Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles - Test methods for electrical characteristics

IEC 62576:2009 describes the methods for testing electrical characteristics of electric double-layer capacitor cells (hereinafter referred to as capacitor) to be used for peak power assistance in hybrid electric vehicles.

Elektrische Doppelschichtkondensatoren für die Verwendung in Hybridelektrofahrzeugen - Prüfverfahren für die elektrischen Kennwerte

Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules électriques hybrides - Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques

La CEI 62576:2009 décrit les méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques des cellules de condensateur électrique à double couche (ci-après dénommé 'condensateur') utilisées pour l'assistance en puissance de crête dans les véhicules électriques hybrides.

Elektronski dvoplastni kondenzatorji za hibridna električna vozila - Metode za preskušanje električnih karakteristik (IEC 62576:2009)

Ta standard opisuje metode za preskušanje električnih karakteristik elektronskih dvoplastnih kondenzatorskih celic (v nadaljevanju kondenzatorjev), ki se uporabljajo kot pomoč pri maksimalni moči za hibridna električna vozila.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
15-Apr-2010
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Start Date
16-Apr-2010
Due Date
16-May-2010
Completion Date
16-Apr-2010

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 62576:2010
01-junij-2010
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Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles - Test methods for

electrical characteristics (IEC 62576:2009)

Elektrische Doppelschichtkondensatoren für die Verwendung in Hybridelektrofahrzeugen

- Prüfverfahren für die elektrischen Kennwerte (IEC 62576:2009)
Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules électriques hybrides -
Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques (CEI 62576:2009)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 62576:2010
ICS:
31.060.01 Kondenzatorji na splošno Capacitors in general
43.120 (OHNWULþQDFHVWQDYR]LOD Electric road vehicles
SIST EN 62576:2010 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 62576
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2010
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 31.060.99; 43.120
English version
Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles -
Test methods for electrical characteristics
(IEC 62576:2009)
Condensateurs électriques à double Elektrische Doppelschichtkondensatoren
couche pour véhicules électriques für die Verwendung
hybrides - in Hybridelektrofahrzeugen -
Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques Prüfverfahren für die elektrischen
électriques Kennwerte
(CEI 62576:2009) (IEC 62576:2009)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2010-04-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2010 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 62576:2010 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
EN 62576:2010 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 69/158/CDV, future edition 1 of IEC 62576, prepared by IEC TC 69, Electric road

vehicles and electric industrial trucks, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was

approved by CENELEC as EN 62576 on 2010-04-01.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN and CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
(dop) 2011-01-01
national standard or by endorsement
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
(dow) 2013-04-01
with the EN have to be withdrawn
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 62576:2009 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 62391-1:2006 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62391-1:2006 (not modified).
IEC 62391-2:2006 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62391-2:2006 (not modified).
IEC 62391-2-1:2006 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62391-2-1:2006 (not modified).
__________
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
- 3 - EN 62576:2010
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60068-1 1988 Environmental testing - EN 60068-1 1994
+ A1 1992 Part 1: General and guidance - -
EN 60068-1 includes A1 to IEC 60068-1 + corr. October .
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
IEC 62576
Edition 1.0 2009-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles – Test
methods for electrical characteristics
Condensateurs électriques à double couche pour véhicules électriques
hybrides – Méthodes d'essai des caractéristiques électriques
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX
ICS 31.090.99; 43.120 ISBN 2-8318-1059-2
® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
– 2 – 62576 © IEC:2009
CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................4

INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................6

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................7

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................7

3 Terms and definitions .......................................................................................................7

4 Tests and measurement procedures...............................................................................10

4.1 Capacitance, internal resistance, and maximum power density..............................10

4.1.1 Circuit for measurement ............................................................................10

4.1.2 Test equipment..........................................................................................11

4.1.3 Measurement procedure ............................................................................11

4.1.4 Measurement.............................................................................................12

4.1.5 Calculation method for capacitance ...........................................................12

4.1.6 Calculation method for internal resistance .................................................12

4.1.7 Calculation method for maximum power density ........................................13

4.2 Voltage maintenance characteristics .....................................................................13

4.2.1 Circuit for measurement ............................................................................13

4.2.2 Test equipment..........................................................................................14

4.2.3 Measurement procedures ..........................................................................14

4.2.4 Measurement.............................................................................................15

4.2.5 Calculation of voltage maintenance rate ....................................................15

4.3 Energy efficiency...................................................................................................15

