Clay Geosynthetic Barriers - Characteristics required for use in the construction of underground structures (other than tunnels and associated structures)

This document specifies the characteristics of clay geosynthetic barriers (GBR-C) as well as multicomponent geosynthetic clay barriers (e.g. a GBR-C with a polymeric or bituminous geosynthetic barrier attached to it), when used as fluid barriers and separation layer in the construction of underground structures (other than tunnels and associated structures), and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
If in a multicomponent GBR-C, the GBR-P or GBR-B is the predominant hydraulic barrier then the appropriate standard should be used.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of fluid through the construction wall.
This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This document provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This document defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.
This document does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier is to be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption.
NOTE   Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design.

Geosynthetische Tondichtungsbahnen - Eigenschaften, die für die Anwendung beim Bau von Tiefbauwerken (andere als Tunnel und damit verbundene Tiefbauwerke) erforderlich sind

Dieses Dokument legt die Eigenschaften von geosynthetischen Tondichtungsbahnen (GBR-C), sowie geosynthetischen Tondichtungsbahnen aus Verbundwerkstoffen (z. B. eine GBR-C mit einer angebundenen Kunststoff- oder Bitumendichtungsbahn), die als Abdichtung und Trennschicht beim Bau von Tiefbauwerken (mit Ausnahme von Tunneln und verbundenen Strukturen) eingesetzt werden, sowie die geeigneten Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung dieser Eigenschaften fest.
Wenn bei einer GBR-C aus Verbundwerkstoffen, die GBR-P oder GBR-B die überwiegende, hydraulische Dichtungsbahn darstellt, dann sollte die entsprechende Norm für diese angewendet werden.
Die bestimmungsgemäße Anwendung dieser Produkte ist das Durchsickern von Flüssigkeiten durch die Bauwerkswand zu kontrollieren.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht anwendbar auf Geotextilien oder geotextilverwandte Produkte im Sinne der Definition von EN ISO 10318 1.
Dieses Dokument behandelt die Bewertung und Überprüfung der Leistungsbeständigkeit (AVCP) des Produkts nach dieser Europäischen Norm, einschließlich der Verfahren für die werkseigene Produktions-kontrolle.
Dieses Dokument legt Eigenschaften fest, die in Bezug auf die Darstellung der Produkteigenschaften berücksichtigt werden müssen.
Dieses Dokument umfasst nicht die Anwendungen, bei denen die geosynthetische Dichtungsbahn in Kontakt mit Trinkwasser kommt, das für den unmittelbaren menschlichen Gebrauch behandelt wurde.
ANMERKUNG   Wo Trinkwasser in direkten Kontakt mit dem Produkt kommt oder kommen kann, können andere einschlägige Normen, Anforderungen und/oder Bestimmungen bei der Planung berücksichtigt werden.

Geosynthétiques Bentonitiques - Caractéristiques requises pour l'utilisation dans la construction de structures souterraines (hors tunnels et structures associées)

Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques applicables aux géosynthétiques d'étanchéité incluant les géosynthétiques bentonitiques (GSB) et les géosynthétiques bentonitiques multicomposants (par exemple, GSB auquel est fixée une géomembrane polymérique ou bitumineuse), lorsque ces éléments sont utilisés comme barrières aux fluides dans la construction de structures souterraines (hors tunnels et structures associées), ainsi que les méthodes d'essai qui permettent de déterminer ces caractéristiques.
Si, dans un GSB multicomposants, la GMB-P ou la GMB-B est la barrière hydraulique à long terme prédominante, il convient d'appliquer la norme appropriée.
Ces produits sont destinés à contrôler les fuites de fluide à travers le mur de construction.
Le présent document ne s'applique pas aux géotextiles ou produits apparentés, tels que définis dans l'EN ISO 10318 1.
Le présent document permet d'évaluer et de vérifier la constance des performances du produit à la présente Norme européenne et les procédures de contrôle de la production en usine.
Le présent document définit les exigences que les fabricants et leurs représentants agréés doivent satisfaire concernant la présentation des propriétés du produit.
Le présent document ne couvre pas les cas où le géosynthétique bentonitique doit être en contact avec une eau traitée destinée à la consommation humaine.
Si de l'eau potable est ou peut être en contact direct avec le produit, il convient que le concepteur se réfère également aux normes, exigences et/ou règlements applicables.

