Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 5: Petrol stations

This Technical Report gives guidelines for a recommended strategy for efficiently combating the different types of crime liable to be committed against petrol stations.

Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt und Gebäude Planung - Teil 5: Tankstellen

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception des bâtiments - Partie 5 : Stations-service

Le présent Rapport technique donne des lignes directrices applicables à une stratégie recommandée
permettant de lutter avec efficacité contre les différents types d’infractions pouvant être commis contre les
stations-service.
NOTE Les infractions pouvant être commises contre les stations-service peuvent comprendre le vol à main armée, le
vol avec violences, le cambriolage (avec effraction de nuit le plus souvent), le vol simple, les escroqueries (grivèlerie,
usage de cartes de crédit, cartes de paiement ou chéquiers volés et autres fraudes), l’incendie volontaire, le vandalisme et
d’autres crimes et délits.
Le présent Rapport technique s’applique à la fois aux constructions neuves et anciennes de stations-service
ouvertes au grand public.

Preprečevanje kriminala - Urbanistično planiranje in projektiranje - 5. del: Bencinske črpalke

To tehnično poročilo podaja navodila za priporočeno strategijo za učinkovit boj proti različnim vrstam kriminala, ki se izvrši proti bencinskim črpalkam.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Jul-2009
Publication Date
10-Mar-2010
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-Jan-2010
Due Date
01-Apr-2010
Completion Date
11-Mar-2010

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 14383-5:2010
01-april-2010
3UHSUHþHYDQMHNULPLQDOD8UEDQLVWLþQRSODQLUDQMHLQSURMHNWLUDQMHGHO
%HQFLQVNHþUSDONH

Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part 5: Petrol stations

Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt und Gebäude Planung - Teil 5:
Tankstellen

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception des bâtiments - Partie 5 :

Stations-service
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 14383-5:2010
ICS:
13.310 Varstvo pred kriminalom Protection against crime
91.020 Prostorsko planiranje. Physical planning. Town
Urbanizem planning
91.040.20 Trgovske in industrijske Buildings for commerce and
stavbe industry
SIST-TP CEN/TR 14383-5:2010 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 14383-5:2010
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 14383-5:2010
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 14383-5
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
January 2010
ICS 13.310; 91.020
English Version
Prevention of crime - Urban planning and building design - Part
5: Petrol stations

Prévention de la malveillance - Urbanisme et conception Vorbeugende Kriminalitätsbekämpfung - Stadt- und

des bâtiments - Partie 5 : Stations-service Gebäudeplanung - Teil 5: Tankstellen

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 10 August 2009. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 325.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 14383-5:2010: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................5

4 Historical background and design .......................................................................................................6

4.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................6

4.2 The image of the petrol station – First source of prevention ............................................................7

4.3 Designing with regard to sociological and psychological factors ...................................................7

5 Risk assessment and management in petrol station .........................................................................8

5.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................8

5.2 Local factors ...........................................................................................................................................8

5.3 Environmental and social risks ............................................................................................................8

5.4 The site ...................................................................................................................................................9

5.5 Who are the potential offenders ...........................................................................................................9

5.6 Types of crime that occur most frequently ...................................................................................... 10

6 Security strategy for petrol stations ................................................................................................. 12

6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2 Risk analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 13

6.3 Vulnerability of site and building ...................................................................................................... 14

6.4 Security concept ................................................................................................................................. 14

7 Security recommendations for petrol stations ................................................................................ 15

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 15

7.2 Identifying the grade of risk and protection required ..................................................................... 15

8 Access to petrol station – perimeter protection .............................................................................. 16

8.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 16

8.2 Requirements ...................................................................................................................................... 17

8.3 Forecourt and its secondary activities ............................................................................................. 17

9 The main building ............................................................................................................................... 20

9.1 Risk analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 20

10 Management ........................................................................................................................................ 25

10.1 Staff and manager role ....................................................................................................................... 25

