Guide to the implementation of cool surfaces for buildings’ envelope to mitigate the Urban Heat Island effects

The document provides the terminology relating to cool materials and a guide to the implementation of cool surfaces for building envelopes to mitigate the urban overheating effects. It concentrates on the application to roofs.
The document will focus on urban areas for local authorities and building/construction owners.
The users of CWA 17890:2022 will be local authorities, urban planners for cities including construction, infrastructures and landscape architects.
In addition, the terminology and characteristics of cool materials will serve as a reference for other applications where the use of cool materials will have a significant contribution to adaptation to climate change as well as quality of life, such as for roads and pavements.
Whilst reflective surfaces can be very beneficial, they are not appropriate or effective in all climates for all buildings or building constructions and some guidance is provided.

Leitfaden für die Implementierung kühler Oberflächen für die Gebäudehülle zur Milderung des Urban Heat Island Effektes

Navodilo za uporabo hladnih površin na ovoju stavb za ublažitev učinkov mestnega toplotnega otoka

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Sep-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Sep-2022
Due Date
21-Nov-2022
Completion Date
20-Sep-2022

Buy Standard

Standardization document
SIST CWA 17890:2022 - BARVE
English language
54 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST CWA 17890:2022
01-november-2022
Navodilo za uporabo hladnih površin na ovoju stavb za ublažitev učinkov
mestnega toplotnega otoka

Guide to the implementation of cool surfaces for buildings’ envelope to mitigate the

Urban Heat Island effects
Leitfaden für die Implementierung kühler Oberflächen für die Gebäudehülle zur
Milderung des Urban Heat Island Effektes
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CWA 17890:2022
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
91.060.20 Strehe Roofs
SIST CWA 17890:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CEN
CWA 17890
WORKSHOP
September 2022
AGREEMENT
ICS 13.020.20; 91.060.20
English version
Guide to the implementation of cool surfaces for buildings'
envelope to mitigate the Urban Heat Island effects

This CEN Workshop Agreement has been drafted and approved by a Workshop of representatives of interested parties, the

constitution of which is indicated in the foreword of this Workshop Agreement.

The formal process followed by the Workshop in the development of this Workshop Agreement has been endorsed by the

National Members of CEN but neither the National Members of CEN nor the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre can be held

accountable for the technical content of this CEN Workshop Agreement or possible conflicts with standards or legislation.

This CEN Workshop Agreement can in no way be held as being an official standard developed by CEN and its Members.

This CEN Workshop Agreement is publicly available as a reference document from the CEN Members National Standard Bodies.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No.:CWA 17890:2022 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ............................................................................................................................................ 3

Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................... 8

4 EU strategic context and benefits to use cool materials ....................................................... 11

4.1 Green deal .............................................................................................................................................. 11

4.2 Benefits and opportunities to use cool materials ................................................................... 12

4.2.1 Conditions to integrate cool materials (when and for what kind of project) ............... 12

4.2.2 Benefits to use cool materials ........................................................................................................ 13

4.3 Limitations of the document ........................................................................................................... 18

5 Presentation of cool materials (specifics and potentials to mitigate the Urban Heat

Island effects) ....................................................................................................................................... 20

5.1 Identification of cool materials for a project ............................................................................ 20

5.1.1 Cool roof properties ........................................................................................................................... 20

5.1.2 Residential buildings ......................................................................................................................... 22

5.1.3 Non-Residential Buildings ............................................................................................................... 27

5.2 Cool roof materials ............................................................................................................................. 36

5.3 Installation of cool material and implementation of cool roofs ........................................ 39

5.4 Ageing and durability of cool roofs properties ........................................................................ 40

5.5 Maintenance of cool roof materials .............................................................................................. 42

5.6 Financial impacts along the value chain ..................................................................................... 43

6 From building to district and district to territory implementation ................................. 44

6.1 Performance at building level (inside and outside) of cool roofs ..................................... 44

6.2 Performance at the district level ................................................................................................... 45