Geosintetične zapore - Zahtevane lastnosti pri gradnji podzemnih objektov (razen predorov in pripadajočih konstrukcij)

Ta evropski standard določa ustrezne lastnosti geosintetičnih zapor, vključno s polimernimi, opečnati in bitumenskimi geosintetičnimi zaporami, če se uporabljajo za zaščito pred tekočinami pri podzemnih gradnjah (z izjemo tunelov), in ustrezne preskusne metode za določanje teh lastnosti.
Ti proizvodi se predvidoma uporabljajo za nadzor uhajanja vode skozi steno konstrukcije.
Ta standard ne velja za geotekstilije ali sorodne izdelke.
Ta standard omogoča vrednotenje skladnosti izdelka s tem evropskim standardom.
Ta standard določa zahteve, ki jih morajo izpolniti proizvajalci in distributerji glede predstavitve lastnosti izdelka.
Ta standard ne zajema uporabe, kjer bodo geosintetične zapore v stiku s pitno vodo, ki je namenjena ljudem.  
OPOMBA: Če je oz. bo lahko proizvod v stiku s pitno vodo, mora projektant upoštevati tudi druge ustrezne standarde, zahteve in/ali predpise.

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13-Mar-2018
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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Geosynthetische Tondichtungsbahnen - Eigenschaften, die für die Anwendung beim Bau von Tiefbauwerken (andere als Tunnel und damit verbundene Tiefbauwerke) erforderlich sindGéosynthétiques bentonitiques - Caractéristiques requises pour l'utilisation comme barrière aux fluides dans la construction de structures souterraines (hors tunnels)Clay Geosynthetic Barriers - Characteristics required for use in the construction of underground structures (other than tunnels and associated structures)91.100.50Veziva. Tesnilni materialiBinders. Sealing materials59.080.70GeotekstilijeGeotextilesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16994:2018SIST EN 16994:2018en,fr,de01-maj-2018SIST EN 16994:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16994:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16994
March
t r s z ICS
w {ä r z rä y râ
{ sä s r rä w r English Version

Clay Geosynthetic Barriers æ Characteristics required for Geosynthétiques Bentonitiques æ Caractéristiques requises pour l 5utilisation dans la construction de

Geosynthetische Tondichtungsbahnen æ Eigenschaftená die für die Anwendung beim Bau von Tiefbauwerken This European Standard was approved by CEN on

t u October
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x { { vã t r s z ESIST EN 16994:2018
EN 16994:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ..................................................................................................... 8 3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8 3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................ 10 4 Characteristics and corresponding methods of test ........................................................................ 10 4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10 4.2 Type of application ...................................................................................................................................... 11 4.3 Relevant characteristics ............................................................................................................................ 11 4.4 Characteristics relevant to specific conditions of use .................................................................... 13 4.5 Release of dangerous substances ........................................................................................................... 14 5 Assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) ........................................... 14 5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 14 5.2 Type testing .................................................................................................................................................... 15 5.3 Factory production control (FPC) .......................................................................................................... 19 Annex A (normative)

