Geosynthetic barriers - Characteristics required for use in the construction of tunnels and associated underground structures

This document specifies the characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, when used as fluid barriers and separation layer in the construction of tunnels and associated underground structures, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of fluid through the construction.
This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This document provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This document defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.
This document does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier is to be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption.
NOTE   Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design.

Geosynthetische Dichtungsbahnen - Eigenschaften, die für die Anwendung beim Bau von Tunneln und damit verbundenen Tiefbauwerken erforderlich sind

Dieses Dokument legt die Eigenschaften von geosynthetischen Dichtungsbahnen, einschließlich geosynthetische Kunststoff-, Ton- und Bitumendichtungsbahnen, die als Abdichtung und Trennschicht beim Bau von Tunneln und damit verbundenen Tiefbauwerken verwendet werden, und die geeigneten Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung dieser Eigenschaften fest.
Die bestimmungsgemäße Anwendung dieser Produkte ist das Durchsickern von Flüssigkeiten durch das Bauwerk zu kontrollieren.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht anwendbar auf Geotextilien oder geotextilverwandte Produkte im Sinne der Definition von EN ISO 10318 1.
Dieses Dokument behandelt die Bewertung und Überprüfung der Leistungsbeständigkeit (AVCP) des Produkts nach dieser Europäischen Norm, einschließlich der Verfahren für die werkseigene Produktions-kontrolle.
Dieses Dokument legt die Eigenschaften fest, die in Bezug auf die Darstellung der Leistung eingehalten werden müssen.
Dieses Dokument umfasst nicht die Anwendungen, bei denen die geosynthetische Dichtungsbahn in Kontakt mit Trinkwasser kommt, das für den unmittelbaren menschlichen Gebrauch behandelt wurde.
ANMERKUNG   Wo Trinkwasser in direkten Kontakt mit dem Produkt kommt oder kommen kann, können einschlägige Normen, Anforderungen und/oder Bestimmungen bei der Planung berücksichtig werden.

Géomembranes et géosynthétiques bentonitiques - Caractéristiques requises pour l'utilisation dans la construction de tunnels et des structures souterraines associées

Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques applicables aux géosynthétiques d'étanchéité incluant les géomembranes polymériques, les géosynthétiques bentonitiques et les géomembranes bitumineuses utilisés comme barrière aux fluides ou couche de séparation dans la construction des tunnels et des structures souterraines associées, ainsi que les méthodes d'essai appropriées pour déterminer ces caractéristiques.
Ces produits sont destinés à contrôler les fuites de fluides à travers la construction.
Le présent document ne s'applique pas aux géotextiles ou produits apparentés, tels que définis dans l'EN ISO 10318-1.
Le présent document permet d'évaluer et de vérifier la constance des performances (AVCP) du produit à la présente Norme européenne et les procédures de contrôle de la production en usine.
Le présent document établit les caractéristiques à considérer au regard des performances à vérifier.
Le présent document ne couvre pas les applications pour lesquelles les géosynthétiques d’étanchéité sont en contact avec de l’eau potable ayant fait l’objet d’un traitement pour la consommation humaine.
NOTE   Si de l'eau potable est ou peut être en contact direct avec le produit, il convient que le concepteur se réfère également aux normes, exigences et/ou règlements applicables.

Geosintetične zapore - Zahtevane lastnosti pri uporabi za zaščito pred tekočinami pri gradnji predorov in pripadajočih podzemnih konstrukcij

Ta dokument določa ustrezne lastnosti geosintetičnih zapor, vključno s polimernimi, opečnati in bitumenskimi geosintetičnimi zaporami, če se uporabljajo za zaščito pred tekočinami pri gradnji predorov in podzemnih gradnjah, in ustrezne preskusne metode za določanje teh lastnosti. Ti proizvodi se predvidoma uporabljajo za nadzor uhajanja vode skozi steno konstrukcije. Ta dokument ne velja za geotekstilije ali sorodne izdelke. Ta dokument omogoča vrednotenje skladnosti izdelka s tem dokumentom. Ta dokument določa zahteve, ki jih morajo izpolniti proizvajalci in distributerji glede predstavitve lastnosti izdelka. Ta dokument ne zajema uporabe, kjer bodo geosintetične zapore v stiku s pitno vodo, ki je namenjena ljudem.  OPOMBA: Če je oz. bo lahko proizvod v stiku s pitno vodo, mora projektant upoštevati tudi druge ustrezne standarde, zahteve in/ali predpise.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
13-Mar-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
14-Mar-2018
Completion Date
14-Mar-2018