10.2 The part of oil companies and other partners ................................................................................. 25

10.3 Management of the funds in transit in petrol stations .................................................................... 26

10.4 Maintenance ........................................................................................................................................ 26

Annex A (normative) Recommended levels of security ............................................................................... 28

Annex B (informative) Risk analysis of petrol stations vulnerability to the crime .................................... 29

B.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 29

B.2 Risk assessment ................................................................................................................................. 30

B.3 How to fill in the questionnaire ......................................................................................................... 31

B.4 Application example of the risk analysis ......................................................................................... 32

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 50

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 14383-5:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 325 “Prevention

of crime by urban planning and building design”, the secretariat of which is held by SNV.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The status of Technical Report (CEN/TR) was proposed to give all countries the opportunity to compare

experiences and to harmonise procedures.

CEN/TR 14383, Prevention of crime ― Urban planning and building design,, consists of the following parts:

 Part 1: Definition of specific terms
 Part 2: Urban planning
 Part 3: Dwellings
 Part 4: Shops and offices
 Part 5: Petrol stations
 Part 6: Schools
 Part 7: Design and management of public transport facilities

 Part 8: Protection of buildings and sites against criminal attacks with vehicles

1) Published as EN 14383-1.
2) Published as prCEN/TR 14383-6.
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Introduction

The nature, cost and scale of crime against petrol stations can be hard to quantify and there are many factors

that can influence whether or not an offence is committed. For the purpose of this Technical Report, apart

from the three basic criminological approaches already described in CEN/TS 14383-4, there should be a

further examination of the vulnerability of petrol stations. This vulnerability can depend on multiple factors that

can vary from country to country. The diverse nature of regulations that apply to petrol stations and the

differences in management and trading relations should be accounted for in any risk analysis.

Petrol stations can be described as highly accessible trading sites (they can be reached by foot or by car and

can be left immediately). They can be quite isolated in space (even for citizen urban petrol stations)

sometimes because of their size, their small number of staff, and/or because they have a multiple and free

service function (fuel, food shop, drinks, accessories, car maintenance, etc.), with a wide opening time to the

public.

In addition, factors that do not depend directly on the location of the petrol station and its activities should be

taken into account, i.e. the general physical and social environment, the retailer's commercial strategies, the

power of reaction of law enforcement agencies (police, gendarmerie, local police department).

The result is that crime in petrol stations varies in rate and nature according to the accumulation of the

described risk factors, which means that producing uniform modes of management and security equipments

for petrol stations is very difficult. In practice, each petrol station should be subject to individual analysis in

order to optimize the safety strategies and apply the most efficient tools to prevent crime.

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1 Scope

This Technical Report gives guidelines for a recommended strategy for efficiently combating the different

types of crime liable to be committed against petrol stations.

NOTE Crimes that are liable to be committed against petrol stations could include: armed robbery, violent theft,

burglary (usually by breaking in at night), theft, fraud (failure to pay, use of stolen credit cards or cheques and other

frauds), arson, vandalism and other crimes and offences.

This Technical Report is applicable to new and existing petrol station buildings that are open to and accessible

by the public.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 356, Glass in building ― Security glazing ― Testing and classification of resistance against manual attack

EN 1063, Glass in building ― Security glazing ― Testing and classification of resistance against bullet attack

EN 1143-1, Secure storage units ― Requirements, classification and methods of test for resistance to

burglary ― Part 1: Safes, ATM safes, strongroom doors and strongrooms
EN 1303, Building hardware ― Cylinders for locks ― Requirements and test methods

EN 1522, Windows, doors, shutters and blinds ― Bullet resistance ― Requirements and classification

ENV 1627, Windows, doors, shutters ― Burglar resistance ― Requirements and classification

EN 14383-1:2006, Prevention of crime ― Urban planning and building design ― Part 1: Definition of specific

terms

CEN/TS 14383-4:2006, Prevention of crime ― Urban planning and design ― Part 4: Shops and offices