Durability of geosynthetic barriers ......................................................................... 25 A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 25 A.1.1 Service Life...................................................................................................................................................... 25 A.1.2 Type testing of durability .......................................................................................................................... 25 A.1.3 Mechanisms of degradation ..................................................................................................................... 26 A.1.4 Use of rework material .............................................................................................................................. 26 A.1.5 Recycled materials ....................................................................................................................................... 26 A.2 Weathering ..................................................................................................................................................... 26 A.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26 A.2.2 Direct tests and accelerated tests .......................................................................................................... 27 A.2.3 Period of exposure ....................................................................................................................................... 27 A.3 Products used with a service life up to 5 years ................................................................................. 28 A.4 Other applications and service life of 25 and 50 years .................................................................. 28 A.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 28 A.4.2 Tests for PE type of GBR-P......................................................................................................................... 29 A.4.3 Tests for FPO-type of GBR-P ..................................................................................................................... 30 A.4.4 Tests for EPDM type of GBR-P .................................................................................................................. 31 SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 3 A.4.5 Tests for GBR-P made of PVC-P ................................................................................................................ 31 A.4.6 Tests for clay geosynthetic barriers (GBR-C) ..................................................................................... 32 A.5 Durability tests on GBR-P .......................................................................................................................... 34 A.5.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 34 A.5.2 Microbiological resistance ........................................................................................................................ 34 A.5.3 Resistance to environmental stress cracking ..................................................................................... 35 A.5.4 Resistance to leaching ................................................................................................................................. 36 A.5.5 Resistance to oxidation/thermal ageing .............................................................................................. 39 A.6 Evaluation tests on GBR-P and GBR-C ................................................................................................... 41 A.6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 41 A.6.2 Evaluation by comparison of tensile properties ............................................................................... 41 A.6.3 Evaluation by comparison of oxidative induction time (OIT) values ........................................ 41 A.6.4 Evaluation by change in mass .................................................................................................................. 41 A.6.5 Evaluation by change in water permeability ...................................................................................... 41 A.7 Durability tests on GBR-B .......................................................................................................................... 41 A.7.1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................... 41 A.7.2 Microbiological resistance ........................................................................................................................ 42 A.7.3 Resistance to environmental stress cracking ..................................................................................... 43 A.7.4 Resistance to leaching ................................................................................................................................. 43 A.7.5 Resistance to oxidation/thermal ageing .............................................................................................. 44 A.7.6 Weathering resistance ................................................................................................................................ 45 A.8 Evaluation tests on GBR-B ......................................................................................................................... 46 A.8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 46 A.8.2 Evaluation by comparison of tensile properties ............................................................................... 46 A.8.3 Evaluation by change in mass .................................................................................................................. 46 A.8.4 Evaluation of water permeability ........................................................................................................... 46 A.8.5 Evaluation of flow resistance at elevated temperature .................................................................. 47 A.8.6 Evaluation of flexibility at low temperature ....................................................................................... 47 A.8.7 Evaluation of ring and ball softening point temperature .............................................................. 47 Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship of this European Standard with Regulation (EU) No. 305/2011 ................................................................................................................................................. 48 ZA.1 Scope and relevant characteristics ........................................................................................................ 48 ZA.2 System of Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance (AVCP) ...................... 49 ZA.3 Assignment of AVCP tasks ......................................................................................................................... 50 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 51

SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 16994:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 189 “Geosynthetics”, the secretariat of which is held by NBN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2019. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. For relationship with Regulation (EU) No 305/2011, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 5 Introduction This document allows manufacturers to describe clay geosynthetic barriers on the basis of declared values for characteristics relevant to the intended use and if tested to the specified method. It also includes procedures for assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) including the factory production control. This document can also be used by designers, end-users and other interested parties as a tool to define relevant and appropriate characteristics for specifications. Tests for some non-mandated characteristics are still under study and will be included when the standard is revised. The term “product” used in this document refers to clay geosynthetic barriers only. This document is part of a group of standards, addressing the requirements for geosynthetic barriers when used in a specific application. Particular application cases can contain requirements about additional properties and - preferably standardized - test methods, if they are technically relevant and not conflicting with European Standards. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure. SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 6 1 Scope This document specifies the characteristics of clay geosynthetic barriers (GBR-C) as well as multicomponent geosynthetic clay barriers (e.g. a GBR-C with a polymeric or bituminous geosynthetic barrier attached to it), when used as fluid barriers and separation layer in the construction of underground structures (other than tunnels and associated structures), and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics. If in a multicomponent GBR-C, the GBR-P or GBR-B is the predominant hydraulic barrier then the appropriate standard should be used. The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of fluid through the construction wall. This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products as defined in EN ISO 10318-1. This document provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures. This document defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance. This document does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier is to be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption. NOTE Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 1296:2000, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Bitumen, plastic and rubber sheets for roofing - Method of artificial ageing by long term exposure to elevated temperature EN 1849-2:2009, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Determination of thickness and mass per unit area - Part 2: Plastic and rubber sheets EN 12224:2000, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Determination of the resistance to weathering EN 12225:2000, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Method for determining the microbiological resistance by a soil burial test EN 12226:2012, Geosynthetics - General tests for evaluation following durability testing EN 12311-2:2013, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Determination of tensile properties - Part 2: Plastic and rubber sheets for roof waterproofing EN 13249:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in the construction of roads and other trafficked areas (excluding railways and asphalt inclusion) EN 13250:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in the construction of railways SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 7 EN 13251:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in earthworks, foundations and retaining structures EN 13252:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in drainage systems EN 13253:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in erosion control works (coastal protection, bank revetments) EN 13254:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for the use in the construction of reservoirs and dams EN 13255:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in the construction of canals EN 13256:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in the construction of tunnels and underground structures EN 13257:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in solid waste disposals EN 13265:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in liquid waste containment projects EN 14151:2010, Geosynthetics - Determination of burst strength EN 14196:2016, Geosynthetics - Test methods for measuring mass per unit area of clay geosynthetic barriers EN 14414:2015, Geosynthetics - Screening test method for determining chemical resistance for landfill applications EN 14415:2004, Geosynthetic barriers - Test method for determining the resistance to leaching CEN/TS 14417:2014, Geosynthetic barriers - Test method for the determination of the influence of wetting-drying cycles on the permeability of clay geosynthetic barriers CEN/TS 14418:2014, Geosynthetic Barriers - Test method for the determination of the influence of freezing-thawing cycles on the permeability of clay geosynthetic barriers EN 14575:2005, Geosynthetic barriers - Screening test method for determining the resistance to oxidation EN 14576:2005, Geosynthetics - Test method for determining the resistance of polymeric geosynthetic barriers to environmental stress cracking EN 16416:2013, Geosynthetic clay barriers - Determination of water flux index - Flexible wall permeameter method at constant head EN ISO 527-3:1995, Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 3: Test conditions for films and sheets (ISO 527-3:1995) EN ISO 1133-1:2011, Plastics - Determination of the melt mass-flow rate (MFR) and melt volume-flow rate (MVR) of thermoplastics - Part 1: Standard method (ISO 1133-1:2011) SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 8 EN ISO 1183-1:2012, Plastics - Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics - Part 1: Immersion method, liquid pyknometer method and titration method (ISO 1183-1:2012) EN ISO 1183-2:2004, Plastics - Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics - Part 2: Density gradient column method (ISO 1183-2:2004) EN ISO 1183-3:1999, Plastics - Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics - Part 3: Gas pyknometer method (ISO 1183-3:1999) EN ISO 3696:1995, Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification and test methods (ISO 3696:1987) EN ISO 9864:2005, Geosynthetics - Test method for the determination of mass per unit area of geotextiles and geotextile-related products (ISO 9864:2005) EN ISO 10318-1:2015, Geosynthetics - Part 1: Terms and definitions (ISO 10318-1:2015) EN ISO 10319:2015, Geosynthetics - Wide-width tensile test (ISO 10319:2015) EN ISO 11357-6:2013, Plastics - Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) - Part 6: Determination of oxidation induction time (isothermal OIT) and oxidation induction temperature (dynamic OIT) (ISO 11357-6:2008) EN ISO 12236:2006, Geosynthetics - Static puncture test (CBR test) (ISO 12236:2006) EN ISO 13438:2004, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Screening test method for determining the resistance to oxidation (ISO 13438:2004) ISO 34-1:2015, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of tear strength — Part 1: Trouser, angle and crescent test pieces ISO 11465:1993, Soil quality — Determination of dry matter and water content on a mass basis — Gravimetric method ASTM D4603, Standard Test Method for Determining Inherent Viscosity of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) by Glass Capillary Viscometer

ASTM D5890, Standard test method for swell index of clay mineral component of geosynthetic clay liners ASTM D7409, Standard Test Method for Carboxyl End Group Content of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Yarns