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Geosynthetische Dichtungsbahnen - Eigenschaften, die für die Anwendung beim Bau von Tunneln und damit verbundenen Tiefbauwerken erforderlich sindBarrières géosynthétiques - Caractéristiques requises pour l'utilisation comme barrière contre les liquides dans la construction des tunnels et des structures souterrainesGeosynthetic barriers - Characteristics required for use as a fluid barrier in the construction of tunnels and associated underground structures93.060Gradnja predorovTunnel construction59.080.70GeotekstilijeGeotextilesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 13491:2018SIST EN 13491:2018en,fr,de01-maj-2018SIST EN 13491:2018SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 13491:20131DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 13491:2018
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 13491
March
t r s z ICS
w {ä r z rä y râ
{ sä s r rä w r Supersedes EN
s u v { sã t r s uEnglish Version

Geosynthetic barriers æ Characteristics required for use in the construction of tunnels and associated underground structures Géomembranes et géosynthétiques bentonitiques æ Caractéristiques requises pour l 5utilisation dans la construction de tunnels et des structures souterraines associées

Geosynthetische Dichtungsbahnen æ Eigenschaftená die für die Anwendung beim Bau von Tunneln und damit verbundenen Tiefbauwerken erforderlich sind This European Standard was approved by CEN on

t u October
t r s yä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s u v { sã t r s z ESIST EN 13491:2018
EN 13491:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5 3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ..................................................................................................... 8 3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8 3.2 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 9 4 Characteristics and corresponding methods of test ........................................................................ 10 4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10 4.2 Types of application .................................................................................................................................... 10 4.3 Relevant characteristics ............................................................................................................................ 14 4.4 Characteristics relevant to specific conditions of use .................................................................... 20 4.5 Release of dangerous substances ........................................................................................................... 21 5 Assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) ........................................... 21 5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21 5.2 Type testing .................................................................................................................................................... 21 5.3 Factory production control (FPC) .......................................................................................................... 25 Annex A (normative)

Durability of geosynthetic barriers ......................................................................... 33 A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 33 A.2 Weathering ..................................................................................................................................................... 34 A.3 Products used with a service life up to 5 years ................................................................................. 36 A.4 Other applications and service life of 25 and 50 years .................................................................. 36 A.5 Durability tests on GBR-P .......................................................................................................................... 42 A.6 Evaluation tests on GBR-P and GBR-C ................................................................................................... 50 A.7 Durability tests on GBR-B .......................................................................................................................... 51 A.8 Evaluation tests on GBR-B ......................................................................................................................... 55 Annex ZA (informative)

Relationship of this European Standard with Regulation (EU) No. 305/2011 ................................................................................................................................................. 57 ZA.1 Scope and relevant characteristics ........................................................................................................ 57 ZA.2 System of Assessment and Verification of Constancy of Performance (AVCP) ...................... 58 ZA.3 Assignment of AVCP tasks ......................................................................................................................... 59 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 61

SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 13491:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 189 “Geosynthetics”, the secretariat of which is held by NBN. This document supersedes EN 13491:2013. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2018, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2019. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. For relationship with Regulation (EU) No. 305/2011, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are listed below:

The list of normative references has been updated;
In 3.1 three terms have been added;
In 3.2 list of abbreviations has been updated;

In 4.3, Table 1, has been modified to comply with the modified mandate M/386 (inclusion of elongation in separation and filtration functions) and has been technically revised, all H-coded characteristics have been replaced by “A”;

Figures and keys have been revised;

Clause 5 “Evaluation of conformity” has been superseded by new Clause 5 “Assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP)”;