6.3 Performance at territory level ....................................................................................................... 45

Annex A (informative) Roadmap for standardization ........................................................................ 47

A.1 Status of CWA ........................................................................................................................................ 47

A.2 Benefits of standardization ............................................................................................................. 47

A.3 Check-list before moving toward standardization ................................................................. 48

Bibliography ....................................................................................................................................................... 50

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)
European foreword

This CEN Workshop Agreement (CWA 17890:2022) has been developed in accordance with the CEN-

CENELEC Guide 29 “CEN/CENELEC Workshop Agreements – A rapid prototyping to standardization” and

with the relevant provisions of CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations - Part 2. It was approved by a

Workshop of representatives of interested parties on 2022-04-14, the constitution of which was

supported by CEN following the public call for participation made on 2021-07-06. However, this CEN

Workshop Agreement does not necessarily include all relevant stakeholders.

The final text of this CEN Workshop Agreement was provided to CEN for publication on 2022-06-29.

The following organizations and individuals developed and approved this CEN Workshop Agreement:

Bernard Gindroz - Chairperson
Giuliana BONVICINI Centro Ceramico
Jonathan BOUVIER LNE - Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais
Emmanuel BOZONNET Université de la Rochelle -
Nigel CHERRY BMI Group and CEN/TC 128
Massimo CUNEGATTI Soprema/ESWA
Mario CUNIAL Industrie Cotto Possagno S.p.A.
David DA SILVA ENGIE
Alexandre DHOTEL IKO SAS
Alfonsina DI FUSCO Confindustria ceremica
Elisa DI GIUSEPPE Università Politecnica delle Marche
Maxime DOYA TIPEE
Andréas DRECHSLER BMI Group
Marielle FASSIER CTMNC
Paris FOKAIDES Frederick University
Bernard GINDROZ Gindroz Bernard
Maria-José GONZALEZ Afnor
Louis GORINTIN ENGIE
Hans-Juergen HOFMANN Amberger Kaolinwerke Eduard Kick GmbH & Co.KG
Angela HULLIN Amberger Kaolinwerke Eduard Kick GmbH & Co.KG
Alain KOENEN LNE - Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais
Maria KOLOKOTRONI Brunel University London
Denia KOLOKOTSA ECRC/TUC
Evangelia KONTOU KALOMOIRI Thermacote Inc.
Martin LONDSCHIEN CEN/TC 254/SIKA
Yves MADEC BMI Group
Alberto MADELLA SITEB/Gruppo PRIMI and EWA
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)
Niklaus MARGADANT Eternit (Schweiz) AG
Milena MARTARELLI Università Politecnica delle Marche
Heinz MEIER SIKA Services AG/ECRC Certification Board
Stephan MERKLEIN BMI Group
Giovanni MURANO CTI
Christiana PANTELI Cleopa GMBH
Rémi PERRIN Soprema
Jonas PIGEON ENGIE
Gloria PIGNATTA University of New South Wales
Alkistis Plessis-MOUTAFIDOU CERIB
Sahar SAIAGH ENGIE
Agnese SALVATI Brunel University London
Lieven SANDERS Wienerberger
Mattheos SANTAMOURIS University of New South Wales
Hans – Peter SPRINGINSFELD WKO (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich)/ASI
Simona SCHRAMMEL Prospex Institute
Jouko VYORYKKA Dow Europe GmbH
Rupert WOLFFHARDT Holzforschung
Dimitrios XILAS ECRC/TUC
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some elements of this document may be subject to patent rights.

CEN-CENELEC policy on patent rights is described in CEN-CENELEC Guide 8 “Guidelines for

Implementation of the Common IPR Policy on Patent”. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying

any or all such patent rights.

