Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings

1.1   Scope of FprEN 1993 1 1
(1) FprEN 1993 1 1 gives basic design rules for steel structures.
(2) It also gives supplementary provisions for the structural design of steel buildings. These supplementary provisions are indicated by the letter "B" after the paragraph number, thus (  )B.
1.2   Assumptions
(1) The assumptions of EN 1990 apply to FprEN 1993 1 1.
(2) EN 1993 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990, EN 1991 (all parts), the parts of EN 1992 to EN 1999 where steel structures or steel components are referred to within those documents, EN 1090 2, EN 1090 4 and ENs, EADs and ETAs for construction products relevant to steel structures.

Eurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln und Regeln für den Hochbau

1.1   Anwendungsbereich von FprEN 1993 1 1
(1) FprEN 1993 1 1 enthält grundlegende Regeln für den Entwurf, die Berechnung und Bemessung von Stahlbauten.
(2) Es werden zusätzliche Anwendungsregeln für den Hochbau angegeben. Diese Anwendungsregeln sind durch die Abschnittsnummerierung ( )B gekennzeichnet (en: Building).
1.2   Annahmen
(1) Die Annahmen nach EN 1990 gelten für FprEN 1993 1 1.
(2) EN 1993 ist dazu vorgesehen, zusammen mit EN 1990, EN 1991 (alle Teile), den Teilen von EN 1992 bis EN 1999, die Stahlbauten oder Stahlbauteile behandeln, sowie mit EN 1090 2, EN 1090 4 und EN, EADs und ETAs für Bauprodukte für Stahlbauten angewendet zu werden.

Eurocode 3 - Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-1 : Règles générales et règles pour les bâtiments

1.1   Domaine d'application de la FprEN 1993 1 1
(1) La FprEN 1993 1 1 donne des règles de base pour les structures en acier.
(2) Elle fournit également des dispositions supplémentaires pour le calcul des structures de bâtiments en acier. Ces spécifications supplémentaires sont repérées par la lettre « B » ajoutée à la suite du numéro d'article, comme ceci (  )B.
1.2   Hypothèses
(1) Les hypothèses de l'EN 1990 s'appliquent à la FprEN 1993 1 1.
(2) L'EN 1993 est destinée à être utilisée conjointement avec l'EN 1990, l'EN 1991 (toutes les parties), les parties de l'EN 1992 à l'EN 1999 où il est fait référence à des structures ou des composants en acier dans ces documents, l'EN 1090 2, l'EN 1090 4 et les EN, DEA et ATE relatifs aux produits de construction concernés pour les structures en acier.

Evrokod 3 - Projektiranje jeklenih konstrukcij - 1-1. del: Splošna pravila in pravila za stavbe

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Nov-2022
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
09-Nov-2022
Due Date
10-Aug-2022
Completion Date
09-Nov-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
01-februar-2023
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2005
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2005/A1:2014
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2006
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2005/AC:2009

Evrokod 3 - Projektiranje jeklenih konstrukcij - 1-1. del: Splošna pravila in pravila

za stavbe

Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings

Eurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine
Bemessungsregeln und Regeln für den Hochbau

Eurocode 3 - Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-1 : Règles générales et règles

pour les bâtiments
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1993-1-1:2022
ICS:
91.010.30 Tehnični vidiki Technical aspects
91.080.13 Jeklene konstrukcije Steel structures
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
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SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
EN 1993-1-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.13 Supersedes EN 1993-1-1:2005
English Version
Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General
rules and rules for buildings

Eurocode 3 - Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-1 : Eurocode 3: Bemessung und Konstruktion von

Règles générales et règles pour les bâtiments Stahlbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln

und Regeln für den Hochbau
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 24 July 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1993-1-1:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
EN 1993-1-1:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................. 10

2 Normative references ................................................................................................................................. 10

3 Terms, definitions and symbols .............................................................................................................. 10

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................ 10

3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 12

3.3 Symbols for member axes ......................................................................................................................... 21

4 Basis of design ............................................................................................................................................... 24

4.1 General rules .................................................................................................................................................. 24

4.1.1 Basic requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 24

4.1.2 Structural reliability ................................................................................................................................... 24

4.1.3 Robustness...................................................................................................................................................... 24

4.1.4 Design service life for buildings .............................................................................................................. 24

4.1.5 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 24

4.2 Principles of limit state design ................................................................................................................ 25

