IEC TR 61400-12-4:2020 summarizes the current state of the art in numerical flow modelling, existing guidelines and past benchmarking experience in numerical model validation and verification. Based on the work undertaken, the document identifies the important technical aspects for using flow simulation over terrain for wind application as well as the existing open issues including recommendations for further validation through benchmarking tests.

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IEC 61400-27-1:2020 defines standard electrical simulation models for wind turbines and wind power plants. The specified models are time domain positive sequence simulation models, intended to be used in power system and grid stability analyses. The models are applicable for dynamic simulations of short term stability in power systems. This document defines the generic terms and parameters for the electrical simulation models.
This document specifies electrical simulation models for the generic wind power plant topologies / configurations currently on the market. The wind power plant models include wind turbines, wind power plant control and auxiliary equipment. The wind power plant models are described in a modular way which can be applied for future wind power plant concepts and with different wind turbine concepts.

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IEC 61400-27-2:2020 specifies procedures for validation of electrical simulation models for wind turbines and wind power plants, intended to be used in power system and grid stability analyses. The validation procedures are based on the tests specified in IEC 61400-21 (all parts). The validation procedures are applicable to the generic models specified in
IEC 61400-27-1 and to other fundamental frequency wind power plant models and wind turbine models.
The validation procedures for wind turbine models focus on fault ride through capability and control performance. The fault ride through capability includes response to balanced and unbalanced voltage dips as well as voltage swells. The control performance includes active power control, frequency control, synthetic inertia control and reactive power control. The validation procedures for wind turbine models refer to the tests specified in IEC 61400-21-1. The validation procedures for wind turbine models refer to the wind turbine terminals.

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IEC 61400-5:2020 specifies requirements to ensure the engineering integrity of wind turbine blades as well as an appropriate level of operational safety throughout the design lifetime. It includes requirements for:
aerodynamic and structural design,
material selection, evaluation and testing,
manufacture (including associated quality management),
transportation, installation, operation and maintenance of the blades.  The purpose of this document is to provide a technical reference for designers, manufacturers, purchasers, operators, third party organizations and material suppliers, as well as to define requirements for certification.

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IEC 61400-6:2020 specifies requirements and general principles to be used in assessing the structural integrity of onshore wind turbine support structures (including foundations). The scope includes the geotechnical assessment of the soil for generic or site specific purposes. The strength of any flange and connection system connected to the rotor nacelle assembly (including connection to the yaw bearing) are designed and documented according to this document or according to IEC 61400-1. The scope includes all life cycle issues that may affect the structural integrity such as assembly and maintenance.
The contents of the corrigendum of November 2020 have been included in this copy.

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    252 pages
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IEC TR 61400-21-3:2019 provides guidance on principles which can be used as the basis for determining the application, structure and recommendations for the WT harmonic model. For the purpose of this Technical Report, a harmonic model means a model that represents harmonic emissions of different WT types interacting with the connected network.
This document is focused on providing technical guidance concerning the WT harmonic model. It describes the harmonic model in detail, covering such aspects as application, structure, as well as validation. By introducing a common understanding of the WT representation from a harmonic performance perspective, this document aims to bring the overall concept of the harmonic model closer to the industry (e.g. suppliers, developers, system operators, academia, etc.).
A standardized approach of WT harmonic model representation is presented in this document. The harmonic model will find a broad application in many areas of electrical engineering related to design, analysis, and optimisation of electrical infrastructure of onshore as well as offshore WPPs.

