This document specifies a method for the determination of the characteristic size of the openings of a single layer of a geotextile or geotextile-related product using the wet-sieving principle.

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This document describes an index test procedure for simulating mechanical damage to geosynthetics, caused by granular material, under repeated loading. The damage is assessed visually and by the loss of tensile strength.
Other reference tests can be used to assess the damage caused by this test. The test method described is an index test procedure, using a standard granular material, and is not intended to be used for the derivation of a reduction factor for geosynthetic reinforcement.

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This document describes index test methods for the determination of the strength of internal structural junctions of geocells under different loading conditions.

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This document specifies a method for the on-site installation and retrieval of geosynthetic samples, irrespective of the particular degradation mechanisms to which they are exposed.
The method is also appropriate to test for mechanical damage, much of which occurs during installation, and to provide an owner with information about the state of the geosynthetic product in their structure.

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This document specifies two test methods for determining the water permeability characteristics of a single layer of geotextile or geotextile-related product normal to the plane:
a)    the constant head method; and
b)    the falling head method.

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This document specifies a method for measuring the steady-state liquid flow through a geosynthetic barrier, used to contain liquids in long-term applications.
The test method and described apparatus allow the measurement of flows accurately down to 10−6 m³/m²/day. In particular circumstances where testing indicates that values obtained for a geosynthetic barrier lie below the threshold of sensitivity of this test method, then the value of liquid flow is declared as being less than10−6 m³/m²/day.
Due to its long duration, this test method is not suitable for production control testing.
Clay geosynthetic barriers cannot be tested with this apparatus.

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This document specifies the information accompanying geosynthetics to enable the user on site to identify the goods as being identical to the goods ordered. The positive identification, e.g. of unwrapped or rolled-out geosynthetics, is an important aim of this document.
The information specified does not replace a technical data sheet and cannot be used to verify the conformance of the product with the technical requirements.

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This document specifies an index test method to determine the friction characteristics of geosynthetics in contact with a standard sand as described in EN 196-1, i.e. with a specified density and moisture content, under a normal stress and at a constant rate of displacement, using a direct shear apparatus.
The same testing procedure can be used with any type of soil with the density and moisture content that are required to evaluate the performance under specific conditions or with another geosynthetic under a normal stress and at a constant rate of displacement, using a direct shear apparatus.
The procedure can also be used for testing geosynthetic barriers.

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This document specifies a screening test method for determining the resistance of geotextiles and geotextile-related products to oxidation. The test is applicable to products as follows:
—          Method A for material consisting solely in polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polyamide (PA), aramide (AR);
—          Method B for material consisting solely in polyvinyl alcohol (PVAL).
The data are suitable for screening purposes but not for deriving performance data such as lifetime, unless supported by further evidence.

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This document specifies a test method for the measurement of the strain hardening modulus which is used as a measure for the resistance to slow crack growth of polyethylene. The strain hardening modulus is obtained from true stress versus draw ratio curves on PE-HD geosynthetic barrier samples.
This standard specifies how measurement is performed and how the strain hardening modulus is determined. Details of the required equipment, precision and sample preparations are given.
This test method is suitable for all PE-HD types of GBR-P.

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This European Standard specifies the characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers used as fluid barriers and separation layer in the construction of hazardous liquid containment and secondary containment around storage facilities for hazardous liquids and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
NOTE   This document is not applicable to applications where one geosynthetic barrier is manufactured in direct contact with a second geosynthetic barrier in order to reduce the overall permeability of the barrier. Such "multicomponent" products are subject to the required characteristics for the relevant component.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of fluids through the construction.
This European Standard is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products as defined in EN ISO 10318-1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This European Standard defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.

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This European Standard specifies the characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, when used as fluid barriers and separation layer in the construction of solid waste storage and disposal sites, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of fluids through the construction.
This European Standard is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products as defined in EN ISO 10318-1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This European Standard defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.
NOTE   Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design.

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This European Standard specifies the characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, when used as fluid barriers and separation layer in the construction of liquid waste disposal sites, and in the construction of transfer stations or secondary containment for the storage of liquid waste on a waste disposal site only and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of fluids through the construction.
This European Standard is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products as defined in EN ISO 10318-1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This European Standard defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.
NOTE   Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design.

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This European Standard specifies the characteristics of geosynthetic barriers including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, used as fluid barriers and separation layer in infrastructure works, e.g. roads, railroads, runways of airports, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
Tunnels and associated underground structures are addressed in EN 13491.
The intended use of these products is to control the pathway of fluid through the construction and to limit any contamination, e.g. by de-icing products, of groundwater or water sources.
This European Standard is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products, as defined in EN ISO 10318-1.
This document provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This European Standard defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.
This European Standard does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier will be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption.
NOTE   Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design.

