Power systems management and associated information exchange - Part 1: Reference architecture

IEC TR 62357-1:2016(E) provides a clear and comprehensive map of all standards which are contributing to support interactions, in an open and interoperable way, between actors, components and systems in the field of electricity grids from generation to consumers, including transmission and distribution. The document also brings the vision of the path which will be followed by the concerned IEC technical committees and working groups in the coming years, to improve the global efficiency, market relevancy and coverage of this series of standards. This second edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- it provides updates and defines layered Reference Architecture to help direct longer term goals and activities, specifically to ensure compatibility of all new standards developed in the IEC by benefitting from lessons learned during development of the current standards and their application to actual utility projects as well as through application of other internationally recognized architecture standards.
- It reflects the most recent editions of the IEC standards relating to power systems management and associated information exchange, including the IEC 61850 series and the IEC 61968, IEC 61970 and IEC 62325 Common Information Model (CIM) standards.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Nov-2016
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
18-Nov-2016
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IEC TR 62357-1
Edition 2.0 2016-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Power systems management and associated information exchange –
Part 1: Reference architecture
IEC TR 62357-1:2016-11(en)
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IEC TR 62357-1
Edition 2.0 2016-11
TECHNICAL
REPORT
colour
inside
Power systems management and associated information exchange –
Part 1: Reference architecture
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.200 ISBN 978-2-8322-3764-9

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TR 62357-1:2016 © IEC 2016
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ...................................................................... 10

3.1 Terms ................................................................................................................... 10

3.2 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................. 12

4 Drivers and objectives for Reference Architecture ......................................................... 13

5 Overview ....................................................................................................................... 15

5.1 Standardisation context ........................................................................................ 15

5.2 Relevant business domains .................................................................................. 16

5.3 Intended audience ................................................................................................ 19

5.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

5.3.2 Implementing actors ...................................................................................... 19

5.3.3 Standardization actors ................................................................................... 20

5.4 Reference to relevant sources .............................................................................. 20

6 Reference Architecture .................................................................................................. 21

6.1 Underlying methodology........................................................................................ 21

6.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 21

6.1.2 The Smart Grids architectural methodology ................................................... 22

6.1.3 SGAM levels of abstraction ............................................................................ 24

6.1.4 The use case methodology ............................................................................ 25

6.1.5 Data modelling .............................................................................................. 27

6.1.6 Profiling methodology .................................................................................... 28

6.2 Reference Architecture overview ........................................................................... 29

6.3 Elements of Reference Architecture ...................................................................... 30

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 30

6.3.2 Elements as Interface Reference Model abstract components ....................... 31

6.3.3 Elements as some typical Smart Grids Systems ............................................ 33

6.3.4 Elements as 61850 Intelligent Electronic Devices .......................................... 34

6.4 Relationships of Reference Architecture ............................................................... 35

6.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

6.4.2 Communication inside substation ................................................................... 37

6.4.3 Communication between substations ............................................................. 38

6.4.4 Communication to support distributed automation along the feeder................ 39

6.4.5 Communication between substation and control centres and between

control centres ............................................................................................... 39

6.4.6 Communication at the enterprise level ........................................................... 42

6.4.7 Communication to connect DERs (see Figure 26) .......................................... 43

6.4.8 Communication to or within power plants (hydro, gas, thermal, wind)

(see Figure 27) .............................................................................................. 44

6.5 Security standard landscape for Reference Architecture ....................................... 45

6.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 45

6.5.2 Evolving security requirements for power system management ...................... 47

6.5.3 Resilience and security measures for power system operations ..................... 48

6.5.4 Overview and correlations of IEC 62351 security standards ........................... 50

6.6 Relationships applied to telecommunication .......................................................... 52

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IEC TR 62357-1:2016 © IEC 2016 – 3 –

6.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 52

6.6.2 Applicability statement of communication technologies to the Smart

Grids sub-networks ........................................................................................ 54

6.7 Interoperability ...................................................................................................... 56

7 Use of Reference Architecture ....................................................................................... 56