4.3 Basic variables .............................................................................................................................................. 25

4.3.1 Actions and environmental influences ................................................................................................. 25

4.3.2 Material, geometrical and product properties .................................................................................. 25

4.4 Verification by the partial factor method ............................................................................................ 25

4.4.1 Design values of actions ............................................................................................................................. 25

4.4.2 Design values of material properties .................................................................................................... 25

4.4.3 Design values of geometrical properties ............................................................................................. 26

4.4.4 Tolerances ...................................................................................................................................................... 26

4.4.5 Design resistances ....................................................................................................................................... 27

4.5 Design assisted by testing ......................................................................................................................... 27

5 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 27

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 27

5.2 Structural steel .............................................................................................................................................. 27

5.2.1 Material properties ..................................................................................................................................... 27

5.2.2 Ductility requirements ............................................................................................................................... 29

5.2.3 Fracture toughness ...................................................................................................................................... 30

5.2.4 Through-thickness properties ................................................................................................................ 30

5.2.5 Values of other material properties ...................................................................................................... 31

5.3 Connecting devices ...................................................................................................................................... 31

5.4 Other prefabricated products in buildings ......................................................................................... 31

6 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 31

7 Structural analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 32

7.1 Structural modelling for analysis ........................................................................................................... 32

7.1.1 Basic assumptions........................................................................................................................................ 32

7.1.2 Joint modelling .............................................................................................................................................. 32

7.2 Global analysis .............................................................................................................................................. 32

7.2.1 Consideration of second order effects .................................................................................................. 32

7.2.2 Methods of analysis for ultimate limit state design checks .......................................................... 35

7.3 Imperfections ................................................................................................................................................ 39

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SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
EN 1993-1-1:2022 (E)

7.3.1 Basis ................................................................................................................................................................... 39

7.3.2 Sway imperfections for global analysis of frames ............................................................................ 40

7.3.3 Equivalent bow imperfection for global and member analysis ................................................... 42

7.3.4 Combination of sway and equivalent bow imperfections for global analysis of frames .... 44

7.3.5 Imperfections for analysis of bracing systems................................................................................... 44

7.3.6 Imperfection based on elastic critical buckling modes .................................................................. 47

7.4 Methods of analysis considering material non-linearities ............................................................ 49

7.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 49

7.4.2 Elastic global analysis ................................................................................................................................. 49

7.4.3 Plastic global analysis ................................................................................................................................. 50

7.5 Classification of cross-sections ................................................................................................................ 51

7.5.1 Basis ................................................................................................................................................................... 51

7.5.2 Classification .................................................................................................................................................. 51

7.6 Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis .................................................................. 52

8 Ultimate limit states .................................................................................................................................... 56

8.1 Partial factors ................................................................................................................................................. 56

8.2 Resistance of cross-sections ..................................................................................................................... 56

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 56

8.2.2 Section properties ........................................................................................................................................ 58

8.2.3 Tension ............................................................................................................................................................. 62

8.2.4 Compression ................................................................................................................................................... 63

8.2.5 Bending ............................................................................................................................................................ 63

8.2.6 Shear .................................................................................................................................................................. 64

8.2.7 Torsion ............................................................................................................................................................. 67

8.2.8 Combined bending and shear ................................................................................................................... 68

8.2.9 Combined bending and axial force ......................................................................................................... 70

8.2.10 Combined bending, shear and axial force ............................................................................................ 73

8.2.11 Resistance to transverse forces ............................................................................................................... 74

8.3 Buckling resistance of members ............................................................................................................. 76

8.3.1 Uniform members in compression ......................................................................................................... 76

8.3.2 Uniform members in bending .................................................................................................................. 81

8.3.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression .................................................................... 87

8.3.4 General method for lateral and lateral torsional buckling of structural components ........ 92

8.3.5 Lateral torsional buckling of members with plastic hinges in buildings ................................. 93

8.4 Uniform built-up compression members ............................................................................................ 95

8.4.1 Assumptions and constructional details .............................................................................................. 95

8.4.2 Design forces for components .................................................................................................................. 98

8.4.3 Resistance of components of laced compression members .......................................................... 99

8.4.4 Resistance of components of battened compression members................................................ 100

8.4.5 Closely spaced built-up members ........................................................................................................ 102

9 Serviceability limit states ....................................................................................................................... 103

