Environmental conditions - Vibration and shock of electrotechnical equipment - Part 6: Transportation by propeller aircraft

IEC TR 62131-6:2017(E) reviews the available dynamic data relating to the transportation of electrotechnical equipment. The intent is that from all the available data an environmental description will be generated and compared to that set out in IEC 60721 (all parts).

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Status
Published
Publication Date
19-Sep-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
20-Sep-2017
Completion Date
20-Sep-2017
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IEC TR 62131-6
Edition 1.0 2017-09
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Environmental conditions – Vibration and shock of electrotechnical equipment –
Part 6: Transportation by propeller aircraft
IEC TR 62131-6:2017-09(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
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IEC TR 62131-6
Edition 1.0 2017-09
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Environmental conditions – Vibration and shock of electrotechnical equipment –
Part 6: Transportation by propeller aircraft
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 19.040 ISBN 978-2-8322-4828-7

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 62131-6:2017 © IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Data source and quality ................................................................................................... 8

4.1 Vibration survey of four different propeller driven aircraft ........................................ 8

4.2 Britten-Norman Islander aircraft flight measurements .............................................. 9

4.3 Lockheed C130 flight vibration measurements ...................................................... 10

4.4 Lockheed C130 landing shock measurements ....................................................... 12

4.5 Supplementary data .............................................................................................. 12

5 Intra data source comparison ........................................................................................ 14

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 14

5.2 Vibration survey of four propeller driven aircraft .................................................... 14

5.3 Britten-Norman Islander aircraft flight measurements ............................................ 15

5.4 Lockheed C130 flight vibration measurements ...................................................... 16

5.5 Lockheed C130 landing shock measurements ....................................................... 16

6 Inter data source comparison ........................................................................................ 16

7 Environmental description ............................................................................................. 17

7.1 Physical sources producing mechanical vibrations ................................................ 17

7.2 Environmental characteristics and severities ......................................................... 19

7.3 Derived test severities .......................................................................................... 19

8 Comparison with IEC 60721 (all parts) ........................................................................... 20

9 Recommendations ......................................................................................................... 23

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 59

Figure 1 – Instrumentation locations for Britten-Norman Islander aircraft [1] ......................... 24

Figure 2 – Instrumentation locations for BAe Jetstream aircraft [1] ........................................ 24

Figure 3 – Instrumentation locations for BAe HS 748 aircraft [1] ........................................... 25

Figure 4 – Instrumentation locations for Lockheed C130 Aircraft Islander [1] ........................ 25

Figure 5 – Comparison of relative overall rms severities for different aircrafts [1] .................. 26

Figure 6 – Comparison of relative overall rms severities for various flight conditions [1] ........ 27

Figure 7 – Comparison of relative overall rms severities for various locations [1] .................. 28

Figure 8 – Typical cruise vibration spectrum for Britten-Norman Islander aircraft [1] ............. 29

Figure 9 – Typical cruise vibration spectrum for BAe Jetstream aircraft [1]............................ 29

Figure 10 – Typical cruise vibration spectrum for BAe HS 748 aircraft [1] ............................. 30

Figure 11 – Typical cruise vibration spectrum for Lockheed C130 aircraft [1] ........................ 30

Figure 12 – Britten-Norman Islander vibration at cabin during cruise [2] ................................ 31

Figure 13 – Britten-Norman Islander vibration at plane of propeller during take-off [2] .......... 32

Figure 14 – Britten-Norman Islander vibration at middle of fuselage during take-off [2] ......... 32

Figure 15 – Britten-Norman Islander vibration at middle of fuselage during cruise [2] ............ 33

Figure 16 – Britten-Norman Islander vibration at rear of fuselage during cruise [2] ................ 33

Figure 17 – Comparison of vibration severities for Lockheed C130 – Take-off [3] .................. 34

Figure 18 – Comparison of vibration severities for Lockheed C130 – Climb [3]...................... 34

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IEC TR 62131-6:2017 © IEC 2017 – 3 –

Figure 19 – Comparison of vibration severities for Lockheed C130 – Cruise [3] .................... 35

Figure 20 – Comparison of vibration severities for Lockheed C130 – Reverse thrust [3] ........ 35

Figure 21 – Comparison of vibration severities for Lockheed C130 at blade passing

frequency [3] ......................................................................................................................... 36