Although the Workshop parties have made every effort to ensure the reliability and accuracy of technical

and non-technical descriptions, the Workshop is not able to guarantee, explicitly or implicitly, the

correctness of this document. Anyone who applies this CEN Workshop Agreement shall be aware that

neither the Workshop, nor CEN can be held liable for damages or losses of any kind whatsoever. The use

of this CEN Workshop Agreement does not relieve users of their responsibility for their own actions, and

they apply this document at their own risk. The CEN Workshop Agreement should not be construed as

legal advice authoritatively endorsed by CEN/CENELEC.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)
Introduction

By 2050, according to UN projections, the world population is expected to reach ten billion people. Today

half of the population is living in cities and projections show more than 80 % by 2050. Cities are where

80 % of global GDP is produced, but they are also where 70 % of the energy is consumed and 75 % of

waste and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emitted.

Abating GHG emissions and increasing energy efficiency are at the heart of our European strategy and

regulatory framework, with a focus on cities and built areas that offer a high potential for improvement

and for meeting the EU Green Deal objectives. Urban Heat Island effect is one important topic both to

mitigate climate change and to adapt. Minimizing these Urban Overheating effects contributes to

reducing energy consumption by lowering energy demand for cooling and ventilation during hot periods,

and thus the related GHG emissions , as well as to bringing better comfort to citizens.

This document presents guidelines about why, when, and how to consider mitigation of Urban Heat

Island effects with cool roofs and cool materials, as well as reference information about characteristic

parameters and how to select appropriate materials.

Cool materials are especially of high importance for new buildings and constructions but also for

retrofitting of existing built infrastructures. A cool material is characterised by higher solar reflectance

in comparison to conventional roof materials displaying the same colour and high infrared emittance

values. Cool roofing products can be applied to all types of roofs including those of residential buildings,

apartment blocks, industrial and commercial buildings, hospitals, and offices.

The benefits are direct and numerous, such as reducing the cooling energy consumption and even leading

to avoiding the installation of air conditioning, by keeping temperature indexes lower around Renewable

Energy Systems (i.e. Photovoltaic) and thus maintaining higher efficiency and longer life of these pieces

of equipment, by extending the life of the roofing materials, and of course by keeping the surrounding

temperature lower, which impacts the quality of life and health.

This document will also contribute to setting common elements of language (terms and definitions) and

raising awareness among decision-makers, urban planners and constructors, both private and public, and

among investment institutions and investors, about the benefit of cool materials, as well as guiding them

towards the selection of appropriate solutions against Urban Heat Island effect with immediate and long-

term multi-benefits.

Whilst the guide focuses on cool materials for roofs it is also relevant to other parts of the building

envelope, other construction and built infrastructures, including roads and pavements, by aligning terms

and definitions as well as considerations about characteristics of cool materials.

This document is not intended to address consideration about carbon footprint of materials.

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)
1 Scope

The document provides the terminology relating to cool materials and a guide to the implementation of

cool surfaces for building envelopes to mitigate the urban overheating effects. It concentrates on the

application to roofs.

The document will focus on urban areas for local authorities and building/construction owners.

The users of CWA 17890:2022 will be local authorities, urban planners for cities including construction,

infrastructures and landscape architects.

In addition, the terminology and characteristics of cool materials will serve as a reference for other

applications where the use of cool materials will have a significant contribution to adaptation to climate

change as well as quality of life, such as for roads and pavements.

Whilst reflective surfaces can be very beneficial, they are not appropriate or effective in all climates for

all buildings or building constructions and some guidance is provided.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 490, Concrete roofing tiles and fittings for roof covering and wall cladding
EN 492, Fibre cement slates and their fittings for roofing

EN 494, Fibre-cement profiled sheets and fittings — Product specification and test methods

EN 501, Roofing products from metal sheet — Specification for fully supported roofing products of zinc sheet

EN 502, Roofing products from metal sheet — Specification for fully supported roofing products of stainless

steel

EN 504, Roofing products from metal sheet — Specification for fully supported roofing products of copper

sheet

EN 505, Roofing products from metal sheet —Specification for fully supported roofing products of steel sheet