EN 50132-7, Alarm systems ― CCTV surveillance systems for use in security applications ― Part 7:

Application guidelines
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 14383-1:2006 and the following

apply.
3.1
petrol station

liquid fuel supplying point for motor vehicles that provides supplies for the operation of motor vehicles, and

can provide other services as well (i.e. food, catering, car wash, maintenance and car repair, emergency car

repair)
3.2
petrol

liquid fuel comprising a mixture of several hydrocarbons that are derived from petroleum refining and/or

organic fuel, and which is used to power combustion engines
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4 Historical background and design
4.1 General

The occupation of petrol supply to the general public has greatly changed over time from the petrol pump and

emergency car repair to petrol self service and the multi service station.

The evolution towards the multi purpose service station may have satisfied the customer's need, but it has

also created new opportunities of crime.

A new community business is created that satisfies the customer's need, but it is a business attractive pole

located on very different sites that may generate problems that were unknown till then, ranging from

vandalism, misuse of space to breaking in, armed robbery, racketing, drug use and trafficking, means of

payment fraud, soliciting within the frame of prostitution, etc.

A petrol station is a typical example of a vulnerable business because of the existence of endogenous and

exogenous factors that are linked with petrol supply.

The evolution of this business and the development of trading and service activities make the targeted sites

vulnerable to crime because of the three following characteristics:
 the opening to the public with an access up to 24 hours and seven days;

 a certain isolation linked with the specific requirements and regulations that apply to this type of

installation;
 a reduced human presence for economical reasons.

The interest that may be given by a petrol station to a criminal is not only linked to the profit itself but also to

the easiness for committing the crime, the supposed quickness of execution together with a supposed

reduction of risks taken by the criminal.

Petrol stations may be broken into five groups according to their geographic location:

 motorway petrol stations;
 ring and main road petrol stations;
 shopping centre petrol stations;
 urban district petrol stations;
 rural petrol stations.

The definition of security of a petrol station may be summed up by the consideration of:

 the site location;
 the local environment;

 the structure and the shape of the building (to protect the staff, the customers and their belongings

from any attack).
The main design factors include:
 the physical location;
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 the accesses;
 the location of doors and windows;
 the access control;
 the pedestrian and vehicle flow;
 vulnerable indoor and outdoor areas;
 formal and informal human surveillance.

Significant results in crime and anti-social behaviour control may be obtained by considering these elements

of the architectural approach and taking into account their impact on safety at the design stage and by

keeping in mind management measures at the same time.

To achieve this, planners, oil companies, owners, managers, in close relationship with urban planners,

architects and designers, as well as professionals with crime prevention expertise should form the design

team and should be involved to ensure that crime prevention factors are included in the design.

4.2 The image of the petrol station – First source of prevention

A criminal's first impression can have a great influence on their decision on whether or not to commit a crime.

A well maintained petrol station that is clean and neat may give an impression of comfort and even wealth, but

it may also be a message that the employees that work there are proud of their working place and are more

liable to protect it.

If the staff is encouraged to work as a team, improve the environment and defend the territory against

criminals, crime may be reduced and the quality of service for customers may be improved. Two ways of

achieving this goal are:
 designing spaces in order to give the petrol station a clear identity;

 providing the maximum possible surveillance by a direct or indirect presence. Criminals do not like to

be seen and wherever possible, it is also advised to encourage a mixing of use and occupation. This

can result in more individuals being present to provide any formal surveillance.
4.3 Designing with regard to sociological and psychological factors

The joint design team should consider the various factors that can influence the opportunity to commit crime.

The following are some of the most important factors:
a) Ownership

It is essential that the design of space be such that customers are immediately aware that they are in a private

commercial space that is open to the public, and that they behave accordingly. In this case, it is less probable

that a crime or an anti-social behaviour occurs without provoking a reaction from the staff or the customers.

b) Presence

One of the essential prevention factors to crime is the risk of being seen and identified. Therefore, human

presence and natural surveillance are very important. The design of the petrol station should be carried out to

allow clear sight lines and provide wide natural surveillance from the staff, the customers and public and

private security forces. For the same reasons, buildings should front onto public spaces.

