This document gives guidance on how to create text alternatives and what information to put in text alternatives. This document applies to all static images that are used in any type of electronic document. It also applies to individual images within a slide show. This document does not apply to moving images (e.g. movies). NOTE 1 While text alternatives can be implemented via various mechanisms in various types of electronic documents, the contents of this document are not dependent on the choice of implementation mechanism or of electronic document type. NOTE 2 Guidance on making moving images accessible is contained in ISO/IEC TS 20071-21, ISO/IEC 20071-23 and ISO/IEC 20071-25.
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This document takes a holistic approach to the accessibility of information and communications technology (ICT) by combining guidance on implementing the accessibility of ICT systems (ICT accessibility) both at organizational and system development levels. This document gives guidelines for building and maintaining ICT systems (including products and services) that are accessible to diverse users (including users with disabilities and older people). This document is applicable to all types of organizations. This document applies to the breadth of ICT systems and the results of convergent and emerging technologies within an organization including, but not limited to: information systems; intranet systems; websites; mobile and wearable applications; social media; and Internet of Things (IoT) systems. It gives requirements and recommendations for organizations: a) ensuring accessibility is considered in their policies or strategy by creating an organizational ICT accessibility policy; b) embedding the consideration of accessibility decisions through the entire process of developing procuring, installing, operating and maintaining ICT systems, and documenting these choices; c) justifying decisions on accessibility; d) communicating the ICT system's accessibility decisions to its users at launch, through creating and publishing its accessibility statement.
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This document identifies a collection of user accessibility needs that diverse users have of ICT systems to make these systems accessible to them. Each user accessibility need might be required of a system by an individual. Different users can have different sets of user accessibility needs in different contexts. While this set of user accessibility needs was developed for the domain of ICT, many of the user accessibility needs in this set also apply in other domains. This document does not provide requirements or specific processes and methods for the application and evaluation of user accessibility needs. However, it could inform the development of such requirements (see 5.4). This document is not designed for certification purposes or regulatory or contractual use. The user accessibility needs in this document are intended to inform and encourage those responsible for accessibility to go beyond the minimum provisions of accessibility legislation and regulations.
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This document provides guidance for producers, exhibitors, and distributors on the visual presentation of alternatives to audio information in audiovisual content, such as captions/subtitles. This document provides requirements and recommendations that are intended to support users who are not able to use the audio information, prefer to use a visual representation of audio information, or prefer both audio and visual presentations. NOTE Many users do not have a choice, for instance, when in a noisy environment (e.g. bar, restaurant, etc.). In these situations, the user does not select a visual presentation of audio information but is offered the content with captions/subtitles. This document acknowledges the various needs and preferences of viewers (end users) as well as the different approaches to visual presentation of audio information. It applies to all presentations of visual alternatives to audio information intended to be presented as captions/subtitles. This document does not apply to the presentation devices or transmission mechanisms used to deliver the content or visual presentations of audio information. These devices could include, but are not limited to: televisions, computers, wireless devices, projection equipment, DVD and home cinema equipment, video game consoles, and other forms of user interfaces technology. This document does not apply to transcoding files and formats for the various video outputs. This document gives guidance on visual presentations which are delivered in the same language as in the audio (i.e., intra-lingual captions/subtitles) and visual presentations which are translated into a different language (i.e., inter-lingual captions/subtitles). This document does not apply to the specific process of language translation. This document helps to improve accessibility. This document does not establish requirements on specific industries (e.g. television broadcasting, motion pictures) nor is it intended to supersede specific international standards within their domain.