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This document specifies the characteristics of clay geosynthetic barriers (GBR-C) as well as multicomponent geosynthetic clay barriers (e.g. a GBR-C with a polymeric or bituminous geosynthetic barrier attached to it), when used as fluid barriers and separation layer in the construction of underground structures (other than tunnels and associated structures), and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
If in a multicomponent GBR-C, the GBR-P or GBR-B is the predominant hydraulic barrier then the appropriate standard should be used.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of fluid through the construction wall.
This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This document provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This document defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.
This document does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier is to be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption.
NOTE   Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design.

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This document specifies the characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, when used as fluid barriers and separation layer in the construction of tunnels and associated underground structures, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of fluid through the construction.
This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This document provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This document defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.
This document does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier is to be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption.
NOTE   Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design.

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This document specifies the characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, when used as fluid barriers and separation layer for water, in the construction of reservoirs and dams, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of potable, fresh or saline water through the construction.
This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This document provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This document defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.
NOTE   Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design.

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This European Standard specifies the characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, when used as fluid barriers and separation layer forwater, in the construction of canals and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of the fluid through the construction.
This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This document provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance (AVCP) of the product to this European Standard including factory production control procedures.
This document defines characteristics to be considered with regard to the presentation of performance.
This document does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier is to be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption.
NOTE   Where potable water is or can be in direct contact with the product, other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations can be considered for the design.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in drainage systems and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, separation and drainage. The separation function is always used in conjunction with filtration or drainage. Accordingly, separation will never be specified alone.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
This European Standard defines requirements to be met by manufacturers and distributors with regard to the presentation of product properties.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in the construction of railways, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, separation, and reinforcement.
The separation function will always occur in conjunction with filtration or reinforcement, and hence will not be specified alone.
This European Standard applies in superstructure-ballast or substructure-blanket layer, within a sub-grade.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in the construction of earthworks, foundations and retaining structures, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, separation, and reinforcement. The separation function will always occur in conjunction with filtration or reinforcement, and hence will not be specified alone.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in the construction of roads and other trafficked areas (excluding railways and asphaltic inclusion), and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, separation, and reinforcement. The separation function will always occur in conjunction with filtration or reinforcement, and hence will not be specified alone.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in solid waste disposals, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, separation, reinforcement and protection. The separation function will always occur in conjunction with filtration or reinforcement, and hence will not be specified alone.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in the construction of reservoirs and dams, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, separation, reinforcement and protection. The separation function will always occur in conjunction with filtration or reinforcement, and hence will not be specified alone.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in the construction of tunnels and underground structures, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to protect geosynthetic barriers used in tunnels and underground structures.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in erosion control works for preventing the migration of fine-graded material into layers of coarser material due to alternating hydraulic gradients, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
This European Standard covers applications in coastal protection and bank revetment. This European Standard does not cover surface erosion, where the geotextile or geotextile-related product is located at the surface.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, separation, and reinforcement. The separation function will always occur in conjunction with filtration or reinforcement, and hence will not be specified alone.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and - preferably standardized - test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997-1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in the construction of canals, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, separation, reinforcement and protection. The separation function will always occur in conjunction with filtration or reinforcement, and hence will not be specified alone.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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This European Standard specifies the relevant characteristics of geotextiles and geotextile-related products used in liquid waste containment projects, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these geotextiles or geotextile-related products is to fulfil one or more of the following functions: filtration, reinforcement and protection.
This European Standard is not applicable to geosynthetic barriers, as defined in EN ISO 10318 1.
This European Standard provides for the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of the product to this European Standard and for factory production control procedures.
Particular application cases may contain requirements regarding additional properties and – preferably standardized – test methods, if they are technically relevant.
This European Standard may be used to derive design values by taking into account factors within the context of the definitions given in EN 1997 1 (Eurocode 7), e.g. factors of safety. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

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ISO 9863-1:2016 specifies a method for the determination of the thickness of geosynthetics at specified pressures and specified load plate areas or under specified point loads. It defines the pressures or the load at which the thickness is determined.
The test results are intended for identification purposes and for use in technical data sheets and/or as part of other test methods, e.g. tests of hydraulic properties.
The method is applicable to all geosynthetics.

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This European Standard is an index test used to determine the efficiency with which a geosynthetic product will protect a geosynthetic barrier or other contact surface against the mechanical long term effects of static point loads.
The test is performed on the geosynthetic product in isolation. It measures the strains experienced by a geosynthetic product in contact with a deformable pad.
NOTE   Other properties relevant to the protection of geosynthetic barriers against differing actions are covered by other standards, e.g. dynamic perforation is covered in EN ISO 13433.
A related performance test simulating specific site conditions is described in Annex B (informative).

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This European Standard describes a test method for the laboratory determination of the mass per unit area of a sample of clay geosynthetic barrier (GBR-C) in the condition as received.
Since manufacturers quote mass per unit area at a given moisture content, it is necessary to measure the moisture content.