Fear of crime, whether real or perceived by the customers or the staff, needs to be considered and the design

of the petrol stations should take it into account.
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c) Conflict minimization linked with misuse of space

Any design feature preventing space clarity that could give rise to a potential conflict situation having direct

and durable consequences on the business activity of the site should be avoided, e.g. a low fence wall that

could be used as seating, badly designed parking space that could be used as a point for drug dealing.

Features that are badly designed can attract criminal activities and generate a fear of crime that can dissuade

the customers from using the petrol station.
5 Risk assessment and management in petrol station
5.1 General

The typology of risk that may be considered in petrol stations may vary more or less according to the category

of the petrol station as defined in 4.1.

The petrol station is generally a semi-closed space marking a separate space with the road.

It is also a commodity space-taking customers who know what they will get various services.

Within the framework of any new building or renovation development, it is necessary to analyse the type of

crime that could reasonably be expected to occur. It is essential to identify the crime and anti-social behaviour

that belongs to the concerned site in its present or future layout. The primary aim is always to try and deter

crime happening in the first instance (see 6.1).

Any crime prevention strategy is essentially one of risk management. Thus, before an effective strategy can

be developed, it is important to identify and understand the risk factors involved.

5.2 Local factors

When assessing the level of risk, it is essential to give priority to local factors. This should involve the

identification of the crime types in the immediate neighbourhood, to identify the type of crime reported, where

and when incidents occurred and who the victims were. This may be achieved by spatial mapping to identify

crime clustering or hot spots in connection with law enforcement agencies.

It is also important to be aware that factors that may influence the opportunity for crime may not necessarily

be in the immediate locality. For example, the lack of meeting places in a given area may attract young people

to the space offered and the goods on sale.

Where the development is on a new site, it may be that there has been no previous crime problem or records

do not exist. In these cases, it is important to consider the proposed development in terms of potential crime

generation in order to determine the types of crime or anti-social behaviour that could reasonably be expected

to result from this development being completed.

Guidance on methods for assessing the risk of crime and methods aimed at reducing these risks in

neighbourhoods, town centres and industrial estates, is given in CEN/TR 14383-2.
5.3 Environmental and social risks

At the building design stage, security provisions should be considered taking into account the specific location

of the petrol station, decisions taken by agencies external to the petrol suppliers system (state or local

authorities, officials). In this context, they are a whole series of operators whose action directly influences the

policy of security in petrol stations, e.g. a policy that leads to protect the petrol station staff but whose

consequence is to move the insecurity towards the exterior areas and the customers or security measures

relying on technical standards, e.g. fire fighting requirements to prevent the blocking of vehicle at the level of

petrol pumps.
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The physical and sociological environment of the petrol station should also be taken into account as well as

the space in which it is located without forgetting the all of environmental and social factors knowing that these

elements are liable to evolve with time.
5.4 The site
Consideration should be given to the following:

a) The selection of the location of premises may be justified by the market requirements and other factors,

for example security.

b) The security provisions that depend on the chosen location, taking into account:

1) the types of crime that may occur if buildings are in high crime areas or known crime generators; and

2) any special considerations, for example if the premises are in a suburban area with different

requirements.

c) Existing or potential levels of local delinquency as burglary, theft, arson and other crime and offences.