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ISO/IEC TS 20071-15:2017 provides guidance on various aspects of the user interface of applications that scan visual information that are used directly by humans, including: - initiating the scanning application; - setting user's preferences and configuring the scanning application; - identifying the types of information currently of interest to the user; - locating visual objects of interest to the user; - creating a static image via scanning the visual object; - identifying the information content provided by the visual object; - processing scanned information and outputting the results to the user. ISO/IEC TS 20071-15:2017 provides increased accessibility by addressing the user accessibility needs of diverse users in diverse contexts. ISO/IEC TS 20071-15:2017 contains guidance that can be applied to a variety of devices, including: - specialized devices that are dedicated to scanning and processing visual information; - mobile devices (such as smartphones and tablets); - general purpose computers with camera capabilities; - office machines with scanning functions. ISO/IEC TS 20071-15:2017 contains guidance that can be applied to various types of software, including: - stand-alone scanning applications; - applications including scanning functionalities; - (scanning) applications that interoperate with other applications. ISO/IEC TS 20071-15:2017 contains guidance that can be used for outputting scanned information in various modalities, including: - audio outputs; - visual outputs; - tactile outputs; - storing information for future use within the application performing the scanning; - electronic outputs (to other applications, systems, or devices including those directly connected and those connected via the Internet). ISO/IEC TS 20071-15:2017 does not: - apply to fully automated scanning that is not under direct human control; - apply to applications that scan visual information for editing an image or just displaying it; - provide guidance on the design of specific hardware devices involved in scanning; - provide guidance on the specific objects that can be recognized or the specific software used to recognize these objects; - provide guidance on the internal functioning of software that recognizes specific types of objects. ISO/IEC TS 20071-15:2017 is intended for use by developers of applications that include user controlled scanning functionalities. It does not expect that an application includes all of these functionalities. It can be used for those functionalities that an application does provide.
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ISO/IEC TS 20071-25:2017 provides recommendations on the audio presentation of captions/subtitles and other on-screen text for use in all type of videos regardless of the language and technology being used to transmit and present the recorded or live video. ISO/IEC TS 20071-25:2017 applies to making captions/subtitles and other on-screen text accessible to users with various needs, including but not limited to people with learning and reading disabilities, people with cognitive disabilities, people who are blind or have low vision, older people, and non-native language speakers. It does not apply to captions/subtitles or other on-screen text whose content is already provided in the soundtrack in a language and a way users can access. ISO/IEC TS 20071-25:2017 provides guidance on spoken captions/subtitles as a stand-alone access service but it also provides guidance on how to integrate spoken captions/subtitles, other spoken on-screen text and audio description, if needed, in different types of videos. NOTE 1 Extensive guidance on audio description is provided in ISO/IEC/TS 20071‑21. ISO/IEC TS 20071-25:2017 does not consider the devices or transmission mechanisms used to deliver and play the content or the audio presentation of text in videos. These devices include, but are not limited to televisions, computers, wireless devices, projection equipment, DVD and home cinema equipment, cinema equipment and other forms of user interfaces technology. Therefore, this document does not consider transcoding files for the various video and audio outputs. NOTE 2 Technical matters of transmission and distribution are covered by other documents (e.g. MPEG standards and other technical standards such as IEC 62731:2013). ISO/IEC TS 20071-25:2017 acknowledges the various needs and preferences of users, as well as the different approaches to the audio presentation of text in videos. It applies to audio presentations intended to be heard simultaneously along with the original video.
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ISO/IEC TR 13066-2:2016 specifies services provided in the Microsoft Windows platform to enable assistive technologies (AT) to interact with other software. One goal of this part of ISO/IEC 13066 is to define a set of application programming interfaces (APIs) for allowing software applications to enable accessible technologies on the Microsoft Windows platform. Another goal of this part of ISO/IEC 13066 is to facilitate extensibility and interoperability by enabling implementations by multiple vendors on multiple platforms. ISO/IEC TR 13066-2:2016 is applicable to the broad range of ergonomics and how ergonomics apply to human interaction with software systems.