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ISO 25619-2:2015 specifies an index test method for determining the short-term compressive behaviour of geosynthetics. It can be used to determine the deformation behaviour under short-term compressive stress, e.g. after exposure to stress, liquids, or light.
ISO 25619-2. 2015 can be used for quality control purposes. It is not intended to be used for design purposes.

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ISO 10319:2015 describes an index test method for the determination of the tensile properties of geosynthetics (polymeric, glass, and metallic), using a wide-width strip. It is applicable to most geosynthetics, including woven geotextiles, nonwoven geotextiles, geocomposites, knitted geotextiles, geonets, geomats, and metallic products. It is also applicable to geogrids and similar open-structure geotextiles, but specimen dimensions might need to be altered. It is not applicable to polymeric or bituminous geosynthetic barriers, while it is applicable to clay geosynthetic barriers.
ISO 10319:2015 specifies a tensile test method that covers the measurement of load elongation characteristics and includes procedures for the calculation of secant stiffness, maximum load per unit width and strain at maximum load. Singular points on the load-extension curve are also indicated.
Procedures for measuring the tensile properties of both conditioned and wet specimens are included in ISO 10319:2015.

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The intent of ISO 10318-1:2015 is to define terms related to functions, products, properties, and other terms used in EN and ISO geosynthetics standards. Definitions of terms not included in ISO 10318-1:2015 can be found in the International Standards describing appropriate test methods.
See also the ISO online browsing platform (OBP): www.iso.org/obp/ui/

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This European Standard specifies an index test method to determine the puncture resistance of a geosynthetic on a rigid support.
This method simulates the efficiency of a geosynthetic protecting a geosynthetic barrier material or another contact surface against sharp rigid elements under short term loading.

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The intent of ISO 10318-2:2015 is to define property symbols, graphical symbols, and pictograms used in EN and ISO geosynthetics standards. Definitions of particular or specific symbols and pictograms terms not included in this this part of ISO 10318 can be found in the International Standards describing appropriate test methods.

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ISO 13427:2014 specifies a test method used for the determination of the resistance of geosynthetics to abrasion using a sliding block, whereby after abrasion the loss in tensile properties is determined.
This test method is applicable to all geosynthetics used in the construction of railways.

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This Technical Specification describes an index test to determine the influence ratio of wetting-drying cycles on the flux through saturated clay geosynthetic barrier specimens.
This test method is applicable to GBR-C products with no additional sealing layers attached.

  • Technical specification
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This Technical Specification describes an index test to determine the influence ratio of freezing-thawing cycles on the flux through saturated clay geosynthetic barriers.
This test method is applicable to GBR-C products with no additional sealing layers attached.

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This Technical Specification describes a laboratory procedure for the rapid testing of the resistance of polymeric, bituminous or clay geosynthetic barriers to root penetration. It is suitable for testing of welded seams or other areas of potential weakness.
A longer test that may be more suitable for testing the long-term resistance of geosynthetic barriers is described in EN 13948.

  • Technical specification
    7 pages
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This European Standard describes an index test method that covers laboratory measurement of water flux through saturated clay geosynthetic barrier (GBR-C) specimens using a flexible wall permeameter at constant head.
This test method is applicable to GBR-C products with no additional sealing layers attached.
This test method provides a measurement of flux under a prescribed set of conditions that can be used for manufacturing quality control. The test method can also be used to check conformance.
The flux value determined using this test method is not considered to be representative of the in-service flux of a GBR-C.

  • Standard
    13 pages
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ISO 10776:2012 describes a method for determining the water permeability characteristics of geotextiles or geotextile-related products normal to the plane when subjected to specific normal compressive loads.

  • Standard
    16 pages
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ISO 10772:2012 describes a test method for determining the soil passing through a geotextile filter when exposed to turbulent external water flow conditions.

  • Standard
    17 pages
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This European Standard specifies test methods for determining the change in specific properties of aged geosynthetics.

  • Standard
    8 pages
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ISO 10769:2011 specifies a method for determining the water absorption of bentonite. The bentonite component is a part of clay geosynthetic barriers (GBR-C). Water absorption depends on the specific surface of the fine particles and the surface activity of the bentonite. The test provides an index value for production control testing of GBR-C.

  • Standard
    14 pages
    English language
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ISO 10773:2011 specifies a method for measuring gas flow through a clay geosynthetic barrier.
As clay geosynthetic barriers are used to contain gases in long-term applications, this test especially focuses on the steady state of the phenomenon.

  • Standard
    15 pages
    English language
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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of bi-axial properties (burst strength) of geosynthetics.
This method applies to geotextiles, geosynthetic barriers and their related products. It applies to clay geosynthetic barriers only when tested in dry conditions.

  • Standard
    10 pages
    English language
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