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 56

7.2 Development of Enterprise Architecture ................................................................ 56

7.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 56

7.2.2 Model Driven Architecture .............................................................................. 57

7.2.3 The Open Group Architecture Framework ...................................................... 57

7.3 How to evolve from a Present User Architecture to Reference Architecture ........... 58

7.4 Example: how to map a use case using Reference Architecture ............................ 58

7.5 Development of information exchange specification .............................................. 67

7.6 Integrating security in Reference Architecture ....................................................... 68

7.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 68

7.6.2 Identification of security requirements ............................................................ 69

7.6.3 Mapping of security to power system domains ............................................... 70

7.6.4 Security controls ............................................................................................ 71

8 Main areas of future standardisation work...................................................................... 73

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 73

8.2 Increase standard usage efficiency through digitalisation ...................................... 73

8.3 Harmonise data modelling ..................................................................................... 73

8.4 Other future topics ................................................................................................ 74

9 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 74

Annex A (informative) SGAM Layer description .................................................................... 75

Annex B (informative) Elements examples ........................................................................... 76

B.1 Example of control centre distribution systems ...................................................... 76

B.2 Example of a system, the case of network model management system ................. 76

B.3 Example of a power flow component ..................................................................... 77

Annex C (informative) Relationship examples ...................................................................... 79

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 79

C.2 Data transformation via gateways and adapters .................................................... 79

C.3 Example of a Message Exchange ......................................................................... 80

Annex D (informative) TC 57 standards descriptions and roadmaps ..................................... 84

D.1 TC 57 Working Group 03 ...................................................................................... 84

D.2 TC 57 Working Group 10 ...................................................................................... 85

D.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 85

D.2.2 IEC 61850 standard overview ........................................................................ 85

D.3 TC 57 Working Group 13 ...................................................................................... 87

D.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 87

D.3.2 IEC 61970 standard overview ........................................................................ 87

D.4 TC 57 Working Group 14 ...................................................................................... 89

D.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 89

D.4.2 IEC 61968 standard overview ........................................................................ 89

D.5 TC 57 Working Group 15 ...................................................................................... 91

D.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 91

D.5.2 IEC 62351 standard overview ........................................................................ 91

D.6 TC 57 Working Group 16 .................................................................................... 100

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– 4 – IEC TR 62357-1:2016 © IEC 2016

D.6.1 General ....................................................................................................... 100

D.6.2 IEC 62325 standard overview ...................................................................... 100

D.7 TC 57 Working Group 17 .................................................................................... 105

D.8 TC 57 Working Group 18 .................................................................................... 105

D.9 TC 57 Working Group 19 .................................................................................... 106

D.9.1 General ....................................................................................................... 106

D.9.2 IEC 62357 and IEC 62361 related standard overview .................................. 106

D.10 TC 57 Working Group 20 .................................................................................... 107

D.11 TC 57 Working Group 21 .................................................................................... 108

D.11.1 General ....................................................................................................... 108

D.11.2 IEC 62746 related standard overview .......................................................... 108

D.12 Supplemental standards developed by the IEC and other bodies ........................ 109

Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 110

Figure 1 – Core domain of Reference Architecture ................................................................ 16

Figure 2 – IEC TS 62913 conceptual model .......................................................................... 17

Figure 3 – Two infrastructures (OT/IT) must be designed, operated, and secured ................. 18

Figure 4 – Relevant sources for IEC TR 62357-1:2016 ......................................................... 21

Figure 5 – SGAM plane ......................................................................................................... 22

Figure 6 – SGAM Model ........................................................................................................ 23

Figure 7 – SGAM levels of abstraction .................................................................................. 24

Figure 8 – Interactions between the Business and Function layers ........................................ 27

Figure 9 – Data modelling and harmonization work mapping ................................................. 28

Figure 10 – Information Models, Profiles and Messages ....................................................... 29

Figure 11 – Reference Architecture ....................................................................................... 30

Figure 12 – Power systems information related standards..................................................... 31

Figure 13 – Distribution IRM Model ....................................................................................... 32

Figure 14 – Flexibility for assignment of element “Volt/Var Control” to SGAM segments

(M490 C-Reference Architecture) .......................................................................................... 33

Figure 15 – SGCG/M490 Smart Grids systems on SGAM Plane ............................................ 34

Figure 16 – IEC 61850 Data Modelling .................................................................................. 35

Figure 17 – Functions of a substation automation system allocated logically on three

different levels (station, bay/unit, or process) ........................................................................ 36

Figure 18 – IEC 61850 related standards .............................................................................. 37

Figure 19 – Communication inside substation ....................................................................... 38

Figure 20 – Communication between substations .................................................................. 38

Figure 21 – IEC 61850 Telecontrol and control equipment and systems related

standards .............................................................................................................................. 40