Figure 22 – Comparison of vibration severities for Lockheed C130 background random

overall rms [3] ....................................................................................................................... 37

Figure 23 – Lockheed C130 vibration at forward fuselage during take-off – Flight 3 [3] ......... 40

Figure 24 – Lockheed C130 vibration at forward fuselage (Frame 257) during cruise –

Flight 3 [3] ............................................................................................................................ 40

Figure 25 – Lockheed C130 vibration at forward fuselage (Frame 317) during cruise –

Flight 3 [3] ............................................................................................................................ 41

Figure 26 – Lockheed C130 vibration at aft fuselage during cruise – Flight 3 [3] ................... 41

Figure 27 – Lockheed C130 vibration at forward fuselage during landing – Flight 3 [3] .......... 42

Figure 28 – Lockheed C130 vibration at forward fuselage during take-off – Flight 4 [3] ......... 42

Figure 29 – Lockheed C130 vibration at plane of propeller during take-off – Flight 4 [3] ........ 43

Figure 30 – Lockheed C130 vibration at plane of propeller during climb – Flight 4 [3] ........... 43

Figure 31 – Lockheed C130 vibration at plane of propeller during cruise – Flight 4 [3] .......... 44

Figure 32 – Lockheed C130 vibration at plane of propeller during landing – Flight 4 [3] ........ 44

Figure 33 – Landing shocks from Lockheed C130 vertical [4] ................................................ 45

Figure 34 – Landing shocks from Lockheed C130 lateral [4] ................................................. 45

Figure 35 – Landing shocks from Lockheed C130 longitudinal [4] ......................................... 46

Figure 36 – Transall C160 vibration at fuselage floor during take-off [7] ................................ 47

Figure 37 – Transall C160 vibration at fuselage floor during cruise [7] .................................. 47

Figure 38 – Transall C160 vibration at fuselage floor during landing [7] ................................ 48

Figure 39 – Lockheed C130J variant vibration at plane of propeller during cruise ................. 48

Figure 40 – Airbus A400M vibration on fuselage floor during cruise conditions ...................... 49

Figure 41 – IEC 60721-3-2 [13] – Stationary vibration random severities .............................. 49

Figure 42 – IEC TR 60721-4-2 [14] – Stationary vibration random severities ......................... 50

Figure 43 – IEC 60721-3-2 [13] – Stationary vibration sinusoidal severities .......................... 50

Figure 44 – IEC TR 60721-4-2 [14] – Stationary vibration sinusoidal severities ..................... 51

Figure 45 – IEC 60721-3-2 [13] – Shock severities ............................................................... 51

Figure 46 – IEC TR 60721-4-2 [14] – Shock severities for IEC 60068-2-29 [17] test

procedure ............................................................................................................................. 52

Figure 47 – IEC TR 60721-4-2 [14] – Shock severities for IEC 60068-2-27 [15] test

procedure ............................................................................................................................. 52

Figure 48 – Comparison of four propeller aircraft vibrations [1] with IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ....... 53

Figure 49 – Comparison of Britten-Norman Islander aircraft vibrations [1] with

IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ............................................................................................................... 53

Figure 50 – Comparison of Lockheed C130 aircraft vibrations [3] with IEC 60721-3-2 [13] .... 54

Figure 51 – Comparison of Transall C160 aircraft vibrations [7] with IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ....... 54

Figure 52 – Comparison of Britten-Norman Islander aircraft cruise vibrations [1] with

IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ............................................................................................................... 55

Figure 53 – Comparison of Britten-Norman Islander aircraft take-off/landing vibrations

[1] with IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ................................................................................................... 55

Figure 54 – Comparison of Lockheed C130 aircraft cruise vibrations [3] with

IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ............................................................................................................... 56

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– 4 – IEC TR 62131-6:2017 © IEC 2017

Figure 55 – Comparison of Lockheed C130 aircraft take-off/ landing vibrations [3] with

IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ............................................................................................................... 56

Figure 56 – Comparison of Lockheed C130J variant cruise vibrations with

IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ............................................................................................................... 57

Figure 57 – Comparison of Airbus A400M cruise vibrations with IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ............. 57

Figure 58 – Comparison of Lockheed C130 landing shocks [4] with IEC 60721-3-2 [13] ........ 58

Table 1 – Record durations and error estimates for measured data for Britten-Norman

