Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes - Secondary lithium, nickel cadmium and nickel-metal hydride cells and batteries for portable applications - Guidance on environmental aspects

This document provides requirements and recommendations on environmental aspects of secondary lithium, nickel cadmium and nickel-metal hydride cells and batteries for portable applications (hereafter referred to as "relevant secondary cells and batteries"). Relevant secondary cells and batteries are specified within the scopes of IEC 61960-3, IEC 61960-4, IEC 61951-1, and IEC 61951-2. NOTE Portable applications are defined in IEC 61960-3 as comprising hand-held equipment, transportable equipment, and movable equipment. See IEC 61960-3 for examples. This document is not intended to be applied to batteries embedded in end-use products. Once the embedded battery is removed from an end-use product, this document becomes applicable to it. The safety and control circuits as well as cases associated with relevant secondary batteries, except for those forming part of an end-use product, are covered by this document as parts of the relevant secondary batteries.

Sekundärzellen und -batterien mit alkalischen oder anderen nicht-säurehaltigen Elektrolyten - Lithium-, Nickel-Cadmium- und Nickel-Metallhydrid-Sekundärzellen und -batterien für tragbare Anwendungen - Leitfaden zu Umweltaspekten

Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide - Accumulateurs et batteries d'accumulateurs lithium, nickel-cadmium et nickel-métal hydrure pour applications portables - Recommandations relatives aux aspects environnementaux

IEC 63218:2021 fournit des exigences et des recommandations sur les aspects environnementaux des accumulateurs et batteries d'accumulateurs lithium, nickel-cadmium et nickel-métal hydrure pour applications portables (ci-après dénommés "accumulateurs et batteries d'accumulateurs concernés"). Les accumulateurs et batteries d'accumulateurs concernés sont spécifiés dans les domaines d'application des normes IEC 61960-3, IEC 61960-4, IEC 61951-1 et IEC 61951-2. NOTE Les applications portables sont définies comme suit dans l’IEC 61960-3: les applications portables comprennent l'équipement portatif, l'équipement transportable et l'équipement mobile. Voir l’IEC 61960-3 pour des exemples. Le présent document n'est pas destiné à être appliqué aux batteries intégrées dans les produits d'utilisation finale. Dès lors que la batterie intégrée est retirée d'un produit d'utilisation finale, le présent document lui devient applicable. Les circuits de sécurité et de commande ainsi que les boîtiers associés aux batteries d’accumulateurs concernées, à l’exception de ceux faisant partie d'un produit d'utilisation finale, sont couverts par le présent document en tant que parties des batteries d’accumulateurs concernées.

Sekundarni členi in baterije z alkalnimi ali drugimi nekislinskimi elektroliti - Sekundarni litijevi, nikelj-kadmijevi in nikelj-kovinski hidridni členi in baterije za prenosne naprave - Navodilo glede okoljskih vidikov

General Information

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Published
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
08-Oct-2021
Completion Date
08-Oct-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
01-december-2021
Sekundarni členi in baterije z alkalnimi ali drugimi nekislinskimi elektroliti -

Sekundarni litijevi, nikelj-kadmijevi in nikelj-kovinski hidridni členi in baterije za

prenosne naprave - Navodilo glede okoljskih vidikov

Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline and other non-acid electrolyte -

Secondary Lithium , Nickel Cadmium , and Nickel Metal Hydride cells and batteries for

portable applications - Guidance on environmental aspects
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 63218:2021
ICS:
29.220.30 Alkalni sekundarni členi in Alkaline secondary cells and
baterije batteries
SIST EN IEC 63218:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 63218
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
October 2021
ICS 29.220.30
English Version
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-
acid electrolytes - Secondary lithium, nickel cadmium and nickel-
metal hydride cells and batteries for portable applications -
Guidance on environmental aspects
(IEC 63218:2021)

Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à Sekundärzellen und -batterien mit alkalischen oder anderen