EN 506, Roofing products of metal sheet — Specification for self-supporting products of copper or zinc sheet

EN 507, Roofing products from metal sheet — Specification for fully supported roofing products of

aluminium sheet

EN 508, Roofing and cladding products of metal sheet — Specification for self-supporting products of steel,

aluminium or stainless steel sheet
EN 534, Corrugated bitumen sheets — Product specification and test methods
EN 544, Bitumen shingles with mineral and/or synthetic reinforcements

EN 1013, Light transmitting single skin profiled plastic sheets for internal and external roofs, walls and

ceilings — Requirements and test methods
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)

EN 14509, Self-supporting double skin metal faced insulating panels — Factory made products —

Specifications
EN 12326-1, Slate and stone for discontinuous roofing and external cladding
EN 1304, Clay roofing tiles and fittings

EN 13956, Flexible sheet for waterproofing — Plastic and rubber sheets for roof waterproofing —

Definitions and characteristics

EN 13707, Flexible sheets for waterproofing — Reinforced bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing —

Definitions and characteristics
EN 15976:2019, Flexible sheets for waterproofing — Determination of emissivity
EN 17190, Flexible sheets for waterproofing — Solar Reflectance Index

ISO 9346, Hygrothermal performance of buildings and building materials — Physical quantities for mass

transfer — Vocabulary

ISO 9050, Glass in building — Determination of light transmittance, solar direct transmittance, total solar

energy transmittance, ultraviolet transmittance and related glazing factors

ASTM E903, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials

Using Integrating Spheres

ASTM D7897-18, Standard Practice for Laboratory Soiling and Weathering of Roofing Materials to

Simulate Effects of Natural Exposure on Solar Reflectance and Thermal Emittance

ASTM E1980-11, Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of Horizontal and Low-Sloped

Opaque Surfaces

ISO 14082, Radiative Forcing Management— Guidance for the quantification and reporting of radiative

forcing-based climate footprints and mitigation efforts

ISO 6707-3:2017, Buildings and civil engineering works — Vocabulary — Part 3: Sustainability terms

ISO 16474-3:2021, Paints and varnishes — Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources — Part 3:

Fluorescent UV lamps

ISO 16378:2013, Space systems — Measurements of thermo-optical properties of thermal control materials

ISO 22969:2019, Peintures et vernis — Détermination du facteur de réflexion solaire

ISO 9488:1999, Solar energy — Vocabulary
ISO 9229, Thermal insulation — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)
3.1
cool property

property of a material or product of reflecting solar heat by high solar reflectivity (SR) and by high

infrared emittance (IE) and thus limiting temperature increase
3.2
cool materials

cool materials are exposed products with specific properties concerning solar and infrared reflectivity

and emittance
Note 1 to entry: Only passive cool materials are considered in this document.
3.3
cool roofs

roofing assemblies where the exterior surface has high solar reflectance and high thermal emittance

3.4
heat island effect
tendency of an urban area to be warmer than its non-urban surroundings
Note 1 to entry: For further details see ISO 6707-3:2017.
3.5
infrared emittance

emittance in the infrared range at least from 4 μm to 40 μm (with the full thermal range comprised

between 4 and 80 μm)
Note 1 to entry: For further details see ISO 16378:2013.
3.6
solar radiation

wavelength range, typical values, and power should be specified (to explain that between 2 500 nm and

2 800 nm there’s not much solar power so the measurements with UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometers are

3.7
infrared (or thermal) radiation
wavelength range and power should be specified
3.8
solar reflectance (SR), also known as albedo

ratio of the reflected global radiant flux to the global solar radiation flux incident on surface in the solar

wavelength range (250 – 2 800 nm)
Note 1 to entry: For further details see ISO 22969:2019.
3.9
solar reflectivity

ratio of the reflected solar irradiation from the surface to the solar irradiation incident on that surface

Note 1 to entry: For further details see: EN 17190.