9.1 General .......................................................................................................................................................... 103

9.2 Deformations and dynamic effects for buildings ........................................................................... 103

10 Fatigue ........................................................................................................................................................... 103

Annex A (normative) Selection of execution class ...................................................................................... 105

A.1 Use of this Annex ........................................................................................................................................ 105

A.2 Scope and field of application ............................................................................................................... 105

A.3 Execution class ............................................................................................................................................ 105

A.4 Selection process ....................................................................................................................................... 105

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SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
EN 1993-1-1:2022 (E)

A.5 Execution class and partial factors ...................................................................................................... 106

Annex B (normative) Design of semi-compact sections ............................................................................ 107

B.1 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 107

B.2 Elasto-plastic section modulus .............................................................................................................. 107

B.3 Resistance of cross-sections ................................................................................................................... 108

B.4 Buckling resistance of members .......................................................................................................... 109

Annex C (normative) Additional rules for uniform members with mono-symmetric cross-

sections and for members in bending, axial compression and torsion .................................. 110

C.1 Additional rules for uniform members with mono-symmetric cross-section ..................... 110

C.2 Additional rules for uniform members in bending, axial compression and torsion ......... 111

Annex D (normative) Continuous restraint of beams in buildings ....................................................... 114

D.1 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 114

D.2 Continuous lateral restraints ................................................................................................................. 114

D.3 Continuous torsional restraints ............................................................................................................ 115

Annex E (informative) Basis for the calibration of partial factors ........................................................ 117

E.1 Use of this informative annex ................................................................................................................ 117

E.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 117

E.3 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................... 117

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................... 120

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SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
EN 1993-1-1:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 1993-1-1:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 250 “Structural

Codes”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes

and has been assigned responsibility for structural and geotechnical design matters by CEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2027 and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2028.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 1993-1-1:2005 and its amendments and corrigenda.

The first generation of EN Eurocodes was published between 2002 and 2007. This document forms part

of the second generation of the Eurocodes, which have been prepared under Mandate M/515 issued to

CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

The Eurocodes have been drafted to be used in conjunction with relevant execution, material, product

and test standards, and to identify requirements for execution, materials, products and testing that are

relied upon by the Eurocodes.

The Eurocodes recognize the responsibility of each Member State and have safeguarded their right to

determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level through the use of National

Annexes.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are listed below:
— the scope of EN 1993-1-1 was extended to steel grades up to S700;
— the scope was extended to the design of elliptical hollow sections;

— the methods for the structural analysis were clarified and summarized in a flowchart;

— a new method for the design of semi-compact sections (Class 3) has been implemented;

— the effects of torsion on the resistance of cross-sections and members have been improved;

— a new method for the verification of beams to lateral torsional buckling has been introduced;

— the simplified method for lateral torsional buckling has been fully revised;

— the design of uniform members with mono-symmetric cross-sections was explicitly covered;

— a simplified design approach has been introduced for fatigue;

— an informative annex provides statistical data of material and dimensional properties as used for the

calibration of the partial factors.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
EN 1993-1-1:2022 (E)

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and the United

Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
EN 1993-1-1:2022 (E)
0 Introduction
0.1 Introduction to the Eurocodes

The Structural Eurocodes comprise the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts:

— EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural and geotechnical design
— EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
— EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
— EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
— EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
— EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
— EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
— EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
— EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
— EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures
— New parts are under development, e.g. Eurocode for design of structural glass
0.2 Introduction to EN 1993 (all parts)

EN 1993 (all parts) applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in steel. It complies with

the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design

and verification that are given in EN 1990 – Basis of structural and geotechnical design.

EN 1993 (all parts) is concerned only with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire

resistance of steel structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not

covered.
EN 1993 is subdivided in various parts:

EN 1993-1, Design of steel structures — Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings;

EN 1993-2, Design of steel structures — Part 2: Steel bridges;
EN 1993-3, Design of steel structures — Part 3: Towers, masts and chimneys;
EN 1993-4, Design of steel structures — Part 4: Silos and tanks;
EN 1993-5, Design of steel structures — Part 5: Piling;
EN 1993-6, Design of steel structures — Part 6: Crane supporting structures;

EN 1993-7, Design of steel structures — Part 7: Design of sandwich panels (under preparation).