4.3.1 Circuit for test............................................................................................15

4.3.2 Test equipment..........................................................................................15

4.3.3 Measurement procedures ..........................................................................16

4.3.4 Measurement.............................................................................................17

4.3.5 Calculation of energy efficiency .................................................................17

Annex A (informative) Endurance test (continuous application of rated voltage at high

temperature) .........................................................................................................................18

Annex B (informative) Heat equilibrium time of capacitors....................................................20

Annex C (informative) Charging/discharging efficiency and measurement current................22

Annex D (informative) Procedures for setting the measurement current of capacitor

with uncertain nominal internal resistance.............................................................................24

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................25

Figure 1 – Basic circuit for measuring capacitance, internal resistance and maximum

power density .......................................................................................................................10

Figure 2 – Voltage-time characteristics between capacitor terminals in capacitance and

internal resistance measurement ..........................................................................................11

Figure 3 – Basic circuit for measuring the voltage maintenance characteristics.....................13

Figure 4 – Time characteristics of voltage between capacitor terminals in voltage

maintenance test ..................................................................................................................14

Figure 5 – Voltage-time characteristics between capacitor terminals in

charging/discharging efficiency test ......................................................................................

Figure B.1 – Heat equilibrium times of capacitors (85 °C→25 °C) .........................................20

Figure B.2 – Heat equilibrium times of capacitors (–40 °C→25 °C) .......................................21

Figure B.3 – Temperature changes of capacitors' central portions (85 °C→25 °C) ................21

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
62576 © IEC:2009 – 3 –

Figure B.4 – Temperature changes of capacitors' central portions (–40 °C→25 °C) ..............21

Table D.1 – Example of setting current for measurement of capacitor ...................................24

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
– 4 – 62576 © IEC:2009
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS
FOR USE IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES –
TEST METHODS FOR ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 62576 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 69: Electric

road vehicles and electric industrial trucks.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
69/158/CDV 69/162/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
62576 © IEC:2009 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The “colour inside” logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding

of its contents. Users should therefore print this publication using a colour printer.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
– 6 – 62576 © IEC:2009
INTRODUCTION

The Electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) is a promising energy storage system for hybrid

electric vehicles (HEVs), and EDLC-installed HEVs have begun to be commercialized with an

eye to improving fuel economy by recovering regenerative energy. Although a standards

series (IEC 62391 series) for EDLC already exists, those for HEVs involve patterns of use,

usage environment, and values of current that are quite different from those assumed in the

existing standards. Standard evaluation and test methods will be useful for both the auto

manufacturers and capacitor suppliers to speed up the development and lower the costs of

such EDLCs. With these points in mind, this standard aims to provide basic and minimum

specifications in terms of the methods for testing electrical characteristics, and to create an

environment that supports expanding market of HEVs and large capacity EDLCs. Additional

practical test items to be standardized should be reconsidered after technology and market

stabilization of EDLCs for HEVs. In terms of endurance that is important in practical use, just

basic concept is set forth in the informative annexes.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
62576 © IEC:2009 – 7 –
ELECTRIC DOUBLE-LAYER CAPACITORS
FOR USE IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES –
TEST METHODS FOR ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
1 Scope

This standard describes the methods for testing electrical characteristics of electric double-

layer capacitor cells (hereinafter referred to as capacitor) to be used for peak power

assistance in hybrid electric vehicles.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
IEC 60068-1:1988, Environmental testing – Part 1: General and guidance
Amendment 1(1992)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
reference temperature
reference temperature (°C) to be used in the test
3.2
ambient temperature
ambient temperature of the surrounding space in which a capacitor is placed
3.3
upper category temperature
highest ambient temperature that a capacitor is designed to operate continuously
3.4
lower category temperature
lowest ambient temperature that a capacitor is designed to operate continuously
3.5
applied voltage
voltage (V) applied between the terminals of a capacitor
3.6
rated voltage

maximum d.c. voltage (V) that may be applied continuously for a certain time under the upper

category temperature to a capacitor so that a capacitor can exhibit specified demand

characteristics. This voltage is the setting voltage in capacitor design
NOTE The endurance test using the rated voltage is described in Annex A.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
– 8 – 62576 © IEC:2009
3.7
charge current
current (A) required to charge a capacitor
3.8
discharge current
current (A) required to discharge a capacitor
3.9
stored energy
energy (J) stored in a capacitor
3.10
charge accumulated electrical energy

amount of charged energy (J) accumulated from the beginning to the end of charging