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 10318-1 and the following apply. 3.1.1 product geosynthetic barrier, including polymeric, bituminous and clay barriers SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 9 3.1.2 geosynthetic barrier barrier with at least one of whose components is made from a synthetic or natural polymer, in the form of a sheet, a strip or a three dimensional structure, used in contact with soil and/or other materials in geotechnical and civil engineering applications 3.1.3 multicomponent GBR-C polymeric or bituminous geosynthetic barrier attached to the GBR-C 3.1.4 project specification document in which the works, functions, specific conditions and required material property values of the geosynthetic barrier are described 3.1.5 underground structure (other than tunnels and associated structures) constructed void below ground which is not a tunnel or associated with a tunnel 3.1.6 tunnel underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings for entrance and exit, commonly at each end 3.1.7 moisture barrier barrier used to prevent the ingress of liquids and water vapours, without external hydrostatic pressure, to a tunnel or underground structure 3.1.8 pressure water barrier barrier used to prevent or reduce the ingress of water to an underground structure (which is not associated with a tunnel) when subject to external hydrostatic pressure 3.1.9 fluid barrier barrier used to prevent or reduce the ingress of fluids underground structures (not associated with tunnels) when subject to differential pressure 3.1.10 fluid gas, liquid and vapour in its pure phase as well as mixtures there of [SOURCE: EN 764-1:2015-04, 3.1.5] 3.1.11 rework material RWM material that is generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated it [SOURCE: EN 13249:2016-10, 3.1.3] SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 10 3.1.12 post-consumer material PCM material generated by households or by commercial, industrial and institutional facilities in their role as end-users of the product which can no longer be used for its intended purpose Note 1 to entry: This includes returns of material from the distribution chain. [SOURCE: EN 13249:2016-10, 3.1.4] 3.1.13 post-industrial material PIM material diverted from the waste stream during a manufacturing process [SOURCE: EN 13249:2016-10, 3.1.5] 3.2 Abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the abbreviations given in EN ISO 10318-1 and the following apply. CWFT: classification without further testing EPDM: ethylene propylene diene monomer EVA: ethylene vinyl acetate FPO: flexible polyolefine FPP: flexible polypropylene GBR-P: polymeric geosynthetic barrier GBR-B: bituminous geosynthetic barrier GBR-C: clay geosynthetic barrier HP-OIT: high pressure – oxidation induction time OIT: oxidation induction time PE-HD: high density polyethylene PE-LLD: linear low density polyethylene PE-VLD: very low density polyethylene PVC-P: flexible polyvinylchloride 4 Characteristics and corresponding methods of test 4.1 General The main function of clay geosynthetic barriers used in the construction of underground structures (other than tunnels and associated structures) is to prevent or reduce the flow of fluid through the structure. Damage during installation has not been addressed in this document. NOTE In this document “underground structures not associated with tunnels” will be referred to as “underground structures”. SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 11 4.2 Type of application 4.2.1 General The main function of geosynthetic barriers used in the construction of underground structures (other than tunnels and associated structures) is to prevent or reduce the flow of fluid through the structure wall. Damage during installation has not been addressed in this document. 4.2.2 .Application 1: “Moisture and fluid barrier” Application where the GBR is used as a stand-alone barrier, Figure 1 shows a typical cross-section.

Key 1 underground structure 2 subgrade 3 clay geosynthetic barrier Figure 1 — Geosynthetic barrier in an underground structure as moisture and fluid barrier 4.3 Relevant characteristics The characteristics, their relevance to the conditions of use, and the test methods to be used, are specified in Table 1. The list of characteristics in Table 1 includes those relevant to all conditions of use (A) (essential characteristics are listed in Table ZA.1), and those relevant to specific conditions of use (S). The indication “–” means that the characteristic is not relevant for that function. Where, for the same property, data for more than one function shall be provided, the following ranking order shall be observed: A overrules S, and S overrules “–”. The functions and conditions of use, corresponding with the S-coded characteristics in Table 1, are specified in 4.4. The performances of the characteristics are given on basis of the results of tests specified in this document and, where relevant, in accordance with 5.1. Information on how functioning joints can be made should be provided. Where products are jointed in the factory the liquid tightness and if relevant the strength of the joints shall be tested and data presented. Prehydrated GBR-C should not be stored or installed when the ambient temperature is below 0 °C. SIST EN 16994:2018

EN 16994:2018 (E) 12 Table 1 — Clay geosynthetic barriers used in the construction of underground structures (other than tunnels and associated structures) – Functions, function-related characteristics and test methods to be used

Geosynthetic barrier Test methods Remarks No Property to be testeda
GBR-C GBR-C
Physical properties
1 Thickness A EN ISO 9863-1
2 Mass per unit area A EN 14196
Hydraulic properties

3 Liquid tightnessa A EN 16416 Test liquid is water. Report value index flux for GBR-C 4 Swell Index A ASTM D5890

Mechanical properties

6 Tensile strength A EN ISO 10319 Report in all cases the tensile strength at break measured according to the test method 7 Elongation A EN ISO 10319

8 Static Puncture A EN ISO 12236
9 Burst strength and elongation S

EN 14151 This test applies to GBR-C only if they contain a polymeric or bituminous barrier element. 10 Tear strength — —

Thermal properties
11 Low temperature behaviour (flexure) — —
12 Thermal expansion — —
Durability

13 Weathering — — In accordance with Annex A 14 Microorganisms S EN 12225 In accordance with Annex A 15 Oxidation A EN ISO 13438 In accordance with Annex A EN ISO 13438 is applicable for the geotextile elements and reinforcement yarns of GBR-C 16 Environmental stress cracking S EN 14576 In accordance with Annex A EN 14576 is applicable to GBR-P with a semi-crystalline structure. If GPR-P is between 0,5 mm and 1,0 mm the test EN 14576 shall be

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