Annex A “Factory production control – Factory production control scheme” has been deleted;

Former Annex B “Durability” becomes Annex A, which has been totally revised;

Annex ZA has been updated according to new template to fulfil requirements of CPR, also examples for CE-marking have been deleted. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 4 Introduction This document allows manufacturers to describe geosynthetic barriers on the basis of declared values for characteristics relevant to the intended use and if tested to the specified method. It also includes procedures for assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) including the factory production control. This document can also be used by designers, end-users and other interested parties as a tool to define relevant and appropriate characteristics for specifications. Tests for some non-mandated characteristics are still under study and will be included when the standard is revised. The term “product” used in this document refers to a geosynthetic barrier, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers. This document is part of a group of standards, addressing the requirements for geosynthetic barriers when used in a specific application. Particular application cases can contain requirements about additional properties and

preferably standardized

test methods, if they are technically relevant and not conflicting with European Standards. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function can be temporary, as construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure. SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 5 1 Scope This document specifies the characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, when used as fluid barriers and separation layer in the construction of tunnels and associated underground structures, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics. The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of fluid through the construction. This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products as defined in EN ISO 10318-1. This document provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures. This document defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance. This document does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier is to be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption. NOTE Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 1109:2013, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing - Determination of flexibility at low temperature EN 1296:2000, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Bitumen, plastic and rubber sheets for roofing - Method of artificial ageing by long term exposure to elevated temperature EN 1844:2013, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Determination of resistance to ozone - Plastic and rubber sheets for roof waterproofing EN 1849-1:1999, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Determination of thickness and mass per unit area - Part 1: Bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing EN 1849-2:2009, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Determination of thickness and mass per unit area - Part 2: Plastic and rubber sheets EN 12224:2000, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Determination of the resistance to weathering EN 12225:2000, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Method for determining the microbiological resistance by a soil burial test EN 12226:2012, Geosynthetics - General tests for evaluation following durability testing EN 12310-1:1999, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Part 1: Bitumen sheets for waterproofing - Determination of resistance to tearing (nail shank) EN 12311-1:1999, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Part 1: Bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing - Determination of tensile properties SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 6 EN 12311-2:2013, Flexible sheets for waterproofing - Determination of tensile properties - Part 2: Plastic and rubber sheets for roof waterproofing EN 13249:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in the construction of roads and other trafficked areas (excluding railways and asphalt inclusion) EN 13250:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in the construction of railways EN 13251:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in earthworks, foundations and retaining structures EN 13252:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in