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IEC TS 61400-25-71:2019 focus on the communications between wind power plant components such as wind turbines and actors such as SCADA systems. Non­-IEC 61850/IEC 61400-25 internal communication within wind power plant components is outside the normative scope of the IEC 61400-25 series.
This document describes how to extend the IEC 61400-25 series with the IEC 61850­6 Substation Configuration description Language (SCL) file format for describing communication­-related Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) configurations of a wind turbine, wind power plant controller, meteorological mast, etc. The extension of SCL to the wind domain is intended to simplify integration of wind power plant equipment for clients, as well as their integration to the electrical system. The adoption of SCL allows formalised tool-based exchange of IED parameters, communication system configurations, switch yard (function) structures, as well as description of the relations between them.
The purpose of this format is to formally and efficiently exchange wind turbine and wind power plant IED capability descriptions, and system descriptions between IED engineering tools and the system engineering tool(s) of different manufacturers in a compatible way. The file format is also intended to provide report configuration and alarms as well as HMI interface information from a wind power plant. This information can be used to engineer overlying SCADA systems for the site, for connected DSO, or TSO, or for fleet operators' maintenance and surveillance systems. Finally, the SCL is intended as a documentation of the configuration and topology of the delivered system.

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IEC 61400-24:2019 applies to lightning protection of wind turbine generators and wind power systems. Refer to guidelines for small wind turbines in annex.
This document defines the lightning environment for wind turbines and risk assessment for wind turbines in that environment. It defines requirements for protection of blades, other structural components and electrical and control systems against both direct and indirect effects of lightning. Test methods to validate compliance are included.
Guidance on the use of applicable lightning protection, industrial electrical and EMC standards including earthing is provided.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 2010. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) it is restructured with a main normative part, while informative information is placed in annexes.

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  • Standard
    405 pages
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IEC 61400-26-1:2019 defines an information model from which time-based, and production-based availability indicators for services can be derived and reported.
The purpose is to provide standardised metrics that can be used to create and organise methods for availability calculation and reporting according to the user’s needs.
The document provides information categories, which unambiguously describe how data is used to characterise and categorise the operation. The information model specifies category priority for discrimination between possible concurrent categories. Further, the model defines entry and exit criteria to allocate fractions of time and production values to the proper information category. A full overview of all information categories, exit and entry criteria is given in Annex.
The document can be applied to any number of WTGSs, whether represented by an individual turbine, a fleet of wind turbines, a wind power station or a portfolio of wind power stations. A wind power station is typically made up of all WTGSs, functional services and balance of plant elements as seen from the point of common coupling.
This first edition cancels and replaces IEC TS 61400-26-1:2011, IEC TS 61400-26-2:2014 and IEC TS 61400-26-3:2016.

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    213 pages
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IEC 61400-21-1:2019 includes:
· definition and specification of the quantities to be determined for characterizing the electrical characteristics of a grid-connected wind turbine;
· measurement procedures for quantifying the electrical characteristics;
· procedures for assessing compliance with electrical connection requirements, including estimation of the power quality expected from the wind turbine type when deployed at a specific site.
The measurement procedures are valid for single wind turbines with a three-phase grid connection. The measurement procedures are valid for any size of wind turbine, though this part of IEC 61400 only requires wind turbine types intended for connection to an electricity supply network to be tested and characterized as specified in this part of IEC 61400.
This first edition cancels and replaces the second edition of 61400-21 published in 2008. This edition includes the following new items with respect to 61400-21:
a) frequency control measurement;
b) updated reactive power control and capability measurement, including voltage and cos φ control;
c) inertia control response measurement;
d) overvoltage ride through test procedure;
e) updated undervoltage ride through test procedure based on Wind Turbine capability;
f) new methods for the harmonic assessment.