EN 1993-1 in itself does not exist as a physical document, but comprises the following 14 separate parts,

the basic part being EN 1993-1-1:

EN 1993-1-1, Design of steel structures — Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings;

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
EN 1993-1-1:2022 (E)
EN 1993-1-2, Design of steel structures — Part 1-2: Structural fire design;

EN 1993-1-3, Design of steel structures — Part 1-3: Cold-formed members and sheeting;

NOTE Cold-formed hollow sections supplied according to EN 10219 (all parts) are covered in EN 1993-1-1.

EN 1993-1-4, Design of steel structures — Part 1-4: Stainless steel structures;
EN 1993-1-5, Design of steel structures — Part 1-5: Plated structural elements;

EN 1993-1-6, Design of steel structures — Part 1-6: Strength and stability of shell structures;

EN 1993-1-7, Design of steel structures — Part 1-7: Plate assemblies with elements under transverse loads;

EN 1993-1-8, Design of steel structures — Part 1-8: Design of joints;
EN 1993-1-9, Design of steel structures — Part 1-9: Fatigue;

EN 1993-1-10, Design of steel structures — Part 1-10: Material toughness and through-thickness

properties;

EN 1993-1-11, Design of steel structures — Part 1-11: Design of structures with tension components;

EN 1993-1-12, Design of steel structures — Part 1-12: Additional rules for steel grades up to S960;

EN 1993-1-13, Design of steel structures — Part 1-13: Rules for beams with large web openings;

EN 1993-1-14, Design of steel structures — Part 1-14: Design assisted by finite element analysis (under

preparation).

All parts numbered EN 1993-1-2 to EN 1993-1-14 treat general topics that are independent from the

structural type such as structural fire design, cold-formed members and sheeting, stainless steels, plated

structural elements, etc.

All parts numbered EN 1993-2 to EN 1993-7 treat topics relevant for a specific structural type such as

steel bridges, towers, masts and chimneys, silos and tanks, piling, crane supporting structures, etc.

EN 1993-2 to EN 1993-7 refer to the generic rules in EN 1993-1 and supplement, modify or supersede

them, where relevant.
0.3 Introduction to EN 1993-1-1

EN 1993-1-1 gives general design rules for steel structures. It also includes supplementary design rules

for steel buildings. The focus in EN 1993-1-1 is on design methods and design rules for individual

members (beams, columns and beam-columns) and skeletal structures (frames) regarding resistance and

stability.
0.4 Verbal forms used in the Eurocodes

The verb “shall" expresses a requirement strictly to be followed and from which no deviation is permitted

in order to comply with the Eurocodes.

The verb “should” expresses a highly recommended choice or course of action. Subject to national

regulation and/or any relevant contractual provisions, alternative approaches could be used/adopted

where technically justified.

The verb “may" expresses a course of action permissible within the limits of the Eurocodes.

The verb “can" expresses possibility and capability; it is used for statements of fact and clarification of

concepts.
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SIST EN 1993-1-1:2023
EN 1993-1-1:2022 (E)
0.5 National Annex for EN 1993-1-1

National choice is allowed in this standard where explicitly stated within notes. National choice includes

the selection of values for Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs).

The national standard implementing EN 1993-1-1 can have a National Annex containing all national

choices to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant

country.

When no national choice is given, the default choice given in this standard is to be used.

When no national choice is made and no default is given in this standard, the choice can be specified by a

relevant authority or, where not specified, agreed
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 1993-1-1:2020
01-november-2020

Evrokod 3 - Projektiranje jeklenih konstrukcij - 1-1. del: Splošna pravila in pravila

za stavbe

Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings

Eurocode 3 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine
Bemessungsregeln und Regeln für den Hochbau

Eurocode 3 - Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-1 : Règles générales et règles

pour les bâtiments
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 1993-1-1
ICS:
91.010.30 Tehnični vidiki Technical aspects
91.080.13 Jeklene konstrukcije Steel structures
oSIST prEN 1993-1-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 1993-1-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 1993-1-1:2020
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 1993-1-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
September 2020
ICS 91.010.30; 91.080.13 Will supersede EN 1993-1-1:2005
English Version
Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-1: General
rules and rules for buildings

Eurocode 3 - Calcul des structures en acier - Partie 1-1 : Eurocode 3 - Bemessung und Konstruktion von

Règles générales et règles pour les bâtiments Stahlbauten - Teil 1-1: Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln

und Regeln für den Hochbau

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 250.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 1993-1-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 1993-1-1:2020
prEN 1993-1-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

