Plastics - Assessment of the intrinsic biodegradability of materials exposed to marine inocula under mesophilic aerobic laboratory conditions - Test methods and requirements (ISO 22403:2020)

This document specifies test methods and criteria for showing intrinsic biodegradability in marine environments of virgin plastic materials and polymers without any preliminary environmental exposure or pre-treatment.
Test methods applied in this document are carried out at temperatures in the mesophilic range under aerobic conditions and are aimed to show ultimate biodegradability, i.e. conversion into carbon dioxide, water and biomass.
This document neither assesses the constituents, such as regulated metals or substances hazardous to the environment, nor potential ecotoxic effects but intrinsic biodegradability only. These aspects will be considered in a separate standard covering the overall environmental impact of products intentionally or accidentally released in the marine environment.
This document does not cover the performance of products made from biodegradable plastic materials and biodegradable polymers. Lifetime and biodegradation rates in the sea of products made with biodegradable plastic materials are generally affected by the specific environmental conditions and by thickness and shape.
Although results might indicate that the tested plastic materials and polymers biodegrade under the specified test conditions at a certain rate, the results of any laboratory exposure cannot be directly extrapolated to marine environments at the actual site of use or leakage.
This document is not applicable for "marine biodegradable" claims of biodegradable plastic materials. For such purpose, see relevant product standards, if available.
The testing scheme specified in this document does not provide sufficient information for determining the specific biodegradation rate (i.e. the rate per available surface area) of the material under testing. For such purpose, see relevant standards about specific biodegradation rate, if available.

Kunststoffe - Bewertung der intrinsischen biologischen Abbaubarkeit von Materialien, die marinen Inokula unter mesophilen aeroben Laborbedingungen ausgesetzt sind - Prüfverfahren und Anforderungen (ISO 22403:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt Prüfverfahren und Kriterien für den Nachweis der intrinsischen Bioabbaubarkeit in Meeresumgebungen von Kunststoff-Neumaterialien und Polymeren ohne vorherige Umweltexposition oder Vorbehandlung fest.
Die in diesem Dokument angewendeten Prüfverfahren werden bei Temperaturen im mesophilen Bereich unter aeroben Bedingungen durchgeführt und dienen dazu, die vollständige biologische Abbaubarkeit, d. h. die Umwandlung in Kohlenstoffdioxid, Wasser und Biomasse, nachzuweisen.
Dieses Dokument beurteilt weder die Bestandteile wie regulierte Metalle oder umweltgefährdende Stoffe noch potentielle ökotoxische Einflüsse, sondern nur die intrinsische Bioabbaubarkeit. Diese Aspekte werden in einer separaten Norm behandelt, die die Gesamtumweltauswirkung von absichtlich oder versehentlich in die Meeresumgebung abgegebenen Produkten abdeckt.
Dieses Dokument behandelt nicht das Verhalten von Produkten aus bioabbaubaren Kunststoffmaterialien und bioabbaubaren Polymeren. Die Lebensdauer und Bioabbauraten im Meer von mit bioabbaubaren Kunststoffmaterialien hergestellten Produkten wird im Allgemeinen durch die spezifischen Umgebungsbedingungen sowie die Dicke und Form beeinflusst.
Auch wenn Ergebnisse darauf hindeuten könnten, dass der Bioabbau von Kunststoffmaterialien und Polymeren unter den festgelegten Prüfbedingungen mit einer bestimmten Geschwindigkeit stattfindet, können die Ergebnisse einer Laborexposition nicht direkt auf die Meeresumgebung am tatsächlichen Nutzungs- oder Leckageort extrapoliert werden.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht für die Behauptung „bioabbaubar im Meer“ von bioabbaubaren Kunststoffmaterialien anzuwenden. Für diese Zwecke sind die relevanten Produktnormen zu beachten, sofern verfügbar.
Die in diesem Dokument festgelegten Prüfschemata liefern keine ausreichenden Informationen zur Bestimmung der spezifischen Bioabbaurate (d. h. der Rate je verfügbarer Oberfläche) des geprüften Materials. Für solche Zwecke wird auf die relevanten Normen zur spezifischen Bioabbaurate verwiesen, sofern verfügbar.