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IEC TS 61400-3-2:2019 specifies additional requirements for assessment of the external conditions at a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) site and specifies essential design requirements to ensure the engineering integrity of FOWTs. Its purpose is to provide an appropriate level of protection against damage from all hazards during the planned lifetime.
This document focuses on the engineering integrity of the structural components of a FOWT but is also concerned with subsystems such as control and protection mechanisms, internal electrical systems and mechanical systems.
A wind turbine is considered as a FOWT if the floating substructure is subject to hydrodynamic loading and supported by buoyancy and a station-keeping system. A FOWT encompasses five principal subsystems: the RNA, the tower, the floating substructure, the station-keeping system and the on-board machinery, equipment and systems that are not part of the RNA.
The following types of floating substructures are explicitly considered within the context of this document:
a) ship-shaped structures and barges,
b) semi-submersibles (Semi),
c) spar buoys (Spar),
d) tension-leg platforms/buoys (TLP / TLB).
In addition to the structural types listed above, this document generally covers other floating platforms intended to support wind turbines. These other structures can have a great range of variability in geometry and structural forms and, therefore, can be only partly covered by the requirements of this document. In other cases, specific requirements stated in this document can be found not to apply to all or part of a structure under design. In all the above cases, conformity with this document will require that the design is based upon its underpinning principles and achieves a level of safety equivalent, or superior, to the level implicit in it.
This document is applicable to unmanned floating structures with one single horizontal axis turbine. Additional considerations might be needed for multi-turbine units on a single floating substructure, vertical-axis wind turbines, or combined wind/wave energy systems.
This document is to be used together with the appropriate IEC and ISO standards mentioned in Clause 2. In particular, this document is intended to be fully consistent with the requirements of IEC 61400-1 and IEC 61400-3-1. The safety level of the FOWT designed according to this document is to be at or exceed the level inherent in IEC 61400‑1 and IEC 61400-3-1.

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IEC 61400-3-1:2019 outlines the minimum design requirements for fixed offshore wind turbines and is not intended for use as a complete design specification or instruction manual.
Several different parties may be responsible for undertaking the various elements of the design, manufacture, assembly, installation, erection, commissioning, operation and maintenance of an offshore wind turbine and for ensuring that the requirements of this document are met. The division of responsibility between these parties is a contractual matter and is outside the scope of this document.
This edition cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61400-3 published in 2009. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the first edition of IEC 61400-3:
a) The design load table has been revised to simplify the approach to waves, both for several gust cases with the Normal Sea State, and for a number of cases with the Extreme Sea State. The guidance for load calculations has been altered accordingly;
c) For load safety factors reference is now made directly to IEC 61400-1;
d) Control system has been aligned with the latest updates in IEC 61400-1;
e) Wave spectra has been replaced by a reference to ISO 19901-1;
f) The annex on ice loading has been revised and updated
g) Two informative annexes concerning tropical cyclones have been introduced
h) Other parts of the text have been aligned with IEC 61400-1

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IEC 61400-1:2019 is available as IEC 61400-1:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61400-1:2019 specifies essential design requirements to ensure the structural integrity of wind turbines. Its purpose is to provide an appropriate level of protection against damage from all hazards during the planned lifetime. This document is concerned with all subsystems of wind turbines such as control and protection functions, internal electrical systems, mechanical systems and support structures. This document applies to wind turbines of all sizes. For small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 can be applied. IEC 61400-3-1 provides additional requirements to offshore wind turbine installations. This document is intended to be used together with the appropriate IEC and ISO standards mentioned in Clause 2. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
a) general update and clarification of references and requirements;
b) extension of wind turbine classes to allow for tropical cyclones and high turbulence;
c) Weibull distribution of turbulence standard deviation for normal turbulence model (NTM);
d) updated design load cases (DLCs), in particular DLC 2.1 and 2.2;
e) revision of partial safety factor specifications
The contents of the corrigendum of September 2019 have been included in this copy.

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  • Standard
    347 pages
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The contents of the corrigendum of October 2019 have been included in this copy.

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IEC 61400-25-5:2017 specifies standard techniques for testing of compliance of implementations, as well as specific measurement techniques to be applied when declaring performance parameters. The use of these techniques will enhance the ability of users to purchase systems that integrate easily, operate correctly, and support the applications as intended. This part of IEC 61400-25 defines: the methods and abstract test cases for compliance testing of server and client devices used in wind power plants; the metrics to be measured in said devices according to the communication requirements specified in IEC 61400-25 (all parts). This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- harmonization with structure and test cases in IEC 61850-10:2012;
- reduction of overlap between standards and simplification by increased referencing to the IEC 61850 standard series.