1.1 Scope of EN 1993-1-1 ..................................................................................................................................... 9

1.2 Assumptions ...................................................................................................................................................... 9

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms, definitions and symbols ................................................................................................................. 9

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 9

3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ...................................................................................................................... 11

3.2.1 Latin upper-case symbols ......................................................................................................................... 11

3.2.2 Latin lower-case symbols .......................................................................................................................... 15

3.2.3 Greek upper-case symbols ........................................................................................................................ 18

3.2.4 Greek lower-case symbols ........................................................................................................................ 18

3.3 Conventions for member axes ................................................................................................................. 20

4 Basis of design ............................................................................................................................................... 23

4.1 General rules .................................................................................................................................................. 23

4.1.1 Basic requirements ..................................................................................................................................... 23

4.1.2 Structural reliability ................................................................................................................................... 23

4.1.3 Robustness...................................................................................................................................................... 23

4.1.4 Design service life for buildings .............................................................................................................. 23

4.1.5 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 23

4.2 Principles of limit state design ................................................................................................................ 24

4.3 Basic variables .............................................................................................................................................. 24

4.3.1 Actions and environmental influences ................................................................................................. 24

4.3.2 Material and product properties and geometrical data................................................................. 24

4.4 Verification by the partial factor method ............................................................................................ 24

4.4.1 Design values of actions ............................................................................................................................. 24

4.4.2 Design values of material properties .................................................................................................... 24

4.4.3 Design values of geometrical data ......................................................................................................... 25

4.4.4 Tolerances ...................................................................................................................................................... 25

4.4.5 Design resistances ....................................................................................................................................... 26

4.5 Design assisted by testing ......................................................................................................................... 26

5 Materials .......................................................................................................................................................... 26

5.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

5.2 Structural steel .............................................................................................................................................. 27

5.2.1 Material properties ..................................................................................................................................... 27

5.2.2 Ductility requirements ............................................................................................................................... 28

5.2.3 Fracture toughness ...................................................................................................................................... 29

5.2.4 Through-thickness properties ................................................................................................................ 29

5.2.5 Values of other material properties ...................................................................................................... 30

5.3 Connecting devices ...................................................................................................................................... 30

5.3.1 Fasteners ......................................................................................................................................................... 30

5.3.2 Welding consumables ................................................................................................................................. 30

5.4 Other prefabricated products in buildings ......................................................................................... 30

6 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................ 30

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7 Structural analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 31

7.1 Structural modelling for analysis ........................................................................................................... 31

7.1.1 Basic assumptions ........................................................................................................................................ 31

7.1.2 Joint modelling .............................................................................................................................................. 31

7.2 Global analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 31

7.2.1 Consideration of second order effects .................................................................................................. 31

7.2.2 Methods of analysis for ultimate limit state design checks ........................................................... 34

7.3 Imperfections ................................................................................................................................................. 38

7.3.1 Basis ................................................................................................................................................................... 38

7.3.2 Sway imperfections for global analysis of frames ............................................................................ 39

7.3.3 Equivalent bow imperfection for global and member analysis ................................................... 40

7.3.4 Combination of sway and equivalent bow imperfections for global analysis of frames .... 42

7.3.5 Imperfections for analysis of bracing systems................................................................................... 42

7.3.6 Imperfection based on elastic critical buckling modes .................................................................. 45

7.4 Methods of analysis considering material non-linearities ............................................................ 47

7.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 47

7.4.2 Elastic global analysis ................................................................................................................................. 47

7.4.3 Plastic global analysis ................................................................................................................................. 47

7.5 Classification of cross-sections ................................................................................................................ 49

7.5.1 Basis ................................................................................................................................................................... 49

7.5.2 Classification .................................................................................................................................................. 49

7.6 Cross-section requirements for plastic global analysis .................................................................. 50

8 Ultimate limit states .................................................................................................................................... 54

8.1 Partial factors ................................................................................................................................................. 54

8.2 Resistance of cross-sections ..................................................................................................................... 54

8.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 54

8.2.2 Section properties ........................................................................................................................................ 56

8.2.3 Tension ............................................................................................................................................................. 59

8.2.4 Compression ................................................................................................................................................... 60

8.2.5 Bending ............................................................................................................................................................ 61