drainage systems EN 13253:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in erosion control works (coastal protection, bank revetments) EN 13254:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for the use in the construction of reservoirs and dams EN 13255:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in the construction of canals EN 13256:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in the construction of tunnels and underground structures EN 13257:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in solid waste disposals EN 13265:2016, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Characteristics required for use in liquid waste containment projects EN 14150:2006, Geosynthetic barriers - Determination of permeability to liquids EN 14151:2010, Geosynthetics - Determination of burst strength EN 14196:2016, Geosynthetics - Test methods for measuring mass per unit area of clay geosynthetic barriers EN 14414:2015, Geosynthetics - Screening test method for determining chemical resistance for landfill applications EN 14415:2004, Geosynthetic barriers - Test method for determining the resistance to leaching CEN/TS 14416:2014, Geosynthetic barriers - Test method for determining the resistance to roots CEN/TS 14417:2014, Geosynthetic barriers - Test method for the determination of the influence of wetting-drying cycles on the permeability of clay geosynthetic barriers CEN/TS 14418:2014, Geosynthetic Barriers - Test method for the determination of the influence of freezing-thawing cycles on the permeability of clay geosynthetic barriers EN 14575:2005, Geosynthetic barriers - Screening test method for determining the resistance to oxidation SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 7 EN 14576:2005, Geosynthetics - Test method for determining the resistance of polymeric geosynthetic barriers to environmental stress cracking EN 16416:2013, Geosynthetic clay barriers - Determination of water flux index - Flexible wall permeameter method at constant head EN ISO 527-1:2012, Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 1: General principles (ISO 527-1:2012) EN ISO 527-3:1995, Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 3: Test conditions for films and sheets (ISO 527-3:1995) EN ISO 527-4:1997, Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 4: Test conditions for isotropic and orthotopic fibre-reinforced plastic composites (ISO 527-4:1997) EN ISO 1133-1:2011, Plastics - Determination of the melt mass-flow rate (MFR) and melt volume-flow rate (MVR) of thermoplastics - Part 1: Standard method (ISO 1133-1:2011) EN ISO 1183-1:2012, Plastics - Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics - Part 1: Immersion method, liquid pyknometer method and titration method (ISO 1183-1:2012) EN ISO 1183-2:2004, Plastics - Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics - Part 2: Density gradient column method (ISO 1183-2:2004) EN ISO 1183-3:1999, Plastics - Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics - Part 3: Gas pyknometer method (ISO 1183-3:1999) EN ISO 3696:1995, Water for analytical laboratory use - Specification and test methods (ISO 3696:1987) EN ISO 9863-1:2016, Geosynthetics - Determination of thickness at specified pressures - Part 1: Single layers (ISO 9863-1:2016) EN ISO 9864:2005, Geosynthetics - Test method for the determination of mass per unit area of geotextiles and geotextile-related products (ISO 9864:2005) EN ISO 10318-1:2015, Geosynthetics - Part 1: Terms and definitions (ISO 10318-1:2015) EN ISO 10319:2015, Geosynthetics - Wide-width tensile test (ISO 10319:2015) EN ISO 10773:2011, Clay geosynthetic barriers - Determination of permeability to gases (ISO 10773:2011) EN ISO 11357-6:2013, Plastics - Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) - Part 6: Determination of oxidation induction time (isothermal OIT) and oxidation induction temperature (dynamic OIT) (ISO 11357-6:2008) EN ISO 12236:2006, Geosynthetics - Static puncture test (CBR test) (ISO 12236:2006) EN ISO 13438:2004, Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Screening test method for determining the resistance to oxidation (ISO 13438:2004) ISO 34-1:2015, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of tear strength — Part 1: Trouser, angle and crescent test pieces SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 8 ISO 11465:1993, Soil quality — Determination of dry matter and water content on a mass basis — Gravimetric method ASTM D696, Standard test method for coefficient of linear thermal expansion of plastics between