électrolyte non acide - Accumulateurs et batteries nicht-säurehaltigen Elektrolyten - Lithium-, Nickel-

d'accumulateurs lithium, nickel-cadmium et nickel-métal Cadmium- und Nickel-Metallhydrid-Sekundärzellen und -

hydrure pour applications portables - Recommandations batterien für tragbare Anwendungen - Leitfaden zu

relatives aux aspects environnementaux Umweltaspekten
(IEC 63218:2021) (IEC 63218:2021)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2021-10-04. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 63218:2021 E
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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
EN IEC 63218:2021 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 21A/763/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 63218, prepared by SC 21A “Secondary

cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes” of IEC/TC 21 “Secondary cells

and batteries” was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by CENELEC as

EN IEC 63218:2021.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2022–07–04

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2024–10–04

document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national committee. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CENELEC website.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 63218:2021 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60086-6:2020 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60086-6:2020 (not modified)
IEC 62281:2019 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62281:2019 (not modified)
IEC 62321:2008 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62321:2009 (not modified)
IEC 62321-5:2013 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62321-5:2014 (not modified)
IEC 62430:2019 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62430:2019 (not modified)
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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
EN IEC 63218:2021 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the

relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 62133-2 2017 Secondary cells and batteries containing EN 62133-2 2017
alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes -
Safety requirements for portable sealed
secondary cells, and for batteries made
from them, for use in portable applications
- Part 2: Lithium systems
+ AMD1 2021 + A1 2021
IEC 62902 - Secondary cells and batteries - Marking EN IEC 62902 -
symbols for identification of their chemistry
ISO 7000 - Graphical symbols for use on equipment - - -
Registered symbols
ISO 14021 2016 Environmental labels and declarations – EN ISO 14021 2016
Self-declared environmental claims (Type
II environmental labelling)
ISO 14040 2006 Environmental management - Life cycleEN ISO 14040 2006
assessment - Principles and framework
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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
IEC 63218
Edition 1.0 2021-08
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes
– Secondary lithium, nickel cadmium and nickel-metal hydride cells and
batteries for portable applications – Guidance on environmental aspects
Accumulateurs alcalins et autres accumulateurs à électrolyte non acide –
Accumulateurs et batteries d'accumulateurs lithium, nickel-cadmium et nickel-
métal hydrure pour applications portables – Recommandations relatives aux
aspects environnementaux
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 29.220.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-1014-0

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
– 2 – IEC 63218:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 General considerations .................................................................................................. 11

5 Requirements and recommendations ............................................................................. 11

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 11

5.2 Environmental aspects of relevant secondary cells and batteries .......................... 12

5.2.1 Environmental aspects of relevant secondary cells and batteries

including valuable and/or hazardous metals ................................................... 12

5.2.2 Environmental aspects of relevant secondary cells and batteries other

than those specified in 5.2.1 .......................................................................... 12

5.3 Requirements and recommendations on environmental hazardous

substances ........................................................................................................... 12

5.3.1 Heavy metals in relevant secondary cells and batteries ................................. 12

5.3.2 Analysis methods .......................................................................................... 13

5.3.3 Nickel cadmium cells and batteries ................................................................ 13

5.4 Marking ................................................................................................................. 13

5.5 Collection and sorting ........................................................................................... 13

5.6 Recommendations to improve recycling possibilities ............................................. 13

6 Environmental impact assessment ................................................................................. 14

6.1 Interaction with the environment during life cycle .................................................. 14

6.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 14

6.1.2 Input .............................................................................................................. 14

6.1.3 Output ........................................................................................................... 14

6.2 Life cycle stages ................................................................................................... 15

6.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 15

6.2.2 Design and development ............................................................................... 15

6.2.3 Raw material usage ....................................................................................... 16

6.2.4 Manufacturing ................................................................................................ 17

6.2.5 Transportation, storage, disposal, and recycling ............................................ 17

6.2.6 Carbon footprint of batteries (production and use) ......................................... 17

7 Identifying product environmental aspects using a systematic approach ........................ 17

Annex A (informative) Battery specific laws and regulations ................................................. 18

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 18

A.2 Minamata Convention on Mercury ......................................................................... 19

A.3 Asia ...................................................................................................................... 20

A.3.1 China ............................................................................................................. 20

A.3.2 Japan ............................................................................................................ 21

A.3.3 Korea, Republic of ......................................................................................... 21

A.3.4 Malaysia ........................................................................................................ 22

A.3.5 Singapore ...................................................................................................... 22

