic
and tactile signals
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 61310-1 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 44: Safety

of machinery – Electrotechnical aspects.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1995 and constitutes a

technical revision.

This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous

edition:

– Adapted to the basic standards IEC 60073, IEC 60417, ISO 3864-1, ISO 7000 and ISO 7010.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 7 –
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
44/540/FDIS 44/546/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above Table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts of IEC 61310 series, under the general title Safety of machinery – Indication,

marking and actuation, can be found on the IEC website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 9 –
INTRODUCTION

This standard should be used by suppliers of machines for which no product family or

dedicated product standard exists. The requirements of this standard should also be used, for

example, as a reference standard by ISO and IEC technical committees which prepare

product family or dedicated product standards for machines. Where a product family or

dedicated product standard exists, its requirements take precedence.

At human-machine interfaces, warning and danger signals need to convey safety-related

meanings for the safe use and monitoring of machinery for exposed persons and operators.

It is via the human-machine interface that the operator interacts with the machinery or

process in an open-loop system (see Figure 1). This interface consists of actuators, by

means of which the operator initiates actions, and indicating devices, through which the

operator receives information. In many applications, the information is represented by a

signal which is encoded by a distinct set of rules and the operator has then to interpret the

signal according to these rules. Different types of coding such as colour, shape or time are

used as appropriate to the demands of the task of the operator.
The reasons for using codes are:

– to permit the spatial separation of the machinery from centralized control stations;

– to increase the perceptible amount of information given by an indicating device, for

example, per display area unit, per unit of time;
– to decrease the mental work-load of an operator and/or exposed persons.
Human-machine interface
Figure 1 – Open-loop control, action and information systems
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 11 –
SAFETY OF MACHINERY –
INDICATION, MARKING AND ACTUATION –
Part 1: Requirements for visual, acoustic
and tactile signals
1 Scope

This part of IEC 61310 specifies requirements for visual, acoustic and tactile methods of

indicating safety-related information, at the human-machine interface and to exposed persons.

It specifies a system of colours, safety signs, markings and other warnings, intended for use

in the indication of hazardous situations and health hazards and for meeting certain

emergencies. It also specifies ways of coding visual, acoustic and tactile signals for indicators

and actuators to facilitate the safe use and monitoring of the machinery.

This standard is based on IEC 60073 with regard to coding by colour and alternative means,

but is not limited to electrotechnical aspects.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60073:2002, Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and

identification – Coding principles for indicators and actuators

IEC 60204-1:2005, Safety of machinery – Electrical equipment of machines – Part 1: General

requirements
IEC 60417, Graphical symbols for use on equipment

ISO 3864-1:2002, Graphical symbols – Safety colours and safety signs – Part 1: Design

principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas
ISO 7000:2004, Graphical symbols for use on equipment – Index and synopsis

ISO 7010:2003, Graphical symbols – Safety colours and safety signs – Safety signs used in

workplaces and public areas

ISO 7731:2003, Ergonomics – Danger signals for public and work areas – Auditory danger

signals
ISO 13850, Safety of machinery – Emergency stop – Principles for design
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 13 –
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
NOTE The terms are sorted in alphabetical order.
3.1
actuator
part of the actuating system which receives a human actuating action
[IEV 441-15-22, modified]

NOTE The actuator may take the form of a handle, knob, pedal, push-button, roller, plunger, mouse, light pen,

keyboard, touch sensitive screen, etc.
3.2
brightness

attribute of a visual sensation according to which an area appears to emit more or less light

[IEV 845-02-28]
3.3
coding

systematic representation of specific signals or values by another set of signals, which has to

conform to a definite set of rules
3.4
contrast

a) in the perceptual sense: difference in appearance of two or more parts of a field seen

simultaneously or successively

NOTE Examples of types of contrast are brightness contrast, colour contrast, simultaneous contrast, successive

contrast, etc.

b) in the physical sense: quantity intended to correlate with the perceived brightness contrast,

usually defined by one of a number of formulae which involve the luminances of the stimuli

considered

NOTE For example: contrast is given by ΔL/L near the luminance threshold, or by L /L for much higher

1 2
luminances.
[IEV 845-02-47, modified]
3.5
exposed person
any person wholly or partially in a danger zone
3.6
graphical symbol

visually perceptible figure with a particular meaning used to transmit information

independently of language
[ISO 17724,31]
3.7
hazard
potential source of harm

NOTE 1 The term "hazard" can be qualified in order to define its origin (e.g. mechanical hazard, electrical hazard)

or the nature of the potential harm (e.g. electric shock hazard, cutting hazard, toxic hazard, fire hazard).

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 15 –
NOTE 2 The hazard envisaged in this definition:

− either is permanently present during the intended use of the machine (e.g. motion of hazardous moving

elements, electric arc during a welding phase, unhealthy posture, noise emission, high temperature);

− or may appear unexpectedly (e.g. explosion, crushing hazard as a consequence of an unintended/unexpected

start-up, ejection as a consequence of a breakage, fall as a consequence of acceleration/deceleration).