3.11
discharge accumulated electrical energy

amount of discharged energy (J) accumulated from the beginning to the end of discharging

3.12
calculation start voltage

voltage (V) at a selected start point for calculating the characteristics including capacitance

under a state of voltage decrease during discharge
3.13
calculation end voltage

voltage (V) at a selected end point for calculating the characteristics including capacitance

under a state of voltage decrease during discharge
3.14
capacitance
ability of a capacitor to store electrical charge (F)
3.15
nominal capacitance

nominal capacitance value (C ) to be used in design and measurement condition setting (F),

generally, at the reference temperature
3.16
internal resistance

combined resistance (Ω) of constituent material specific resistance and inside connection

resistance of a capacitor
3.17
nominal internal resistance

nominal value of the internal resistance (R ) to be used in design and measurement condition

setting (Ω), generally at the reference temperature
3.18
constant voltage charging
method of charging a capacitor at specified voltage continuously
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
62576 © IEC:2009 – 9 –
3.19
pre-conditioning

discharging and storage of a capacitor under specified ambient conditions (temperature,

humidity, and pressure) before testing

NOTE Generally, pre-conditioning implies that a capacitor is discharged and stored until its inner temperature

attains thermal equilibrium with the surrounding temperature, before its electrical characteristics are measured.

3.20
voltage treatment

voltage application before measurement of a capacitor’s electrical characteristics

NOTE Generally, this treatment is applied to a capacitor that has been stored for a long time or to a capacitor

whose history is not clear.
3.21
post-treatment (recovery)

discharging and storage of a capacitor under specified ambient conditions (temperature,

humidity, and pressure) after tests

NOTE Generally, post-treatment implies that a capacitor is discharged and stored until its inner temperature attains

thermal equilibrium with the surrounding temperature before its electrical characteristics are measured.

3.22
charging efficiency

efficiency under specified charging conditions, and ratio (%) of stored energy to charge

accumulated electrical energy. This value is calculated from the internal resistance of a

capacitor
NOTE Refer to Equation C.8 in Annex C.
3.23
discharging efficiency

efficiency under specified discharging conditions, and ratio (%) of discharge accumulated

electrical energy to stored energy. This value is calculated from the internal resistance of a

capacitor
NOTE Refer to Equation C.10 in Annex C.
3.24
energy efficiency

ratio (%) of discharge accumulated electrical energy to charge accumulated electrical energy

under specified charging and discharging conditions
3.25
voltage maintenance characteristics

voltage maintenance characteristics of a capacitor when its terminals are open after charging

3.26
voltage maintenance rate
ratio of voltage maintenance

ratio of the voltage at the open-ended terminals to the charge voltage after a specified time

period subsequent to the charging of a capacitor
3.27
power density

electrical power per unit mass (W/kg) or per unit volume (W/l) that can be recovered from a

charged capacitor
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
– 10 – 62576 © IEC:2009
3.28
rated power density

specified maximum power density (W/kg or W/l). Generally, it is calculated by using the

nominal internal resistance and the rated voltage
3.29
maximum power density

maximum power density (W/kg or W/l) that can be recovered from a charged capacitor.

Generally, it is calculated by using the internal resistance and the rated voltage

4 Tests and measurement procedures
4.1 Capacitance, internal resistance, and maximum power density
4.1.1 Circuit for measurement

The capacitance and the internal resistance shall be measured by using the constant current

charging and discharging methods. Figure 1 shows the basic circuit to be used for the

measurement.
Power supply
IEC 1597/09
Key
I constant-current
U constant-voltage
A d.c. ammeter
V d.c. voltage recorder
S changeover switch
Cx capacitor under test
constant current discharger
a) constant current charging
b) constant voltage charging
Figure 1 – Basic circuit for measuring capacitance,
internal resistance and maximum power density
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
62576 © IEC:2009 – 11 –
4.1.2 Test equipment

The test equipment shall be capable of constant current charging, constant voltage charging,

constant current discharging, and continuous measurement of the current and the voltage

between the capacitor terminals in time-series as shown in Figure 2. The test equipment shall

be able to set and measure the current and the voltage with the accuracy equal to ± 1 % or

less.