¯ y v °C and 30 °C ASTM D1434, Standard Test Method for Determining Gas Permeability Characteristics of Plastic Film and Sheeting ASTM D4603, Standard Test Method for Determining Inherent Viscosity of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) (PET) by Glass Capillary Viscometer

ASTM D5890, Standard test method for swell index of clay mineral component of geosynthetic clay liners ASTM D7409, Standard Test Method for Carboxyl End Group Content of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Yarns 3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN ISO 10318-1 and the following apply. 3.1.1 product geosynthetic barrier, including polymeric, bituminous and clay barriers 3.1.2 geosynthetic barrier barrier with at least one of whose components is made from a synthetic or natural polymer, in the form of a sheet, a strip or a three dimensional structure, used in contact with soil and/or other materials in geotechnical and civil engineering applications 3.1.3 project specification document in which the works, functions, specific conditions and required material property values of the geosynthetic barrier are described 3.1.4 underground structure constructed void below ground which belongs to the tunnel construction 3.1.5 tunnel underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings for entrance and exit, commonly at each end 3.1.6 moisture barrier barrier used to prevent the ingress of liquids and water vapours, without external hydrostatic pressure, to a tunnel or underground structure SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 9 3.1.7 pressure water barrier barrier used to prevent or reduce the ingress of water to an underground structure (which is not associated with a tunnel) when subject to external hydrostatic pressure 3.1.8 fluid barrier barrier used to prevent or reduce the ingress of water to an underground structure (which is not associated with a tunnel) when subject to external hydrostatic pressure 3.1.9 fluid gas, liquid and vapour in its pure phase as well as mixtures there of [SOURCE: EN 764-1:2015+A1:2016, 04, 3.1.5] 3.1.10 rework material RWM material that is generated in a process and capable of being reclaimed within the same process that generated it [SOURCE: EN 13249:2016-10, 3.1.3] 3.1.11 post-consumer material PCM material generated by households or by commercial, industrial and institutional facilities in their role as end-users of the product which can no longer be used for its intended purpose Note 1 to entry: This includes returns of material from the distribution chain. [SOURCE: EN 13249:2016-10, 3.1.4] 3.1.12 post-industrial material PIM material diverted from the waste stream during a manufacturing process [SOURCE: EN 13249:2016-10, 3.1.5] 3.2 Abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the abbreviations given in EN ISO 10318-1 and the following apply: CWFT: classification without further testing EPDM: ethylene propylene diene monomer EVA: ethylene vinyl acetate FPO: flexible polyolefine FPP: flexible polypropylene GBR-P: polymeric geosynthetic barrier GBR-B: bituminous geosynthetic barrier SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 10 GBR-C: clay geosynthetic barrier HP-OIT: high pressure – oxidation induction time OIT: oxidation induction time PE-HD: high density polyethylene PE-LLD: linear low density polyethylene PE-VLD: very low density polyethylene PVC-P: flexible polyvinylchloride 4 Characteristics and corresponding methods of test 4.1 General The main function of geosynthetic barriers used in the construction of tunnels and associated underground structures is to prevent or reduce the flow of fluid through the structure. Damage during installation has not been addressed in this document. 4.2 Types of application 4.2.1 General It is not normally advisable to install a geosynthetic barrier on the downstream face of a dam. Special consideration should be given to any geosynthetic barrier installed on the downstream face of a dam. The applications described in this document do not include such situations. 4.2.2 Application 1: “Seepage water tunnel” In these applications, the geosynthetic barrier is used as a stand-alone seepage (moisture) barrier. Figure 1 shows a typical cross-section. SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 11

Key 1 soil or rock drilled tunnel 2 Shotcrete (optional) 3 protection/drainage geosynthetic (optional) 4 geosynthetic barrier 5 concrete (optional with protection geosynthetic layer) Figure 1 — Geosynthetic barrier in a drilled seepage water tunnel SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 12 4.2.3 Application 2: “Pressurised water tunnel” In these applications, the geosynthetic barrier is used as a barrier against pressurized water. Figure 2 shows a typical cross-section.

Key 1 rock 2 shotcrete 3 protection/drainage geosynthetic (optional) 4 geosynthetic barrier 5 concrete Figure 2 —Geosynthetic barrier in a drilled pressurized water tunnel SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 13 4.2.4 Application 3: “Cut and cover seepage water tunnel” In these applications the geosynthetic barrier is used as a stand-alone seepage (moisture) barrier in a cut and cover design. Figure 3 shows a typical cross-section.

Key 1 soil 2 concrete (optional) 3 protection/drainage geosynthetic (optional) 4 geosynthetic barrier 5 concrete (optional with protection geosynthetic layer) Figure 3 — Geosynthetic barrier in a cut and cover seepage water tunnel SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 14 4.2.5 Application 4: “Cut and cover pressure water tunnel” In these application the geosynthetic barrier is used as a barrier against pressurized water in a cut and cover design. Figure 4 shows a typical cross-section.

Key 1 soil 2 concrete (optional) 3 geosynthetic barrier 4 protection geosynthetic (optional) 5 concrete 6 protection/drainage geosynthetic (optional) Figure 4 — Geosynthetic barrier in a cut and cover pressurized water tunnel 4.3 Relevant characteristics The characteristics, their relevance to the conditions of use, and the test methods to be used, are specified in Table 1. The list of characteristics in Table 1 includes those relevant to all conditions of use (A) (essential characteristics are listed in Table ZA.1), and those relevant to specific conditions of use (S). The indication “–” means that the characteristic is not relevant for that function. Where, for the same property, data for more than one function shall be provided, the following ranking order shall be observed: A overrules S, and S overrules “–”. The functions and conditions of use, corresponding with the S-coded characteristics in Table 1, are specified in 4.4.The performances of characteristics shall be given on basis of the results of tests specified in this document and, where relevant, in accordance with 5.1. Information on how functioning joints can be made should be provided. Where products are jointed in the factory liquid tightness and if relevant the strength of the joints shall be tested and data presented. SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 15 Table 1 — Geosynthetic barriers used in the construction of tunnels and underground structures - Functions, function-related characteristics and test methods to be used