[ISO 12100-1:2003, 3.6]
3.8
hazardous situation

circumstance in which a person is exposed to at least one hazard. The exposure can

immediately or over a period of time result in harm
[ISO 12100-1:2003, 3.9]
3.9
illuminated actuator

actuator with an integrated light source giving visual indication by illumination. The operation

of the light source may be related to or independent of the actuator action
[IEC 60073:2002, 3.8]
3.10
machinery
machine

assembly of linked parts or components, at least one of which moves, with the appropriate

machine actuators, control and power circuits, joined together for a specific application, in

particular for the processing, treatment, moving or packaging of a material.

The terms “machinery” and “machine” also covers an assembly of machines which, in order to

achieve the same end, are arranged and controlled so that they function as an integral whole

[ISO 12100-1:2003, 3.1]
3.11
message (in telegraphy and data communication)

group of characters and function control sequences which is transferred as an entity from a

transmitter to a receiver, where the arrangement of the characters is determined at the

transmitter
[IEV 721-09-01]
3.12
operator

person or persons given the task of installing, operating, adjusting, maintaining, cleaning,

repairing or transporting machinery
3.13
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

[ISO 12100-1:2003, 3.11]
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 17 –
3.14
safety sign

sign which gives a general safety message, obtained by a combination of a colour and

geometric shape and which, by the addition of a graphical symbol, gives a particular safety

message
[ISO 3864-1:2002, 3.14]
3.15
saturation
chromaticness, colourfulness, of an area judged in proportion to its brightness

NOTE For given viewing conditions and at luminance levels within the range of photopic vision, a colour stimulus

of a given chromaticity exhibits approximately constant saturation for all luminance levels, except when the

brightness is very high.
[IEV 845-02-41]
3.16
signals
3.16.1
acoustic signal

message conveyed by means of tone, frequency and intermittency, emanating from a sound

source
[IEC 60073:2002, 3.2.1]
3.16.2
active signal

information provided by a device whose status can readily change which is given to

indicate a change in machinery status or to alert to a change in risk
3.16.3
passive signal

information provided by a device which gives permanent information about the machinery

or its environment
3.16.4
tactile signal

message conveyed by means of vibration, force, surface roughness, contour or position

[IEC 60073:2002, 3.2.2]
3.16.5
visual signal

message conveyed by means of brightness, contrast, colour, shape, size or position

[IEC 60073:2002, 3.2.3]
4 Presentation of safety-related information
4.1 General
To reduce the risks to which persons may be exposed,

– machinery shall be fitted with means of giving signals which provide appropriate safety-

related information;
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 19 –

– actuators shall be capable of being used safely, and shall be clearly identified with

appropriate markings on or near the actuator;

– machine manufacturer shall provide means in order to check the operation of warning

signals by the operator.

Active signals shall be provided to signal a hazard and to call persons to take a specific

course of action.

Passive signals shall be provided to warn of permanent risk and to give information, for

example, on the location of escape routes, emergency stop actuators.
NOTE 1 Examples of active and passive signals are given in Table 1.

All safety-related signals shall be so designed that their meaning is clearly and

unambiguously evident to the operator. Ergonomic principles shall be taken into account

especially in the design and installation of the machine. To this end, such signals and their

associated coding shall be applied consistently throughout the machinery. The selection of

equipment to be used shall take into account the consequences of failure of that equipment

(for example, lamp filament, colour gun in a video display unit (VDU) giving rise to a loss of

signal).
NOTE 2 The measures taken should be determined from the risk assessment.

Safety-related information shall be presented using means which are compatible with the

capabilities of the operators and/or exposed persons. Where possible, visual signals shall be

used. Where it is probable that people with sensory deficiencies, for example, blindness,

colour blindness, deafness, or those arising from the use of personal protective equipment,

need to perceive safety-related signals, particular attention shall be paid to ensure this is

addressed by supplementary means, such as the following:
– use of more than one sense (sight, hearing, touch);
– use of multiple coding (see 5.2.2).

Supplementary means to visual signals shall be selected and used in situations where

a) an excess of other information could cause the signal to be not easily perceived;

b) visual signals alone are insufficient because
– the operator needs to look elsewhere while handling/actuating controls;
– exposed persons are out of sight of the operator;
– exposed persons cannot see the warning signals.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
61310-1 © IEC:2007 – 21 –
Table 1 – Examples of signals
Signal Visual Acoustic Tactile
(see 4.2) (see 4.3) (see 4.4)
Active On/off On/off Vibration
or change of
or change of Change of position
- colour - frequency Click/snap
- brightness - intensity (sound level) Positive-detent positioning
- contrast Type of sound
- saturation
Flashing
Change of position
Passive Safety sign Silence Shape
Supplementary sign Surface roughness
Marking Relief
Shape, colour Relative position
4.2 Visual signals
4.2.1 General
A vi
...

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