A.3.6 Vietnam ......................................................................................................... 23

A.4 Europe .................................................................................................................. 23

A.4.1 European Union (EU) members and non-EU members where existing

battery law/regulations are based on EU Directives ....................................... 23

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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
IEC 63218:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

A.4.2 Russian Federation ....................................................................................... 25

A.5 South America ...................................................................................................... 25

A.5.1 Argentina ....................................................................................................... 25

A.5.2 Brazil ............................................................................................................. 25

A.5.3 Colombia ....................................................................................................... 25

A.6 Middle East ........................................................................................................... 26

A.6.1 Israel ............................................................................................................. 26

A.6.2 Saudi Arabia .................................................................................................. 26

A.7 North America ....................................................................................................... 26

A.7.1 Canada .......................................................................................................... 26

A.7.2 United States of America ............................................................................... 27

Annex B (informative) Global regulations and standards not applicable to batteries ............. 28

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

B.2 Directive 2011/65/EU on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous

substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) .................................... 28

B.3 Directive 2012/19/EU on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) ......... 28

B.4 Directive 2005/32/EC establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign

requirements for energy-using products (EuP) ...................................................... 28

B.5 Directive 2009/125/EC establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign

requirements for energy-related products (ErP)..................................................... 28

B.6 PVC and Halogens in accordance with IEC 61249-2-21 ........................................ 29

Annex C (informative) Example instructions on disposal, transportation, storage,

collection and recycling for the end-user ............................................................................... 30

C.1 Disposal ................................................................................................................ 30

C.1.1 Local laws and regulations ............................................................................ 30

C.1.2 Disposal of damaged or disassembled secondary cells and batteries............. 30

C.2 Transportation of cells and batteries for recycling ................................................. 30

C.2.1 Lithium cells and batteries ............................................................................. 30

C.2.2 Ni-MH and Ni-Cd cells and batteries .............................................................. 30

C.3 Storage at a collection site .................................................................................... 31

C.4 Design of end-use products and instruction manuals............................................. 31

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 32

Figure A.1 – Taiwan (Province of China) collection symbol ................................................... 20

Figure A.2 – Crossed-out wheeled bin symbol indicating "separate collection" for all

batteries and accumulators ................................................................................................... 23

Figure A.3 – Symbols for collection and recycling of batteries in Brazil ................................. 25

Table A.1 – Relevant secondary battery specific laws and regulations .................................. 18

Table A.2 – Products subject to Article 4, paragraph 1 of the Minamata Convention on

Mercury ................................................................................................................................ 19

Table A.3 – Target and restriction of mercury (Japan) ........................................................... 21

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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
– 4 – IEC 63218:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING ALKALINE OR OTHER
NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES – SECONDARY LITHIUM, NICKEL CADMIUM
AND NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE CELLS AND BATTERIES FOR PORTABLE
APPLICATIONS – GUIDANCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence between

any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of patent

rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

IEC 63218 has been prepared by subcommittee 21A: Secondary cells and batteries containing

alkaline or other non-acid electrolytes, of IEC technical committee 21: Secondary cells and

batteries. It is an International Standard.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
21A/763/FDIS 21A/768/RVD

Full information on the voting for its approval can be found in the report on voting indicated in

the above table.
The language used for the development of this International Standard is English.
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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
IEC 63218:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

This document was drafted in accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2, and developed in

accordance with ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1 and ISO/IEC Directives, IEC Supplement, available

at www.iec.ch/members_experts/refdocs. The main document types developed by IEC are

described in greater detail at www.iec.ch/standardsdev/publications.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.

IMPORTANT – The "colour inside" logo on the cover page of this document indicates that it

contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct understanding of its

contents. Users should therefore print this document using a colour printer.
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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
– 6 – IEC 63218:2021 © IEC 2021
INTRODUCTION

Secondary batteries, such as secondary lithium, nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) and nickel-metal

hydride cells and batteries, consume a large amount of non-renewable resources like copper,

manganese, lithium, and nickel. In addition to that, Ni-Cd cells and batteries include hazardous

material like cadmium as a negative electrode. Nevertheless, there is no international

environmental standard for secondary batteries.