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  • Standard
    117 pages
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IEC 61400-25-1:2017 is also available as IEC 61400-25-1:2017 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61400-25-1:2017 gives an overall description of the principles and models used in the IEC 61400­25 series, which is designed for a communication environment supported by a client-server model. Three areas are defined, that are modelled separately to ensure the scalability of implementations: wind power plant information models, information exchange model, and mapping of these two models to a standard communication profile. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: general harmonization of text and overview models with the other parts of the IEC 61400­25 series, harmonization of definitions in other related standards.

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IEC 61400-12-1:2017 is also available as IEC 61400-12-1:2017 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61400-12-1:2017 specifies a procedure for measuring the power performance characteristics of a single wind turbine and applies to the testing of wind turbines of all types and sizes connected to the electrical power network. In addition, this standard describes a procedure to be used to determine the power performance characteristics of small wind turbines (as defined in IEC 61400-2) when connected to either the electric power network or a battery bank. The procedure can be used for performance evaluation of specific wind turbines at specific locations, but equally the methodology can be used to make generic comparisons between different wind turbine models or different wind turbine settings when site-specific conditions and data filtering influences are taken into account. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: new definition of wind speed, inclusion of wind shear and wind veer, revision of air density correction, revision of site calibration, revision to definition of power curve, interpolation to bin centre method, revision of obstacle model, etc.
Key words: Wind turbines, Wind energy, renewable energy, performance, efficiency
The contents of the corrigendum 1 of September 2019, corrigendum 2 of March 2020 and corrigendum 3 of May 2021 have been included in this copy.

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IEC 61400-25-6:2016 specifies the information models related to condition monitoring for wind power plants and the information exchange of data values related to these models. This standard is to be used with other standards of the IEC 61400-25 series. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition:
- major restructuring of the data model to accommodate flexibility; removal of UFF58 format;
- access to data using the standard reporting and logging functions;
- recommendations for creating data names to accommodate flexibility

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IEC 61400-13:2015(B) describes the measurement of fundamental structural loads on wind turbines for the purpose of the load simulation model validation. The standard prescribes the requirements and recommendations for site selection, signal selection, data acquisition, calibration, data verification, measurement load cases, capture matrix, post-processing, uncertainty determination and reporting. Informative annexes are also provided to improve understanding of testing methods. This standard replaces IEC TS 61400-13 published in 2001; it constitutes a technical revision and transition from technical specification to International Standard.

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    219 pages
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IEC 61400-25-2:2015 specifies the information model of devices and functions related to wind power plant applications. In particular, it specifies the compatible logical node names, and data names for communication between wind power plant components. This includes the relationship between logical devices, logical nodes and data. The names defined in the IEC 61400-25 series are used to build the hierarchical object references applied for communicating with components in wind power plants. Main changes with respect to the previous edition consist of:
- harmonization with newer editions of IEC 61850 standards;
- reduction of overlap between standards and simplification by increased referencing,
- extension of data objects for operation of smart grids,
- extended and enhanced semantics for existing data objects, etc.

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IEC 61400-25-3:2015 is available as IEC 61400-25-3:2015 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.
IEC 61400-25-3:2015 specifies an abstract communication service interface describing the information exchange between a client and a server for:
- data access and retrieval,
- device control,
- event reporting and logging,
- self-description of devices (device data dictionary),
- data typing and discovery of data types.
Main changes with respect to the previous edition consist of:
- harmonization with newer editions of IEC 61850 standards;
- reduction of overlap between standards and simplification by increased referencing, etc.