8.2.6 Shear .................................................................................................................................................................. 61

8.2.7 Torsion ............................................................................................................................................................. 64

8.2.8 Combined bending and shear ................................................................................................................... 66

8.2.9 Combined bending and axial force ......................................................................................................... 67

8.2.10 Combined bending, shear and axial force ............................................................................................ 71

8.2.11 Resistance to transverse forces ............................................................................................................... 71

8.3 Buckling resistance of members ............................................................................................................. 74

8.3.1 Uniform members in compression ......................................................................................................... 74

8.3.2 Uniform members in bending .................................................................................................................. 80

8.3.3 Uniform members in bending and axial compression .................................................................... 85

8.3.4 General method for lateral and lateral torsional buckling of structural components ........ 89

8.3.5 Lateral torsional buckling of members with plastic hinges in buildings ................................. 91

8.4 Uniform built-up compression members ............................................................................................ 93

8.4.1 Assumptions and constructional details .............................................................................................. 93

8.4.2 Design forces for components .................................................................................................................. 95

8.4.3 Resistance of components of laced compression members .......................................................... 96

8.4.4 Resistance of components of battened compression members................................................... 97

8.4.5 Closely spaced built-up members ........................................................................................................... 99

9 Serviceability limit states ....................................................................................................................... 100

9.1 General .......................................................................................................................................................... 100

9.2 Deformations and dynamic effects for buildings ........................................................................... 100

10 Fatigue ........................................................................................................................................................... 100

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Annex A (normative) Selection of Execution Class ...................................................................................... 102

A.1 Use of this Annex ........................................................................................................................................ 102

A.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 102

A.3 Execution Class ............................................................................................................................................ 102

A.4 Selection process ........................................................................................................................................ 102

A.5 Execution class and partial factors ...................................................................................................... 103

Annex B (normative) Design of semi-compact sections ............................................................................ 104

B.1 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 104

B.2 Elasto-plastic section modulus .............................................................................................................. 104

B.3 Resistance of cross-sections ................................................................................................................... 105

B.4 Buckling resistance of members .......................................................................................................... 106

Annex C (normative) Additional rules for uniform members with mono-symmetric cross-

sections and for members in bending, axial compression and torsion .................................. 107

C.1 Additional rules for uniform members with mono-symmetric cross-section ..................... 107

C.2 Additional rules for uniform members in bending, axial compression and torsion ......... 108

Annex D (normative) Continuous restraint of beams in buildings ....................................................... 111

D.1 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 111

D.2 Continuous lateral restraints ................................................................................................................. 111

D.3 Continuous torsional restraints ............................................................................................................ 112

Annex E (informative) Basis for the calibration of partial factors ........................................................ 114

E.1 Use of this informative annex ................................................................................................................ 114

E.2 Scope and field of application ................................................................................................................ 114

E.3 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................... 114

Bibliography ............................................................................................................................................................... 117

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European foreword

This document (prEN 1993-1-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 250

“Structural Codes”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all Structural

Eurocodes and has been assigned responsibility for structural and geotechnical design matters by CEN.

This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN 1993-1-1:2005 and its amendments and corrigenda.

The first generation of EN Eurocodes was published between 2002 and 2007. This document forms part

of the second generation of the Eurocodes, which have been prepared under Mandate M/515 issued to

CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association.

The Eurocodes have been drafted to be used in conjunction with relevant execution, material, product

and test standards, and to identify requirements for execution, materials, products and testing that are

relied upon by the Eurocodes.

The Eurocodes recognize the responsibility of each Member State and have safeguarded their right to

determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level through the use of National

Annexes.
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Introduction
0.1 Introduction to the Eurocodes

The Structural Eurocodes comprise the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts:

— EN 1990 Eurocode: Basis of structural and geotechnical design
— EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures
— EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures
— EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures
— EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures
— EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures
— EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures
— EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design
— EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance
— EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures
— New parts are under development, e.g. Eurocode for design of structural glass
0.2 Introduction to EN 1993 (all parts)

EN 1993 (all parts) applies to the design of buildings and civil engineering works in steel. It complies with

the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design

and verification that are given in EN 1990 – Basis of structural design.