The terms solar reflectivity and solar reflectance have similar definitions and are commonly used by the

construction sector. For ease of reading, the term solar reflectivity will be preferred in this document.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)
3.10
thermal emittance

the thermal emittance of a material (usually written ε) is the ratio (proportion) of the heat energy

radiated by a surface relative to the heat energy radiated by a blackbody at the same temperature; it is a

measure of a material's ability to radiate heat
Note 1 to entry: Further details see EN 15976:2019.
3.11
bituminous roofing sheet

factory made bitumen sheet including any reinforcements, carriers, facings, surface texture and/or

backing

Note 1 to entry: The sheet is part of the roof waterproofing system, which ensures the watertightness. Within the

roofing industry it is also called a membrane. An exposed sheet is the roof covering which can be a single sheet

(single ply system) or a build-up of several sheets. These sheets can be mechanically fixed or adhered e.g. torched.

The sheet is built up with inner layers (e.g. reinforcements ...). Both sides of the sheets typically consist of

waterproofing modified bitumen and with additional backing/adhesive or lacquers/surface finish etc. Further

details see EN 13707.
3.12
synthetic roofing sheet

factory made plastic and rubber waterproofing sheet, which can be rolled up or folded for easy transport

to the site

Note 1 to entry: The sheet is part of the roof waterproofing system, which ensures the watertightness. Within the

roofing industry it is also called a membrane. An exposed sheet is the roof covering. This is typically a single sheet

(single ply system). These sheets can be mechanically fixed or adhered e.g. glued, self-adhesive etc. The sheet can

be built-up with or without inner layers (e.g. reinforcements, carriers…). Both sides of the sheets consist of

waterproofing polymer/elastomer and with additional backing/adhesive or lacquers/surface finish etc.

Note 2 to entry: Further details see EN 13956.
3.13
liquid-applied roof waterproofing kits (LARWK)

the Liquid Applied Roof Waterproofing Kits (LARWK) consist of a material or a combination of materials,

where at least the main component is liquid form, applied on roofs, terraces or balconies.

In addition to providing a waterproofing layer kit with cool properties act as a reflective layer

Note 1 to entry: Within the roofing industry these systems are also referred to as LAM. For further details see

harmonized EAD 030350-00-0402.
3.14
roof coatings
liquid coatings applied on roofs

Note 1 to entry: These coatings do not provide a waterproofing function. For further details see harmonized

EAD 030350-00-0402.
3.15
tiles and slates

tiles and slates are usually rectangular, flat or profiled elements, which are discontinuously laid as part

of a system to form a weather-tight, air permeable covering on pitched roofs and walls. They are made

from durable, hardwearing material such as ceramic (fired clay), concrete, stone, slate, fibre cement,

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)

durable timber, metal, or even glass and are available in a variety of colours and finishes. They may be

coated or uncoated.
Note 1 to entry: For further details see EN 1304, EN 490, EN 12326-1 and EN 492.
3.16
shingles

shingles made of bitumen or wood and are fixed in a discontinuous overlapping manner onto a roof

substrate, to ensure weather-tightness. Bitumen shingles are factory made and may be multi-layered,

with or without reinforcement and surface layers. Wood shingles are factory cut, commonly from red

Cedar wood
Note 1 to entry: For further details see EN 544.
3.17
fully supported metal sheet

fully supported metal sheets are typically of zinc, steel, stainless steel or aluminium. The sheets may be

coated and available in a variety of colours and finishes and they form a substantially airtight roof

covering. Included are prefabricated or semi-formed products (for example metal tiles) and strip or coil

sheeting (for example standing seam construction)

Note 1 to entry: For further details see: EN 501, EN 502, EN 504, EN 505 and EN 507.