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- Technical report88 pagesEnglish languagesale 15% off
ISO/IEC TS 20071-21:2015 provides recommendations for describing audiovisual content in an auditory modality for use in recorded video presentations, broadcast television, cinema, live or recorded drama, museum and art gallery exhibits, heritage tours, news, and comedies, regardless of the language and technology being used to transmit and present the recorded or live audiovisual content. NOTE 1 There are many secondary users of audio description, but the primary and intended users of audio description are blind persons or persons with low vision and their friends and family. ISO/IEC TS 20071-21:2015 provides guidance on the subjective nature of creating audio description. It also provides guidance for audio description developers (script writers, voice narrators, and organizations or groups responsible for delivering audio description) in faithfully and accurately representing audiovisual content. NOTE 2 It might not always be possible to provide an equivalent experience due to limitations in the amount of time available for audio description depending on the content being described. ISO/IEC TS 20071-21:2015 applies to describing audiovisual content and does not consider the devices or transmission mechanisms used to deliver the content or the audio description. These devices include, but are not limited to, televisions, computers, wireless devices, projection equipment, DVD and home cinema equipment and other forms of user interface technology. Therefore, this part of ISO/IEC 20071 does not consider transcoding files for the various video outputs. NOTE 3 Technical matters of transmission and distribution are covered by other International Standards (e.g. MPEG standards and other technical international standards such as IEC 62731). ISO/IEC TS 20071-21:2015 provides guidance on how to approach user preferences, available styles and flexibility in approaches to audio description. It does not apply to static images contained in electronic documents (see ISO/IEC 20071−11 for guidance on text alternatives for images). It applies to auditory presentations intended to be transmitted or delivered simultaneously to the original audiovisual content. NOTE 4 Limitations experienced by broadcasters or people in synchronous environments might be reduced online or in asynchronous environments.
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ISO/IEC 29136:2012 provides requirements and recommendations for the accessibility of personal computer hardware, to be used when planning, developing, designing and distributing these computers. While it does not cover the behaviour of, or requirements for, assistive technologies, it does address connectivity of assistive technologies as an integrated component of interactive systems. Some requirements or recommendations in ISO/IEC 29136:2012 require software support; however, requirements and recommendations that solely focus on software are not included in ISO/IEC 29136:2012.
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Interoperability involves the ability to use assistive technology (AT) to add to or augment existing components of information technology (IT) systems. Interoperability between AT and IT is best facilitated via the use of standardized, public interfaces for all IT components. ISO/IEC 13066-1:2011 provides a basis for designing and evaluating interoperability between IT and AT. It formalizes the layered architecture of hardware-to-hardware, hardware-to-software, and software-to-software connections that have long been implicit in the IT definitions of ISO/IEC JTC 1. It also recognizes the central role that accessibility application programming interfaces (accessibility APIs) play in aiding this interoperability. ISO/IEC 13066-1:2011 identifies a variety of APIs that are described further in other parts of ISO/IEC 13066. These APIs can be used as frameworks to support IT-AT interoperability. ISO/IEC 13066-1:2011 does not define or require specific technology, commands, APIs, or hardware interfaces. It defers to other existing standards and supports the development of new standards in these areas. It identifies a variety of common accessibility APIs that are described further in other parts of ISO/IEC 13066.
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People with disabilities (e.g. visual, hearing, physical) can experience difficulties in accessing computers and other information/communication technology (ICT) devices. Accessible user interfaces, as defined in ISO/IEC 24786:2009, can help them to operate computers if they are able to adjust accessibility settings prior to use. If this is not possible, some people will not be able to access these devices without help from another party. ISO/IEC 24786:2009 specifies requirements and recommendations for making accessibility settings accessible. This will make the information technologies more accessible by ensuring that people with disabilities can adjust accessibility settings by themselves. ISO/IEC 24786:2009 provides guidance on specific accessibility settings. It specifies how to access and operate the accessibility setting mode, and how to directly activate specific accessibility functions. ISO/IEC 24786:2009 applies to all operating system user interfaces on computers, but can also be applied to other types of ICT, where appropriate. It does not apply to the user interface before the operating system is loaded and active.
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ISO/IEC TR 29136-3:2009 provides guidance on the mapping of the set of user needs with the provisions of a particular standard, technical report, or set of guidelines. It provides both basic guidance that should be used for all user needs mapping and optional guidance that may be added to the basic guidance. User needs mapping is a voluntary activity intended to help improve accessibility for all users and in particular for users with special needs that might otherwise be overlooked. User needs mapping is not intended to be used to evaluate, certify, or otherwise judge a given standard or set of guidelines.