EN 1993 (all parts) is concerned only with requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire

resistance of steel structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not

covered.
EN 1993 is subdivided in various parts:

EN 1993-1, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1: General rules and rules for buildings;

EN 1993-2, Design of Steel Structures — Part 2: Steel bridges;
EN 1993-3, Design of Steel Structures — Part 3: Towers, masts and chimneys;
EN 1993-4, Design of Steel Structures — Part 4: Silos and tanks;
EN 1993-5, Design of Steel Structures — Part 5: Piling;
EN 1993-6, Design of Steel Structures — Part 6: Crane supporting structures;
EN 1993-7, Design of steel structures — Part 7: Design of sandwich panels.

EN 1993-1 in itself does not exist as a physical document, but comprises the following 14 separate parts,

the basic part being EN 1993-1-1:

EN 1993-1-1, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings;

EN 1993-1-2, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-2: Structural fire design;
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EN 1993-1-3, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-3: Cold-formed members and sheeting;

NOTE Cold formed hollow sections supplied according to EN 10219 are covered in EN 1993-1-1.

EN 1993-1-4, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-4: Stainless steels;
EN 1993-1-5, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-5: Plated structural elements;

EN 1993-1-6, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-6: Strength and stability of shell structures;

EN 1993-1-7, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-7: Strength and stability of planar plated structures

transversely loaded;
EN 1993-1-8, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-8: Design of joints;

EN 1993-1-9, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-9: Fatigue strength of steel structures;

EN 1993-1-10, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-10: Selection of steel for fracture toughness and through-

thickness properties;

EN 1993-1-11, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-11: Design of structures with tension components made

of steel;

EN 1993-1-12, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-12: Additional rules for steel grades up to S960;

EN 1993-1-13, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-13: Beams with large web openings;

EN 1993-1-14, Design of Steel Structures — Part 1-14: Design assisted by finite element analysis.

All subsequent parts EN 1993-1-2 to EN 1993-1-14 treat general topics that are independent from the

structural type such as structural fire design, cold-formed members and sheeting, stainless steels, plated

structural elements, etc.

All subsequent parts numbered EN 1993-2 to EN 1993-7 treat topics relevant for a specific structural

type such as steel bridges, towers, masts and chimneys, silos and tanks, piling, crane supporting

structures, etc. EN 1993-2 to EN 1993-7 refer to the generic rules in EN 1993-1 and supplement, modify

or supersede them.
0.3 Introduction to EN 1993-1-1

EN 1993-1-1 gives general design rules for steel structures. It also includes supplementary design rules

for steel buildings. The focus in EN 1993-1-1 is on design methods and design rules for individual

members (beams, columns and beam-columns) and skeletal structures (frames) regarding resistance and

stability.
0.4 Verbal forms used in the Eurocodes

The verb “shall" expresses a requirement strictly to be followed and from which no deviation is permitted

in order to comply with the Eurocodes.

The verb “should” expresses a highly recommended choice or course of action. Subject to national

regulation and/or any relevant contractual provisions, alternative approaches could be used/adopted

where technically justified.

The verb “may" expresses a course of action permissible within the limits of the Eurocodes.

The verb “can" expresses possibility and capability; it is used for statements of fact and clarification of

concepts.
0.5 National Annex for EN 1993-1-1

National choice is allowed in this standard where explicitly stated within notes. National choice includes

the selection of values for Nationally Determined Parameters (NDPs).
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The national standard implementing EN 1993-1-1 can have a National Annex containing all national

choices to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant

country.

When no national choice is given, the default choice given in this standard is to be used.

When no national choice is made and no default is given in this standard, the choice can be specified by a

relevant authority or, where not specified, agreed for a specific project by appropriate parties.

National choice is allowed in EN 1993-1-1 through the following clauses:
— 4.4.3 (2)
— 5.1 (2)
— 5.2.1 (1)
— 5.2.2 (1)
— 5.2.3 (1)P
— 7.2.1 (4)
— 7.2.2 (9)
— 7.3.3.1 (2)
— 7.3.3.2 (1)
— 7.4.1(3)
— 8.1 (1)
— 8.3.2.3 (1)
— 8.3.2.4 (1)B
— 8.3.2.4 (3)B
— 8.3.3 (2)
— 8.3.4 (1)
— 9.2 (2)B
— A.3 (2)
— A.3 (3)
— A.3 (4)

National choice is allowed in EN 1993-1-1 on the application of the following informative annexes:

— Annex E (informative) – Basis for the calibration of partial factors
The National Annex c
...

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