3.18
self-supporting profiled sheeting

self-supporting profiled sheets, typically of copper, zinc, aluminium, steel, fibre cement, bitumen or rigid

plastic. Available in a range of profiles, including sinusoidal, trapezoidal and pressed tile arrays, giving a

substantially airtight roof covering, available in a range of colours and finishes.

Note 1 to entry: For further details see: EN 506, EN 508, EN 494, EN 534 and EN 1013.

3.19
double skin metal faced insulating panels

factory made, self-supporting, double skin metal faced insulating sandwich panels, for discontinuous

laying of roofs and walls, giving essentially an airtight finish. They are available in a variety of colours and

finishes.

Note 1 to entry: The insulating material forming the core is generally of rigid polyurethane, expanded polystyrene,

extruded polystyrene foam, phenolic foam, cellular glass or mineral wool. For further details see: EN 14509.

3.20
radiative forcing

difference between the energy from the sun absorbed by the earth and the energy radiated back into

space. When incoming energy exceeds energy outgoing, the earth’s atmosphere will warm, and global

temperatures rise (from ISO 14082)
4 EU strategic context and benefits to use cool materials
4.1 Green deal

The European Green Deal sets out one of the most ambitious road maps for an entire continent, outlining

a series of key initiatives to bring greenhouse gas emissions to net zero by 2050.

The European Green Deal supports and promotes a climate-neutral context, with a sustainable economy

by deeply transforming sectors like transport, buildings and construction, manufacturing and energy, as

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST CWA 17890:2022
CWA 17890:2022 (E)

well as through policy and legislative proposals – a key part of the Green Deal -, as a major driver to

decarbonize our cities and buildings – ensuring it benefits citizens across the EU while keeping housing

affordable.

Cities are, indeed, centres of innovation and growth, and the engines of European economic development.

They host around 75 % of the population and use about 80 % of the energy produced in Europe, with an

expected increasing trend. But cities are also major contributors to climate change, with significant

greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, cities are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change:

extreme heat waves, flooding, water scarcity and droughts can impact health, infrastructure, local

economies, and quality of life of city habitants. Over the past decades, Europe has seen a 60% increase in

extreme weather patterns [1].

Climate change mitigation and adaptation is among the top priorities of the Green Deal, and Cities and

built areas are at the heart of this priority with a high potential in meeting the EU Green Deal objectives.

The European Union Climate Adaptation Strategy [2], adopted on 24 February 2021, sets out how the

European Union can adapt to the unavoidable impacts of climate change and become climate resilient

by 2050.

The capacity to prepare for and respond to climate impacts at the local level is crucial. Urban authorities

have a catalyst role in getting together all actors to co-develop policies and strategies for territorial

development. Urban authorities should play a leadership role to create policies responding to all these

needs.

Indeed, vulnerability to the impact of climate change is often a result of inadequate planning or building

design. For example, the covering of soil for housing, roads and car parks (soil sealing) increases the

absorption of energy from the sun and leads to higher urban temperatures - the so-called “urban heat

island effect”. At the same time, natural drainage is decreased, which, particularly during heavy rains, can

lead to urban floods.

Through appropriate and resilient urban design, the impacts of climate change can be reduced, for

instance using green infrastructures such as forests, parks, wetlands, cool materials for walls, roofs and

pavement. Such approaches also lead to significant co-benefits, including improved air quality, energy

savings, reduce radiative forcing, support for biodiversity and enhanced quality of life, as well as

employment opportunities.

Urban Heat Island effect is thus a major topic, where an appropriate urban design/planning with

consideration of cool materials contributes in a significant manner to meeting climate change and energy

objectives while enhancing the quality of life of all citizens.

Cities have also the opportunity to reduce climate change. Indeed, increasing the albedo of urban and

human settlement areas can in turn decrease atmospheric temperature and could potentially offset some

of the anticipated temperature increase caused by global warming.
As such, this may be an effective strategy to
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.