This document specifies, for flexible and rigid cellular polymeric materials, laboratory procedures which are intended to imitate the effects of naturally occurring reactions such as oxidation or hydrolysis by humidity. The physical properties of interest are measured before and after the application of the specified treatments. Test conditions are only given for open cellular latex, both open- and closed-cell polyurethane foams, and closed-cell polyolefin foams. Conditions for other materials will be added as required. The effect of the ageing procedures on any of the physical properties of the material can be examined, but those normally tested are either the elongation and tensile properties, or the compression or indentation hardness properties. These tests do not necessarily correlate either with service behaviour or with ageing by exposure to light. If desired, the ageing conditions contained in this document can be applied to composite structures containing any of the above types of cellular material. This can be helpful in the investigation of possible interactions between cellular materials and other substrates. Composite constructions can be in the form of complete finished products or representative small specimens cut there-from.

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This document specifies the minimum requirements for flexible polyurethane foams up to and including 20 mm thick intended for combination with suitable substrates such as non-woven, woven or knitted fabrics, to form a laminate. Three types of flexible polyurethane foam are specified as follows: — type 1: polyether; — type 2: polyester with minimum elongation at break of 200 %; — type 3: polyester with minimum elongation at break of 300 %.

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This document specifies two methods for the determination of the tear strength of flexible cellular polymeric materials: — method A, using a trouser test piece; — method B, using an angle test piece without a nick.

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This document specifies a method for determining the resilience by ball rebound of flexible cellular polymeric materials.

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This document specifies three methods for determining the compression set of flexible cellular materials. This document applies to latex and polyurethane foams of thickness greater than 2 mm.

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ISO 3385:2014 specifies a method for the determination of loss in thickness and loss in hardness of flexible cellular materials intended for use in load-bearing applications such as upholstery. It provides a means of assessing the service performance of flexible cellular materials based on rubber latex or polyurethane used in load-bearing upholstery. The method is applicable both to standard size test pieces cut from slabstock material and to shaped components. The measured loss in thickness and loss in hardness are related to, but are not necessarily the same as, the losses likely to occur in service. ISO 3385:2014 is not intended to function as a detailed engineering design specification for fatigue apparatus.

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ISO 5999:2013 specifies requirements for flexible load-bearing polyurethane foam of the polyether type. ISO 5999:2013 is applicable to flexible polyurethane cellular materials manufactured in block, sheet and strip form, in moulded and fabricated shapes, and as reconstituted material, used for load-bearing applications in general, but excluding carpet backing and underlay. It, thus, primarily relates to the quality of polyurethane foam used for comfort cushioning purposes.

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ISO 7231:2010 specifies two methods for determining the air flow value of flexible cellular polymeric materials. method A, for conventional types of flexible cellular polymeric material; method B, for all types of flexible cellular polymeric material, but especially for materials with a low permeability to air.

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The indentation hardness of flexible cellular materials is a measure of their load-bearing properties. ISO 2439:2008 specifies four methods (A to D) for the determination of indentation hardness and one method (E) for determination of compressive deflection coefficient and hysteresis loss rate of flexible cellular materials. Annex A provides a summary of test parameters and typical force-indentation graphs obtained with these methods. These five methods are applicable only to latex foam, urethane foam and PVC foam of the open-cell type. The methods specified can be used for testing finished articles and for the characterization of bulk material. ISO 2439:2008 specifies the following methods: Method A — Determination of the 40 %/30 s indentation hardness index, which gives a single indentation measurement for laboratory test purposes; Method B — Determination of the 25 %-40 %-65 %/30 s indentation hardness characteristics, which provides information about the shape of the hardness indentation curve; Method C — Determination of the 40 % indentation hardness check, which is a quick procedure suitable for quality control testing; Method D — Determination of the 25 %/20 s low indentation hardness index, which is a quick procedure suitable as an inspection test; Method E — Determination of the compressive deflection coefficient and hysteresis loss rate, which gives additional information about the load-bearing properties of materials. The results obtained by these methods relate only to the test conditions specified and cannot, in general, be used directly for design purposes.

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ISO 1798:2008 specifies a method for determining the strength and deformation properties of flexible cellular materials when a test piece is extended at a constant rate until it breaks.

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Cette norme internationale spécifie une méthode d'essai à petite échelle en laboratoire, permettant une première comparaison des caractéristiques relatives de combustion de petites éprouvettes de matériaux polymères alvéolaires souples, lorsqu'elles sont soumises, en position horizontale, à une source de chaleur de faible énergie. Elle est prévue uniquement pour l'estimation rapide et simple des caractéristiques de combustion des petites éprouvettes de matériaux, considérés sans référence aux conditions d'environnement sous lesquelles le matériau, ou les produits qui en découlent peuvent être utilisés. En conséquence, il n'est pas possible d'établir une corrélation entre les résultats de cet essai et la performance de tels matériaux ou produits dans des conditions réelles d'utilisation. L'essai est réduit aux éprouvettes d'essai d'une épaisseur supérieure à 5 mm. Les résultats des essais sur les éprouvettes d'essai de différentes épaisseurs ne sont pas comparables. Cette méthode d'essai ne doit pas être utilisée pour estimer le risque potentiel de feu dans les conditions réelles d'emploi.