Geosynthetic barrier Test methods Remarks No Property to be testeda GBR-P GBR-B GBR-C GBR-P GBR-B GBR-C

Physical properties

1 Thickness A A — EN ISO 9863-1 EN 1849–1 — For products which cannot be tested according to EN ISO 9863-1, such as geotextile backed GBR-P, EN 1849–2 is applicable 2 Mass per unit area A A A EN 1849–2 EN 1849–1 EN 14196

Hydraulic properties

3 Liquid tightness A A A EN 14150 EN 14150 EN 16416 Test liquid is water. Report value index flux for GBR-C and permeability for GBR-P and GBR-B. 4 Swell Index — — A — — ASTM D5890

5 Gas permeability S S S ASTM D1434 ASTM D1434 EN ISO 10773
Mechanical properties
SIST EN 13491:2018
EN 13491:2018 (E) 16

Geosynthetic barrier Test methods Remarks No Property to be testeda GBR-P GBR-B GBR-C GBR-P GBR-B GBR-C

6 Tensile strength A A A PE-HD and PE-LLD EN ISO 527-3, specimen type 5 FPO, PVC-P homogenous EN ISO 527-3, specimen type 5 (reference test method) equivalent to EN 12311–2, method B FPO, PVC-P multicomponent EN 12311–2 method A (reference test method) equivalent to EN ISO 527-4; specimen type 2; width: 50 mm,

EPDM homogenous EN 12311–2, method B EPDM multicomponent EN 12311–2, method A EN 12311–1 EN ISO 10319 PE-HD and PE-LLD v = 100 mm/min Tensile stress at break in N/mm2 to be reported FPO, PVC-P homogenous v = 100 mm/min if elongation at break is > 400 % the test speed is 500 mm/min maximum tensile strength in N/mm2 to be reported FPO, PVC-P multicomponent v = 100 mm/min maximum tensile force in N/50 mm to be reported EPDM homogenous v = 100 mm/min if elongation at break is > 400 % the test speed is 500 mm/min maximum tensile strength in N/mm2 to be reported EPDM multicomponent v = 100 mm/min max tensile force in N/50 mm to be reported SIST EN 13491:2018

EN 13491:2018 (E) 17

Geosynthetic barrier Test methods Remarks No Property to be testeda GBR-P GBR-B GBR-C GBR-P GBR-B GBR-C

7 Elongation A A A PE-HD and PE-LLD EN ISO 527-3, specimen type 5 FPO, PVC-P homogenous EN ISO 527-3, specimen type 5 (reference test method)equivalent to EN 12311–2, method B FPO, PVC-P multicomponent EN 12311–2 method A (reference test method)equivalent to EN ISO 527-4; specimen type 2;

width: 50 mm EPDM homogenous EN 12311–2, method B EPDM multicomponent EN 12311–2, method A

EN 12311–1 EN ISO 10319 PE-HD and PE-LLD with reference length
(l0)50 mm,

v = 100 mm/min Elongation at break to be reported FPO, PVC-P homogenous v = 100 mm/min if elongation at break is > 400 % the test speed is 500 mm/min – Elongation at break to be reported FPO, PVC-P multicomponent v = 100 mm/min Elongation at maximum tensile force

in % to be reported EPDM homogenous v = 100 mm/min if elongation at break is > 400 % the test speed is 500 mm/min Elongation at break to be reported EPDM multicomponent v = 100 mm/min Elongation at maximum tensile force

in % to be reported 8 Static puncture A A A EN ISO 12236 EN ISO 12236 EN ISO 12236

9 Burst strength and elongation S S S EN 14151 EN 14151 EN 14151 This test applies to GBR-C only if they contain a polymeric or bituminous barrier element. 10 Tear strength S S — ISO 34-1 EN 12310–1 — For GB

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