Islander aircraft flight measurements ...................................................................................... 9

Table 2 – Record durations and error estimates for measured data for Lockheed C130

flight vibration measurements ............................................................................................... 11

Table 3 – Overall rms severities for Britten-Norman Islander [2] ............................................ 31

Table 4 – Overall rms severities for Lockheed C130 – Flight 3 [3] ......................................... 38

Table 5 – Overall rms severities for Lockheed C130 – Flight 4 [3] ......................................... 39

Table 6 – Overall rms severities for Transall C160 [7] ........................................................... 46

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IEC TR 62131-6:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS –
VIBRATION AND SHOCK OF ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT –
Part 6: Transportation by propeller aircraft
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

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with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

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6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. However, a

technical committee may propose the publication of a Technical Report when it has collected

data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard, for

example "state of the art".

IEC TR 62131-6, which is a Technical Report, has been prepared by IEC technical committee

104: Environmental conditions, classification and methods of test.
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– 6 – IEC TR 62131-6:2017 © IEC 2017
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
104/687A/DTR 104/744/RVDTR

Full information on the voting for the approval of this Technical Report can be found in the

report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

A list of all parts in the IEC 62131 series, published under the general title Environmental

conditions – Vibration and shock of electrotechnical equipment, can be found on the IEC

website.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
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IEC TR 62131-6:2017 © IEC 2017 – 7 –
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS –
VIBRATION AND SHOCK OF ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT –
Part 6: Transportation by propeller aircraft
1 Scope

This part of IEC 62131 reviews the available dynamic data relating to the transportation of

electrotechnical equipment. The intent is that from all the available data an environmental

description will be generated and compared to that set out in IEC 60721 (all parts)[11] .

For each of the sources identified the quality of the data is reviewed and checked for self

consistency. The process used to undertake this check of data quality and that used to

intrinsically categorize the various data sources is set out in IEC TR 62131-1[18].

This document primarily addresses data extracted from a number of different sources for

which reasonable confidence exist in its quality and validity. The report also reviews some

data for which the quality and validity cannot realistically be verified. These data are included

to facilitate validation of information from other sources. The document clearly indicates when

utilizing information in this latter category.

This document addresses data from a number of data gathering exercises. The quantity and

quality of data in these exercises varies considerably as does the range of conditions

encompassed.

Not all of the data reviewed were made available in electronic form. To permit comparison to

be made, in this assessment, a quantity of the original (non-electronic) data has been

manually digitized.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
___________
References in square brackets refer to the Bibliography.
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– 8 – IEC TR 62131-6:2017 © IEC 2017
4 Data source and quality
4.1 Vibration survey of four different propeller driven aircraft

Work was undertaken in 1989 to compare the source vibration on four different propeller

driven aircraft (see [1]). This comparison work was undertaken to establish base data for a

guidance chapter on propeller aircraft vibrations.

The four aircraft types encompassed by the vibration survey were: Britten-Norman Islander,

BAe Jet Stream 100, BAe HS 748 and the Lockheed (Hercules) C130 . The data from the first

three aircraft types were specifically collected for this comparison exercise during 1988.

However, the data for the Lockheed C130 originates from several flights undertaken for

another purpose during 1985. This Lockheed C130 data has commonality with other data

referred to in this document. Information on each of the four aircraft is set out below:

– The Britten-Norman Islander is a lightweight twin engine aircraft fitted with reciprocating

engines driving twin-bladed variable pitch propellers. With this arrangement different

power settings can be achieved by varying both engine speed and propeller pitch. The

general arrangement of the aircraft is shown in Figure 1.

– The BAe Jetstream 100 is a light utility transport aircraft fitted with twin, constant speed

turbo-prop engines each driving a three bladed variable pitch propeller. With a fixed shaft

rotational frequency of approximately 30 Hz, the blade passing frequency (shaft speed

times the number of propeller blades) for this aircraft is fixed at approximately 90 Hz. The

general arrangement of the aircraft is shown in Figure 2.

– The BAe HS 748 is a regional transport aircraft driven by twin turbo-prop engines fitted

with four bladed variable pitch propellers. As the engines are variable speed, different

power settings can be achieved by varying both engine speed and propeller pitch. For

cruise conditions the propeller shaft rotational frequency is typically around 22 Hz, giving

a blade passing frequency of around 88 Hz. The general arrangement of the aircraft is

shown in Figure 3. This particular aircraft was fitted in a fire fighting configuration and this

could be expected to give rise to increased vibration due to the presence of the large

water tanks located externally under the fuselage.