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This International Standard specifies a method for determining the compression set of flexible cellular materials under humid conditions. This method consists of maintaining the test piece under specified conditions of time, temperature, humidity and constant compressive strain and determining the effect on the thickness of the test piece after a specified recovery period.

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This International Standard specifies a method of determining the hardness or compressibility of a material by measuring the compression and/or deformation force on flexible cellular polymeric profiles not less than 3 mm thick.

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Classifies flexible sponge and expanded cellular rubber products. Base material used in their manufacture may be natural rubber, reclaimed rubber or synthetic rubber, either alone or in combination. Does not apply to latex foam rubbers, shoe soling, ebonite cellular rubbers, semi-rigid urethane foams, PVC or PVC blended with other polymers. All products are in the form of sheeting.

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Contains a procedure intended primarily for quality assurance in packaging applications. Describes the principle, the apparatus, the preparation of specimens, conditioning methods, the test procedure, and the contents of the test report.

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Defines a method measuring the peak deceleration of a mass when it is dropped on a test piece. The test described is intended primarily for quality assurance; however, an annex contains notes to be considered if the test is used to obtain design data. Two figures show typical arrangements.

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Covers the determination of material with a density up to 250 kg/m3. It also indicates a method for the calculation of the compression stress value of such materials. The compression stress/strain characteristic is a measure of the load-bearing properties of the material. Two formulas allow to calculate the results. Part 2 refers to high density materials. Constitutes a minor revision of the first edition (ISO 3386/1-1979).

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Related to two types of sheetings: open cell material and closed cell material. They are graded according to hardness index. For type 1 sheeting a single hardness level is specified, but for type 2 sheeting a range. For sheeting up to approximately 100 mm the material indentation hardness index is specified. For type 2, mostly available in thicknesses much less than 50 mm, it is necessary to use a test piece consisting of a number of plies, therefore the product indentation hardness index is specified. An annex about organic materials staining.

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Applicable to test pieces cut from products of cellular materials. Useful for two purposes: a) studying the structure of cellular products in connection with their physical properties and their method of manufacture and b) ensuring product quality (quality assurance). Describes principle, apparatus, test piece and conditions, procedure and calculation and expression of the results. Three figures deliver the details for testing.

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ISO 8067:2008 specifies two methods for the determination of the tear strength of flexible cellular polymeric materials: method A, using a trouser test piece; method B, using an angle test piece without a nick.

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ISO 8307:2007 specifies a test method for determining the resilience by ball rebound of flexible cellular polymeric materials.

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ISO 5999:2007 specifies requirements for flexible load-bearing polyurethane foam of the polyether type. It is applicable to flexible polyurethane cellular materials manufactured in block, sheet and strip form, in moulded and fabricated shapes, and as reconstituted material, used for load-bearing applications in general, but excluding carpet backing and underlay. It thus primarily relates to the quality of polyurethane foam used for comfort cushioning purposes. The foam is classified according to performance during a fatigue test, indentation hardness index being used as a secondary means of grading the material. The standard is not applicable to polyurethane foams foamed in place or to foams for use in heat-welded systems unless for load-bearing purposes. Recommended applications for the range of flexible polyurethane foams covered by the standard are listed in an annex.

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Specifies the minimum requirements for the following three types of foams with thicknesses up to 20 mm: 1) polyether; 2) polyester with minimum elongation at break of 200 %; 3) polyester with minimum elongation at break of 300 %. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (1984).

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The principle consists in dropping a steel ball on to a test specimen from a specified height and measuring the height of rebound. The diagrammatic arrangement for the test apparatus is shown in a figure. The material to be tested shall be conditioned at specified temperature and humidity.

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Specifies the determination of loss in thickness and loss in hardness of materials intended for use in upholstery. Provides a means of assessing the service performance. The method is applicable both to standard size test pieces cut from stock material and to shaped components. Formulas are given to express the loss in thickness and the loss in hardness. Two figures show the details of a manually adjusted machine and an automatically adjusted. Constitutes a minor revision of the second edition (ISO 3385:1982).

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Specifies a method for the determination of the tear strength of flexibility cellular polymeric materials having a thickness of more than 24.0 mm. The procedure described produces a value which may be regarded as a measure of the tear resistance of foam under the conditions of this particular test.

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The air flow value may be used to give an indication of the effects of formulation and production variables on the cellular structure. Describes the method with an apparatus either for negative or for positive pressure. Two figures show the test arrangement.

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Applicable to material manufactured in block, sheet and stripform, in moulded and fabricated shapes, and as reconstituted material. The foam is classified according to performance during a fatigue test, indentation hardness being used as a secondary means of grading material. Several tables and two diagrams give further details. Three annexes contain the calculation of specification limits, recommended applications and the burning properties.

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