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ISO/IEC TR 29138-2:2009 identifies a collection of documents (which it refers to as standards even though they encompass more than traditional ISO and ISO/IEC standards) that provides guidance on meeting the needs of people with disabilities. While its primary audience is standards developers, it can also be helpful for developers of information technology products and services, policy makers, procurers and for accessibility advocates to consider. In addition to identifying user needs, ISO/IEC TR 29138-2:2009 identifies problems that people with disabilities experience with information technologies that lead to these user needs and identifies the relationship of these user needs with the accessibility factors for standards developers to consider found in ISO/IEC Guide 71: Guidelines to address the needs of older persons and people with disabilities when developing standards.
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ISO/IEC 24756:2009 defines a framework for specifying a common access profile (CAP) of needs and capabilities of users, computing systems, and their environments, including access supported by assistive technologies. It provides a basis for identifying and dealing with accessibility issues in a standardized manner across multiple platforms. It can be used to evaluate the accessibility of existing systems in particular environments for particular users. Users of various systems in various environments can experience temporary or permanent accessibility difficulties. Potential users of systems need to evaluate whether the systems will be accessible to them in the intended environments in which they will be used. Where accessibility can be insufficient, either due to environmental barriers or poor design, these users can wish to resort to assistive technologies (ATs) to provide the required level of accessibility. Currently, there is no common framework for describing accessibility needs or abilities. This requires each potential user to develop their own evaluation method, and then to investigate and evaluate various systems and ATs using this method. However, due to the lack of an existing method, there might also be a lack of suitable information on the abilities of different systems and ATs, leading to inefficiency, confusion, frustration and a general lack of satisfaction by the user. ISO/IEC 24756:2009 introduces a model of accessibility as a basis for understanding access issues with the interactions between users and systems in various environments. It further describes logical operators used along CAPs to qualify and combine them. It then specifies methods to apply a CAP.
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ISO/IEC TS 20071-11:2012 applies to all static images that are used in any type of electronic document. It also applies to individual images within a slide show of electronic images. ISO/IEC TS 20071-11:2012 does not apply to moving images (e.g. movies). The guidance contained in ISO/IEC TS 20071-11:2012 is intended to be used by the person who creates content to be placed in an electronic document. There is no expectation that this person will have any additional expertise beyond understanding the contents of the document and why an image was chosen to be placed within the document. While the main intent of the guidance within ISO/IEC TS 20071-11:2012 is the creation of text alternatives, the information identified in this guidance could be placed in the main document text, reducing the length of the resulting text alternatives. However, placing information in the main document text does not fully replace the function of having some text alternatives for each image.
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Different users of information technology products possess different sets of abilities. Some abilities may not ever be present in a user as they may have been born without them. Some abilities are acquired, developed or deteriorate over time due to education, maturity, injury, illness or age. Just as it is possible that a user possesses a combination of abilities, it is also possible that they may lack a combination of abilities. ISO/IEC TR 19765:2007 presents icons and symbols currently used to provide access to facilities and tools to support the needs of elderly and disabled users of information technology (IT) products, and could form the basis of a future International Standard which would provide a recommended collection of icons and symbols. These icons and symbols have been collected from a variety of sources including other standards, contemporary software products, web sites and hardware devices. These sources are cross-referenced and listed in a bibliography. The icons and symbols presented in ISO/IEC TR 19765:2007 are categorized by modality and method of use.
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ISO/IEC TR 19766:2007 provides recommendations relating to the design of icons to support accessibility by the elderly and people with disabilities. These recommendations assist accessible implementation of all icons for users. While these recommendations were developed to meet the needs of the elderly and people with disabilities, they can also provide greater accessibility to a wider range of users in a variety of different contexts. ISO/IEC TR 19766:2007 introduces a set of attributes and operations that can be implemented as features of graphic icons to make the functionality of these icons accessible to the widest possible range of users. Textual attributes are emphasized because they can be rendered in various alternate modalities. ISO/IEC 11581-1 provides guidance on the graphic aspects of icons. Specific renderings of these attributes (or of icons in general) are not dealt with as part of ISO/IEC TR 19766:2007.
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