Audio, video multimedia systems and equipment - Multimedia e-publishing and e-book technologies - Raster-graphics image-based e-books

IEC 63029:2017 specifies the scanning scheme to develop raster-graphics image-based e-books from existing printed books.
The contents of the corrigendum of January 2018 have been included in this copy.

Systèmes et équipements multimédias audio et vidéo - Technologies de l'édition électronique multimédia et des livres électroniques - Livres électroniques à images matricielles

L'IEC 63029:2017 spécifie un schéma de numérisation pour élaborer des livres électroniques à images matricielles à partir de livres imprimés existants.
Le contenu du corrigendum en français d'avril 2022 a été pris en considération dans cet exemplaire.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Jul-2017
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Start Date
12-Jul-2017
Completion Date
12-Jul-2017
Ref Project

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IEC 63029
Edition 1.0 2017-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Audio, video multimedia systems and equipment – Multimedia e-publishing and
e-book technologies – Raster-graphics image-based e-books
IEC 63029:2017-07(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2017 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

your local IEC member National Committee for further information.
IEC Central Office Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé Fax: +41 22 919 03 00
CH-1211 Geneva 20 info@iec.ch
Switzerland www.iec.ch
About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

latest edition, a corrigenda or an amendment might have been published.
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Centre: csc@iec.ch.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63029
Edition 1.0 2017-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Audio, video multimedia systems and equipment – Multimedia e-publishing and
e-book technologies – Raster-graphics image-based e-books
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 33.160.99; 35.140; 35.240.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-4490-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Raster-graphic image-based e-book ................................................................................ 7

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Target sourcebook .................................................................................................. 8

5 Scanning scheme ............................................................................................................ 8

5.1 Cutting the sourcebook ........................................................................................... 8

5.2 Scanning sourcebook .............................................................................................. 8

5.3 Setup/adjustment of image quality related parameters ............................................ 9

5.3.1 Elimination of unintended density variation ...................................................... 9

5.3.2 Resolution ....................................................................................................... 9

5.3.3 Highlight washout point .................................................................................... 9

5.3.4 Tone curve adjustment / Black point setup ....................................................... 9

5.4 Post-processing / encoding ................................................................................... 10

5.4.1 Post-processing ............................................................................................. 10

5.4.2 Encoding ....................................................................................................... 10

Annex A (informative) Defect examples ............................................................................... 11

A.1 Image loss ............................................................................................................ 11

A.2 Image tilt ............................................................................................................... 12

A.3 Show-through ....................................................................................................... 13

A.4 Line image discontinuity ........................................................................................ 13

A.5 Moiré .................................................................................................................... 14

A.6 Highlight washout ................................................................................................. 15

A.7 Highlight washout and unwanted shadow clipping ................................................. 16

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 18

Figure 1 – Workflow for generating e-book from sourcebook ................................................... 8

Figure 2 – Tone curve adjustment / Black point setup ........................................................... 10

Figure A.1 – An example of the double-page spread without image loss ............................... 11

Figure A.2 – An example of the double-page spread with image loss .................................... 12

Figure A.3 – An example of the text image without image tilt................................................. 12

Figure A.4 – An example of the text image with image tilt ..................................................... 12

Figure A.5 – An example of the text image without show through .......................................... 13

Figure A.6 – An example of the text image with show through ............................................... 13

Figure A.7 – An example of the text image without line image discontinuity .......................... 14

Figure A.8 – An example of the text image with line image discontinuity ............................... 14

Figure A.9 – An example of the photographic image without moiré ........................................ 14

Figure A.10 – An example of the photographic image with moiré .......................................... 15

Figure A.11 – An example of the business graphics image without highlight washout ............ 15

Figure A.12 – An example of the business graphics image with highlight washout ................ 16

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017 – 3 –
Figure A.13 – An example of the photographic image without highlight washout and

unwanted shadow clipping .................................................................................................... 16

Figure A.14 – An example of the photographic image with highlight washout ........................ 17

Figure A.15 – An example of the photographic image with unwanted shadow clipping .......... 17

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
AUDIO, VIDEO MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT –
MULTIMEDIA E-PUBLISHING AND E-BOOK TECHNOLOGIES –
RASTER-GRAPHICS IMAGE-BASED E-BOOKS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63029 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 100: Audio,

video and multimedia systems and equipment.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
100/2817/CDV 100/2918/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63029:2017 © IEC 2017 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
The contents of the corrigendum of January 2018 have been included in this copy.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

Scanning of existing printed books is presently carried out widely to store their content in an

electronic format: raster-graphics image-based e-books. The scanning includes number of

parameters and sometimes results in poor-quality scanned data due to inappropriate

parameter settings.

The scanning devices with storage memory and automatic document feeders enable swift

production of raster-graphics image-based e-books with a brief procedure that does not

require advanced skills and knowledge.

Scanning schemes can have many attributes which affect to the quality of raster-graphics

image-based e-books, such as environmental conditions, sheet cutting/scanning operation,

resolution, highlight washout point, tone curve adjustment/black point setup, post-processing

and encoding. For example, inadequate selection of the scanning resolution can cause moiré

in ha
...