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IEC 61400-27-1:2015 specifies dynamic simulation models for generic wind turbine topologies/concepts/configurations on the market. It defines the generic terms and parameters with the purpose of specifying the electrical characteristics of a wind turbine at the connection terminals. The models are described in a modular way which can be applied for future wind turbine concepts. The dynamic simulation models refer to the wind turbine terminals. The validation procedure specified in IEC 61400-27-1 focuses on the IEC 61400-21 tests for response to voltage dips, reference point changes and grid protection.

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IEC 61400-23:2014 defines the requirements for full-scale structural testing of wind turbine blades and for the interpretation and evaluation of achieved test results. The standard focuses on aspects of testing related to an evaluation of the integrity of the blade, for use by manufacturers and third party investigators. The following tests are considered in this standard:
- static load tests;
- fatigue tests;
- static load tests after fatigue tests;
- tests determining other blade properties. The purpose of the tests is to confirm to an acceptable level of probability that the whole population of a blade type fulfils the design assumptions.

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IEC 61400-2:2013 deals with safety philosophy, quality assurance, and engineering integrity and specifies requirements for the safety of small wind turbines (SWTs) including design, installation, maintenance and operation under specified external conditions. It provides the appropriate level of protection against damage from hazards from these systems during their planned lifetime. This standard is concerned with all subsystems of SWTs such as protection mechanisms, internal electrical systems, mechanical systems, support structures, foundations and the electrical interconnection with the load. While this standard is similar to IEC 61400-1, it does simplify and make significant changes in order to be applicable to small wind turbines. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows:
- the title has been modified to better reflect the scope;
- restructured into a part Design evaluation and a part Type testing to harmonise use with IEC 61400-22 conformity testing and certification;
- caution provided regarding the use of simplified equations;
- added various annexes (wind conditions, tropical storms, extreme environmental conditions, EMC testing, dynamic behavior, etc.).
The contents of the corrigendum of October 2019 have been included in this copy.

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IEC 61400-12-2:2013 specifies a procedure for verifying the power performance characteristics of a single electricity-producing, horizontal axis wind turbine, which is not considered to be a small wind turbine per IEC 61400-2. This standard is intended to be used when the specific operational or contractual specifications may not comply with the requirements set forth in IEC 61400-12-1:2005. The procedure can be used for power performance evaluation of specific turbines at specific locations, but equally the methodology can be used to make generic comparisons between different turbine models or different turbine settings. The contents of the corrigendum of Septembre 2016 have been included in this copy.

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IEC 61400-4:2012 is applicable to enclosed speed increasing gearboxes for horizontal axis wind turbine drivetrains with a power rating in excess of 500 kW. This standard applies to wind turbines installed onshore or offshore. It provides guidance on the analysis of the wind turbine loads in relation to the design of the gear and gearbox elements. The gearing elements covered by this standard include such gears as spur, helical or double helical and their combinations in parallel and epicyclic arrangements in the main power path. The standard is based on gearbox designs using rolling element bearings. Also included is guidance on the engineering of shafts, shaft hub interfaces, bearings and the gear case structure in the development of a fully integrated design that meets the rigours of the operating conditions. Lubrication of the transmission is covered along with prototype and production testing. Finally, guidance is provided on the operation and maintenance of the gearbox.

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    328 pages
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IEC 61400-11:2012 presents measurement procedures that enable noise emissions of a wind turbine to be characterised. This involves using measurement methods appropriate to noise emission assessment at locations close to the machine, in order to avoid errors due to sound propagation, but far away enough to allow for the finite source size. The procedures described are different in some respects from those that would be adopted for noise assessment in community noise studies. They are intended to facilitate characterisation of wind turbine noise with respect to a range of wind speeds and directions. Standardisation of measurement procedures will also facilitate comparisons between different wind turbines. This new edition constitutes a technical revision, introducing new principles for data reduction procedures.

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    125 pages
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Gives guidelines for declaring the apparent sound power level and tonality of a batch of wind turbines. Is to be used in conjunction with IEC 61400-11 which gives measurement procedures for apparent sound power level and tonality.
This publication is of high relevance for Smart Grid.

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    11 pages
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