The power supply shall provide the constant charge current for the capacitor charge with

95 % efficiency, set the duration of constant voltage charge, and provide a discharge current

corresponding to the specified-discharge efficiency. The d.c. voltage recorder shall be

capable of conducting measurements and recording with a 5 mV resolution and sampling

interval of 100 ms or less.
Magnified figure
Time (s)
IEC 1598/09
Key
U rated voltage (V)
U calculation start voltage (V)
U calculation end voltage (V)
ΔU voltage drop (V)
T constant voltage charging duration (s)
Figure 2 – Voltage-time characteristics between capacitor
terminals in capacitance and internal resistance measurement
4.1.3 Measurement procedure

Measurements shall be carried out in accordance with the following procedures using the test

equipment specified in 4.1.2.
a) Pre-conditioning

Before measurement, the capacitors shall be fully discharged and then incubated for 2 h to

6 h under the reference temperature, set at 25 °C ± 2 °C, as specified in 5.2 in IEC 60068-

1, or that specified by the related standards.

NOTE 1 The heat equilibrium time which provides a reference for the soaking time is described in Annex B.

b) Sample setting
Fit the sample capacitors with the test equipment.
c) Test equipment set-up
Voltage (V)
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
– 12 – 62576 © IEC:2009

Unless specified otherwise by related standards, the test equipment shall be set-up in the

following manner.

1) Set the constant current I for charging. At this current, the capacitors shall be able to

charge with 95 % charging efficiency based on their nominal internal resistance R .

The current value is calculated by I =U /38R .
c R N

NOTE 2 The general concept for 95 % charging or discharging efficiency is described in Annex C. When

the rated value of internal resistance of a capacitor is uncertain, the current for the measurement can be

set according to the advisable procedures described in Annex D.

2) Set the maximum voltage for constant current charging as the rated voltage U .

3) Set the duration of constant voltage charging T to 300 s.

4) Set the constant current discharge value. This value shall allow for a 95 % discharging

efficiency based on the capacitor’s nominal internal resistance R , and is calculated

by I =U /40R .
d R N

5) Set the sampling interval to 100 ms or less, and set the test-equipment so as to

measure the voltage drop characteristics up to 0,5 U .
4.1.4 Measurement

After the setting as specified above, the voltage-time characteristics between capacitor

terminals as shown in Figure 2 shall be measured.
4.1.5 Calculation method for capacitance

The capacitance C shall be calculated using Equation (1) based on the voltage-time

characteristics between capacitor terminals obtained in 4.1.4.
NOTE This calculation method is called “energy conversion capacitance method.”
2 W
(1)
C =
2 2
(0,9 U ) − (0,7 U )
R R
where
C is the capacitance (F) of capacitor ;
) to
W is the measured discharged energy (J) from calculation start voltage (0,9 U
calculation end voltage (0,7 U );
U is the rated voltage (V).
4.1.6 Calculation method for internal resistance

The internal resistance R shall be calculated using Equation (2) based on the voltage-time

characteristics between capacitor terminals obtained in 4.1.4.
R = (2)
where
R is the internal resistance (Ω) of capacitor;
I is the discharge current (A).

ΔU Apply the straight-line approximation to the voltage drop characteristics from the

calculation start voltage (0,9 U ) to the calculation end voltage (0,7 U ) by using the

R R

least squares method. Obtain the intercept (voltage value) of the straight line at the

discharge start time. ΔU is the difference of voltages (V) between the intercept
voltage value and the set value of constant voltage charging.
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
SIST EN 62576:2010
62576 © IEC:2009 – 13 –

NOTE This calculation method is called “least squares internal resistance method.”

4.1.7 Calculation method for maximum power density
The maximum power density P is calculated by using the internal resistance value
calculated in 4.1.6 and Equation (3).
NOTE This calculation method is called “matched impedance power density method.”
0,25 U
(3)
P =
where
dm is the maximum power density of capacitor (W/kg or W/l) ;
U is the rated voltage (V);
R is the calculated internal resistance (Ω);
M is the mass or volume of capacitor (kg or l).
4.2 Voltage maintenance characteristics
4.2.1 Circuit for measurement

Figure 3 shows the basic circuit for measuring the voltage maintenance characteristics.

Power supply
V Cx V
1 2
IEC 1599/09
Key
I constant-current
U consta
...

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