Proximity to areas of public gathering including football and other sports grounds, licensed premises or

playgrounds.

d) The security problems may be influenced by natural or geographical features such as rivers, stream,

waste ground, hiding place, the weather, the season or seasonal factors such as influx of tourists.

e) Advantages that can be obtained from proximity to law enforcement agencies, fire and ambulance

stations or from the existing security perimeters of well maintained premises with high walls or fences.

f) Illumination and coverage provided by existing street lighting.

g) Levels of security that owners and occupiers of other premises in the district apply to their premises.

h) Natural surveillance, i.e. the extent to which property can be seen from other premises.

i) Consideration of other facilities and the neighbourhood (e.g. foods).
5.5 Who are the potential offenders
 Organized gangs;
 armed robbers;
 drug users;
 burglars;
 shop lifters;
 fraud specialists;
 arsonist;
 vandals;
 etc.
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5.6 Types of crime that occur most frequently
5.6.1 General

Petrol stations suffer crime similar to the ones inflected on shops. By nature, the offences committed against

petrol stations depend on the time of the day. Crimes like armed robbery, theft, fraud, occur during opening

time. Crime like burglary and arson take place during closing time, i.e. more often at night. Petrol stations

should be equipped with several types of protection against several types of crime according to the time of the

day.

It should also be remembered that work practices are changing and that petrol stations are having longer

periods of opening or staying open 24 hours and seven days. The risk assessment should therefore allow for

these variations.
5.6.2 Armed robbery
Armed robberies, aimed at the cash and more rarely the safe.

In many cases the cashier is assaulted but these crimes also target the petrol station takings during transfer to

the bank especially at the end of long weekends and holiday rush, bank holidays. The assault is then directed

against the manager of the petrol station itself. Armed robberies that take place at night target more petrol

stations with badly protected cashiers as shopping centre petrol stations are then either closed or turned on

automatic operation. These robberies are as easy to commit as the station offers easy access and escape

routes.
5.6.3 Burglary

Burglaries of petrol stations usually occur when the premises are empty, they target goods in the store, the

safe and the storage room. All techniques are used including ram vehicle able to smash the walls of the petrol

station that are not always sufficiently protected.

Burglaries are easier to commit where the petrol station structure is weak, especially at the roof level.

5.6.4 Theft of goods/shoplifting

It is obvious that petrol stations, because of their anonymous customers and of possibilities of quick escape

for criminals, encourage this type of offence. This situation makes up an attractive field for the commission of

shoplifting that may concern food products, car maintenance accessories (car radios), books, magazines, etc.

The good display in the shop is particularly vulnerable.

It is essential to bring special attention to the display and fitting out of goods for sale to reduce the risk of

shoplifting.
5.6.5 Making off without payment

Various offences whose purpose is to obtain fuel, lubricants or goods and to leave the petrol station without

paying are often committed by:

a) somebody helping you while knowing that you are unable to pay or unwilling to pay the amount owed.

This includes filling part or all of a tank by the pump attendant or petrol supplying professional ;

b) helping oneself and not paying (a self-service petrol station).

3) The legal classification of the crime may vary according to the national legislation.

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5.6.6 Fraud

The fraudulent use of means aimed at obtaining funds, values, goods or the supplying of a service by:

a) the use of stolen or falsified means of payment: credit cards, payment cards, check books, etc.;

b) the use of forged bank notes.

Most of these offences are committed by experienced criminals, at least because of the need to prepare the

means used to commit the offence.
5.6.7 Arson

Because of the presence of highly flammable or explosive products (gas bottles, LPG-c, G.N.V.), petrol

stations are particularly sensitive to the risk of arson.
5.6.8 Vandalism

These are wilful acts of destruction or damage, including graffiti, especially against the facilities available to

the customers of the petrol station.
5.6.9 Misuse of space

This phenomenon usually occurs where young offenders aggressively dominate the area. This behaviour can

be a threat to customers and can lead to damage to petrol station facilities. It can also have an adverse effect

on the petrol station's business.

Other examples of this type of phenomenon can be through prostitution, traveller occupation of the site and

drug trafficking.
5.6.10 Assault and robbery against customers

They are acquisitive crimes characterized by theft from the vehicles, or robbery against the driver or

passengers, or theft of cargo or truck itse
...

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