– The Lockheed C130 Mk 1 aircraft, encompassed by this exercise, is a large transport

aircraft driven by four fixed speed turbo-prop engines each powering a four bladed

variable pitch propeller. The propeller shaft rotational speed is approximately 17 Hz

producing a blade passing frequency of approximately 68 Hz. The general arrangement of

the aircraft is shown in Figure 4.

The measurements on all four aircrafts used the same flight instrumentation. This comprised

twelve piezo-electric accelerometers and associated charge amplifiers. The vibration

measurements were recorded on a 14 channel FM recorder. The system provided an effective

measurement frequency range of 4 Hz to 2 500 Hz. The accelerometers were arranged in four

tri-axial groups placed in the forward, centre and aft regions of the aircraft. The fourth

transducer group was placed in the plane of the propeller disc. All the transducers were

internally mounted on relatively stiff airframe locations.

Measurements were made for extended periods during the flight; the periods encompassed

take-off, climb, cruise, descent, landing and taxi. The take-off phase included bringing the

engines to full power, immediately before it started the take-off run. The landing phase

included the use of reverse thrust, if that was appropriate. All the take-off and landings

occurred on paved concrete runways of good length. That is no short take-off or landing

conditions were considered.
___________

Britten-Norman Islander, BAe Jet Stream 100, BAe HS 748 and Lockheed (Hercules) C130 are the trade names

of products supplied by Britten-Norman, BAE Systems and Lockheed Martin respectively. This information is

given for the convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by IEC of the

products named.
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IEC TR 62131-6:2017 © IEC 2017 – 9 –

The original analysis was mostly in the form of acceleration power spectral densities (PSDs),

although very few of these are presented in the report. The report does not indicate the record

duration used for the power spectral density analysis, but durations used by the agency, who

made these measurements, are typically better than 30 s. The analysis frequency bandwidth

was typically a little under 3 Hz. Whilst this is adequate to describe the broadband

background vibration induced by propeller aircraft, it is inadequate to quantify, in terms of

power spectral density amplitude, the tones arising from the propeller shaft, the blade passing

frequency and the associated harmonics. The report indicates that peak hold spectra were

used to estimate amplitudes at rotor and blade passing frequencies. However, the usual

approach used by this measurement agency, in such circumstances, was to compute the tonal

component root mean square (rms) by integration of the power spectral density amplitudes for

each tonal component. The method used to quantify the vibration amplitudes at the propeller

shaft, blade passing frequency and their harmonics, is a particular data analysis issue

encountered when addressing propeller aircraft vibration data.

The report compares relative severities of the four aircraft in terms of overall rms for the

different aircraft (Figure 5), flight conditions (Figure 6) and location within the aircraft (Figure

7). All these comparisons are in terms of relative amplitude i.e. they are all scaled such that

the largest amplitude is to unity. The report also presents typical cruise power spectral

densities for each aircraft type (Figure 8 to Figure 11).

Although the information in this document is limited, the quality of the information is

reasonable and meets the required validation criteria for data quality (single data item).

4.2 Britten-Norman Islander aircraft flight measurements

Work was undertaken in 1988 to establish the vibration severities of a Britten-Norman

Islander aircraft. The data from this measurement exercise was used within the comparison of

the previous data set. This document contains analysis of the entire measured data.

The measurement locations are as set out in the review of the previous data set and shown in

Figure 1 viz. tri-axial accelerometers on the floor of the cockpit, on the floor of the fuselage in

the plane of the propeller, on the floor in the centre of the fuselage and on the floor at the aft

fuselage. The flight conditions during which measurements were made comprised: take-off,

climb, left turn, long left turn at cruise speed and at an altitude of 500 ft (152 m), straight and

level at cruise speed at an altitude of 500 ft (152 m), descent and landing approach and

landing.

The data is presented in the form of acceleration power spectral densities (PSDs) for each

accelerometer at each of the seven flight conditions (84 plots in total). The report indicates

the record duration used for each power spectral density analysis and analysis frequency

bandwidth utilized, which are tabulate
...

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