Figure 22 – Communication between substation and control centres ..................................... 41

Figure 23 – Communication between control centre .............................................................. 41

Figure 24 – CIM Communication layer standards .................................................................. 42

Figure 25 – Communication from control centre / trading system to a market place ............... 43

Figure 26 – Communication to connect DER ......................................................................... 44

Figure 27 – Communication to/or within power plants ........................................................... 44

Figure 28 – Generic security architecture .............................................................................. 45

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IEC TR 62357-1:2016 © IEC 2016 – 5 –
Figure 29 – Architecture of key power system management security standards and

guidelines ............................................................................................................................. 46

Figure 30 – Typical cyber security requirements, threats, and possible attack

techniques ............................................................................................................................ 48

Figure 31 – Interrelationships between IEC communication standards and IEC 62351

security standards................................................................................................................. 51

Figure 32 – Mapping of communication networks on SGAM .................................................. 54

Figure 33 – Use of Reference Architecture in TOGAF ........................................................... 58

Figure 34 – CIM circuit breaker application view ................................................................... 59

Figure 35 – Real world devices ............................................................................................. 61

Figure 36 – Operate a circuit breaker with IEC 61850 ........................................................... 62

Figure 37 – SCL for LNs ....................................................................................................... 63

Figure 38 – SCL POS attribute .............................................................................................. 64

Figure 39 – ACSI service example ........................................................................................ 65

Figure 40 – Mapping of an ACSI service ............................................................................... 66

Figure 41 – Hierarchical model for a circuit breaker .............................................................. 66

Figure 42 – SGAM analysis for the function “Monitoring inside the distribution grid” .............. 67

Figure 43 – IEC mapping tool ................................................................................................ 68

Figure 44 – Security assessment types supporting Security Architecture design ................... 69

Figure 45 – Security requirements and tasks per SGAM Layer depending on the

abstraction layer ................................................................................................................... 71

Figure 46 – Security Controls ................................................................................................ 72

Figure 47 – Addressing security requirements with security means of different strength ........ 72

Figure 48 – RA through time ................................................................................................. 73

Figure A.1 – SGAM layer description .................................................................................... 75

Figure B.1 – Example of control centre distribution system and relationships with other

typical distribution systems ................................................................................................... 76

Figure B.2 – Network Model Management and other involved systems .................................. 77

Figure B.3 – Parts of a CIM network case ............................................................................. 78

Figure C.1 – SCADA data interfaces ..................................................................................... 80

Figure C.2 – IEC 61968 associated communication technologies .......................................... 81

Figure C.3 – XMPP architecture concept ............................................................................... 82

Figure C.4 – Use of XMPP example ...................................................................................... 83

Figure D.1 – IEC 61850 standard series ............................................................................... 85

Figure D.2 – IEC 61970 standard series ............................................................................... 88

Figure D.3 – IEC 61968 standard series ............................................................................... 90

Figure D.4 – NSM object models ........................................................................................... 94

Figure D.5 – RBAC concepts in IEC TS 62351-8 ................................................................... 95

Figure D.6 – Architecture of IEC information exchange standards ......................................... 96

Figure D.7 – Hierarchical architecture of DER system operations .......................................... 98

Figure D.8 – IEC 62325 standard series ............................................................................. 101

Figure D.9 – MADES overview ............................................................................................ 102

Figure D.10 – MADES scope .............................................................................................. 102

Figure D.11 – Interface Reference Model or the North American Style ISO/RTO market

operations ........................................................................................................................... 104

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– 6 – IEC TR 62357-1:2016 © IEC 2016

Figure D.12 – IEC 62361, IEC 62357 standard series ......................................................... 107

Figure D.13 – IEC 62746 standard series ............................................................................ 109

Table 1 – Business and System Use Case ............................................................................ 26

Table 2 – Standards Guidelines ............................................................................................ 47

Table 3 – Overview of IEC 62351 standards ......................................................................... 50

Table 4 – Technologies covered by SDOs in function of SGAM Communications Sub-

Networks .............................................................................................................................. 55

Table 5 – Message types ...................................................................................................... 60

Table 6 – Information assets and their relation to system security ......................................... 70

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IEC TR 62357-1:2016 © IEC 2016 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
POWER SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND
ASSOCIATED INFORMATION EXCHANGE –
Part 1: Reference architecture
FOREWORD

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