The primary purpose of this document is to contribute to improving environmental sustainability

by providing:
a) basic consideration and information relating to the environmental aspects and
environmental impact of secondary cells and batteries;

b) basic guidance for the collection and recycling of secondary cells and batteries;

c) basic guidance for environmental impact assessment across all life cycle stages for the

designing and manufacturing of secondary cells and batteries;

d) useful information for interested parties regarding regulations on secondary cells and

batteries.

Additionally various countries and regions have their own environmental regulations for

secondary cells and batteries. These differing regulations could lead to trade barriers in the

future. Therefore, the secondary purpose of this document is to avoid potential trade barrier

issues by providing countries and regions that lack secondary battery collection and recycling

regulations with guidance with which they can establish harmonized standardization with the

international standard.

This document is not intended to be applied for the certification of specific products.

This document provides guidance and recommendations for the collection, recycling,

environmental impact assessment, including design, manufacturing, transportation, storage and

disposal of secondary cells and batteries.

Collection and recycling are activities that are conducted across national borders. Therefore,

international standards are necessary in addition to transport regulations.
The expected users of this document are:

1) cell and battery manufacturers, end-product manufacturers, recycling organizations,

transport organizations and distributors;

2) national, regional, and local authorities that establish the regulation of the collection and

recycling, environmental impact assessment, including design, manufacturing,
transportation, storage and disposal of secondary cells and batteries;

3) national, regional, and local authorities that revise the regulation of the collection and

recycling, environmental impact assessment, including design, manufacturing,
transportation, storage and disposal of secondary cells and batteries.

However, this document does not preclude other stakeholders from using this document.

National and regional standards, regulations and voluntary stewardship programmes are given

priority in the matters covered in this document.
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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
IEC 63218:2021 © IEC 2021 – 7 –
SECONDARY CELLS AND BATTERIES CONTAINING ALKALINE OR OTHER
NON-ACID ELECTROLYTES – SECONDARY LITHIUM, NICKEL CADMIUM
AND NICKEL-METAL HYDRIDE CELLS AND BATTERIES FOR PORTABLE
APPLICATIONS – GUIDANCE ON ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
1 Scope

This document provides requirements and recommendations on environmental aspects of

secondary lithium, nickel cadmium and nickel-metal hydride cells and batteries for portable

applications (hereafter referred to as “relevant secondary cells and batteries”).

Relevant secondary cells and batteries are specified within the scopes of IEC 61960-3,

IEC 61960-4, IEC 61951-1, and IEC 61951-2.

NOTE Portable applications are defined in IEC 61960-3 as comprising hand-held equipment, transportable

equipment, and movable equipment. See IEC 61960-3 for examples.

This document is not intended to be applied to batteries embedded in end-use products. Once

the embedded battery is removed from an end-use product, this document becomes applicable

to it.

The safety and control circuits as well as cases associated with relevant secondary batteries,

except for those forming part of an end-use product, are covered by this document as parts of

the relevant secondary batteries.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies.

For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

IEC 62133-2:2017, Secondary cells and batteries containing alkaline or other non-acid

electrolytes – Safety requirements for portable sealed secondary lithium cells, and for batteries

made from them, for use in portable applications – Part 2: Lithium systems
IEC 62133-2:2017/AMD1:—

IEC 62902, Secondary cells and batteries – Marking symbols for identification of their chemistry

ISO 7000, Graphical symbols for use on equipment – Registered symbols
(available at http://www.graphical-symbols.info/equipment)

ISO 14021:2016, Environmental labels and declarations – Self-declared environmental claims

(Type II environmental labelling)

ISO 14040:2006, Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and

framework
___________

Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: IEC FDIS 62133-2:2017/AMD1:2021

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SIST EN IEC 63218:2021
– 8 – IEC 63218:2021 © IEC 2021
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
product
any goods or service
[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.5.12]
3.2
waste battery
battery which the holder discards or intends or is required to discard
3.3
environment

surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources,

flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships

Note 1 to entry: Surroundings in this context extend from within an organization to the global system.

[SOURCE: ISO 14050:2020, 3.2.2, modified – Note to entry added.]
3.4
environmental aspect

element of a product that, during its life cycle, can interact with the environment

3.5
...

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