Plastiques - Évaluation de la biodégradabilité aérobie inhérente et de la sécurité environnementale des matériaux non flottants exposés à des inocula marins dans des conditions de laboratoire et mésophiles - Méthodes d'essai et exigences (ISO 22403:2020)

Polimerni materiali - Ocenjevanje lastne biorazgradljivosti materialov, izpostavljenih morskemu inokulumu (kužilom) v mezofilnih aerobnih laboratorijskih pogojih - Preskusne metode in zahteve (ISO 22403:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
06-Oct-2021
Publication Date
23-Nov-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
17-Nov-2021
Due Date
22-Jan-2022
Completion Date
24-Nov-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
01-januar-2022
Polimerni materiali - Ocenjevanje lastne biorazgradljivosti materialov,
izpostavljenih morskemu inokulumu (kužilom) v mezofilnih aerobnih
laboratorijskih pogojih - Preskusne metode in zahteve (ISO 22403:2020)

Plastics - Assessment of the intrinsic biodegradability of materials exposed to marine

inocula under mesophilic aerobic laboratory conditions - Test methods and requirements

(ISO 22403:2020)

Kunststoffe - Bewertung der intrinsischen biologischen Abbaubarkeit von Materialien, die

marinen Inokula unter mesophilen aeroben Laborbedingungen ausgesetzt sind -
Prüfverfahren und Anforderungen (ISO 22403:2020)

Plastiques - Évaluation de la biodégradabilité aérobie inhérente et de la sécurité

environnementale des matériaux non flottants exposés à des inocula marins dans des

conditions de laboratoire et mésophiles - Méthodes d'essai et exigences (ISO
22403:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 22403:2021
ICS:
13.020.40 Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad Pollution, pollution control
onesnaževanjem in and conservation
ohranjanje
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
EN ISO 22403
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.020.40; 83.080.01
English Version
Plastics - Assessment of the intrinsic biodegradability of
materials exposed to marine inocula under mesophilic
aerobic laboratory conditions - Test methods and
requirements (ISO 22403:2020)

Plastiques - Évaluation de la biodégradabilité aérobie Kunststoffe - Bewertung der intrinsischen biologischen

inhérente et de la sécurité environnementale des Abbaubarkeit von Materialien, die marinen Inokula

matériaux non flottants exposés à des inocula marins unter mesophilen aeroben Laborbedingungen

dans des conditions de laboratoire et mésophiles - ausgesetzt sind - Prüfverfahren und Anforderungen

Méthodes d'essai et exigences (ISO 22403:2020) (ISO 22403:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 November 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 22403:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
EN ISO 22403:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
EN ISO 22403:2021 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 22403:2020 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 "Plastics” of the

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 22403:2021 by

Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics” the secretariat of which is held by NBN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2022, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 22403:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 22403:2021 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22403
First edition
2020-04
Plastics — Assessment of the intrinsic
biodegradability of materials exposed
to marine inocula under mesophilic
aerobic laboratory conditions — Test
methods and requirements
Plastiques — Évaluation de la biodégradabilité aérobie inhérente et
de la sécurité environnementale des matériaux non flottants exposés
à des inocula marins dans des conditions de laboratoire et mésophiles
— Méthodes d'essai et exigences
Reference number
ISO 22403:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
ISO 22403:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
ISO 22403:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Test material ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Reference material ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Negative control ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Biodegradation test methods ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
ISO 22403:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 14,

Environmental aspects.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22403:2022
ISO 22403:2020(E)
Introduction

Biodegradation (i.e. biodegradation level and biodegradation rate) of a plastic product in any given

environment is basically the result of three conditions:
a) the intrinsic (i.e. potential) biodegradability of the material;
b) the available surface and the shape of the product;
c) the environmental conditions where the product is located.

A material’s intrinsic biodegradability provides that its chemical structure is susceptible to enzymatic

attack so that enzymes can cleave its chemical bonds. Under aerobic conditions (in the presence of O )

the ultimate biodegradation of a material only leads to the formation of CO , H O, mineral

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021
01-oktober-2021
Polimerni materiali - Ocenjevanje lastne biorazgradljivosti materialov,
izpostavljenih morskemu inokulumu (kužilom) v mezofilnih aerobnih
laboratorijskih pogojih - Preskusne metode in zahteve (ISO 22403:2020)

Plastics - Assessment of the intrinsic biodegradability of materials exposed to marine

inocula under mesophilic aerobic laboratory conditions - Test methods and requirements

(ISO 22403:2020)

Kunststoffe - Bewertung der intrinsischen biologischen Abbaubarkeit von Materialien, die

marinen Inokula unter mesophilen aeroben Laborbedingungen ausgesetzt sind -
Prüfverfahren und Anforderungen (ISO 22403:2020)

Plastiques - Évaluation de la biodégradabilité aérobie inhérente et de la sécurité

environnementale des matériaux non flottants exposés à des inocula marins dans des

conditions de laboratoire et mésophiles - Méthodes d'essai et exigences (ISO
22403:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 22403
ICS:
13.020.40 Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad Pollution, pollution control
onesnaževanjem in and conservation
ohranjanje
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22403
First edition
2020-04
Plastics — Assessment of the intrinsic
biodegradability of materials exposed
to marine inocula under mesophilic
aerobic laboratory conditions — Test
methods and requirements
Plastiques — Évaluation de la biodégradabilité aérobie inhérente et
de la sécurité environnementale des matériaux non flottants exposés
à des inocula marins dans des conditions de laboratoire et mésophiles
— Méthodes d'essai et exigences
Reference number
ISO 22403:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021
ISO 22403:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021
ISO 22403:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Test material ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

4.2 Reference material ............................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Negative control ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Biodegradation test methods ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.5 Requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021
ISO 22403:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 14,

Environmental aspects.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021
ISO 22403:2020(E)
Introduction

Biodegradation (i.e. biodegradation level and biodegradation rate) of a plastic product in any given

environment is basically the result of three conditions:
a) the intrinsic (i.e. potential) biodegradability of the material;
b) the available surface and the shape of the product;
c) the environmental conditions where the product is located.

A material’s intrinsic biodegradability provides that its chemical structure is susceptible to enzymatic

attack so that enzymes can cleave its chemical bonds. Under aerobic conditions (in the presence of O )

the ultimate biodegradation of a material only leads to the formation of CO , H O, mineral salts and

2 2
biomass.

Biodegradation of plastic materials is generally a bio-erosion process happening at the interface

between the solid phase and the liquid phase where microbes live. It is a heterogeneous reaction. It is

the surface rather than the concentration that controls the biodegradation rate. Thus, the higher the

available surface the higher the biodegradation rate.

Environmental conditions determine the biodegradation rate as well. Temperature, nutrient availability,

pH and the existing microbial population affect the biodegradation rate. Biodegradation can be slowed

or even stopped if environmental conditions are not favourable, even if the material is intrinsically and

ultimately biodegradable.
This document covers condition a) mentioned above.

The fate of plastics in the environment is considered important information. The contamination of

seas with plastic waste is a relevant problem that should be controlled not least by means of leakage

prevention measures such as mandatory collection of plastic items used in marine environments and

environmental education. However, in some cases, the dispersal of plastic (waste) is almost unavoidable.

For example, plastics are used to make fishing gears and products for fish, mussels, and oysters farming

which are prone to be left or lost in the sea. In these cases, the possibility of using products made with

biodegradable plastics might be contributing to reducing the risk linked with the dispersion of solid

waste. In order to carry out a proper product design and in order to assess impact and risk of leakage, it

is important to know whether a plastic material is intrinsically biodegradable when exposed to marine

inocula.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22403:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22403:2020(E)
Plastics — Assessment of the intrinsic biodegradability
of materials exposed to marine inocula under mesophilic
aerobic laboratory conditions — Test methods and
requirements
1 Scope
This document specifies test methods and criteria for
...

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