IEC 63029
Edition 1.0 2017-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Audio, video multimedia systems and equipment – Multimedia e-publishing and
e-book technologies – Raster-graphics image-based e-books
Systèmes et équipements multimédias audio et vidéo – Technologies de
l'édition électronique multimédia et des livres électroniques – Livres
électroniques à images matricielles
IEC 63029:2017-07(en-fr)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
Copyright © 2017 IEC, Geneva, Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

either IEC or IEC's member National Committee in the country of the requester. If you have any questions about IEC

copyright or have an enquiry about obtaining additional rights to this publication, please contact the address below or

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IEC Secretariat Tel.: +41 22 919 02 11
3, rue de Varembé info@iec.ch
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About the IEC

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading global organization that prepares and publishes

International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.
About IEC publications

The technical content of IEC publications is kept under constant review by the IEC. Please make sure that you have the

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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC 63029
Edition 1.0 2017-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Audio, video multimedia systems and equipment – Multimedia e-publishing and
e-book technologies – Raster-graphics image-based e-books
Systèmes et équipements multimédias audio et vidéo – Technologies de
l'édition électronique multimédia et des livres électroniques – Livres
électroniques à images matricielles
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 33.160.99; 35.140; 35.240.30 ISBN 978-2-8322-1087-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 4

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 7

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Raster-graphic image-based e-book ................................................................................ 7

4.1 General ................................................................................................................... 7

4.2 Target sourcebook .................................................................................................. 8

5 Scanning scheme ............................................................................................................ 8

5.1 Cutting the sourcebook ........................................................................................... 8

5.2 Scanning sourcebook .............................................................................................. 8

5.3 Setup/adjustment of image quality related parameters ............................................ 9

5.3.1 Elimination of unintended density variation ...................................................... 9

5.3.2 Resolution ....................................................................................................... 9

5.3.3 Highlight washout point .................................................................................... 9

5.3.4 Tone curve adjustment / Black point setup ....................................................... 9

5.4 Post-processing / encoding ................................................................................... 10

5.4.1 Post-processing ............................................................................................. 10

5.4.2 Encoding ....................................................................................................... 10

Annex A (informative) Defect examples ............................................................................... 11

A.1 Image loss ............................................................................................................ 11

A.2 Image tilt ............................................................................................................... 12

A.3 Show-through ....................................................................................................... 13

A.4 Line image discontinuity ........................................................................................ 13

A.5 Moiré .................................................................................................................... 14

A.6 Highlight washout ................................................................................................. 15

A.7 Highlight washout and unwanted shadow clipping ................................................. 16

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 18

Figure 1 – Workflow for generating e-book from sourcebook ................................................... 8

Figure 2 – Tone curve adjustment / Black point setup ........................................................... 10

Figure A.1 – An example of the double-page spread without image loss ............................... 11

Figure A.2 – An example of the double-page spread with image loss .................................... 12

Figure A.3 – An example of the text image without image tilt................................................. 12

Figure A.4 – An example of the text image with image tilt ..................................................... 12

Figure A.5 – An example of the text image without show through .......................................... 13

Figure A.6 – An example of the text image with show through ............................................... 13

Figure A.7 – An example of the text image without line image discontinuity .......................... 14

Figure A.8 – An example of the text image with line image discontinuity ............................... 14

Figure A.9 – An example of the photographic image without moiré ........................................ 14

Figure A.10 – An example of the photographic image with moiré .......................................... 15

Figure A.11 – An example of the business graphics image without highlight washout ............ 15

Figure A.12 – An example of the business graphics image with highlight washout ................ 16

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017 – 3 –
Figure A.13 – An example of the photographic image without highlight washout and

unwanted shadow clipping .................................................................................................... 16

Figure A.14 – An example of the photographic image with highlight washout ........................ 17

Figure A.15 – An example of the photographic image with unwanted shadow clipping .......... 17

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
AUDIO, VIDEO MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT –
MULTIMEDIA E-PUBLISHING AND E-BOOK TECHNOLOGIES –
RASTER-GRAPHICS IMAGE-BASED E-BOOKS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63029 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 100: Audio,

video and multimedia systems and equipment.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
CDV Report on voting
100/2817/CDV 100/2918/RVC

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017 – 5 –

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
The contents of the corrigendum of January 2018 have been included in this copy.

IMPORTANT – The 'colour inside' logo on the cover page of this publication indicates

that it contains colours which are considered to be useful for the correct

understanding of its contents. Users should therefore print this document using a

colour printer.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017
INTRODUCTION

Scanning of existing printed books is presently carried out widely to store their content in an

electronic format: raster-graphics image-based e-books. The scanning includes number of

parameters and sometimes results in poor-quality scanned data due to inappropriate

parameter settings.

The scanning devices with storage memory and automatic document feeders enable swift

production of raster-graphics image-based e-books with a brief procedure that does not

require advanced skills and knowledge.

Scanning schemes can have many attributes which affect the quality of raster-graphics

image-based e-books, such as environmental conditions, sheet cutting/scanning operation,

resolution, highlight washout point, tone curve adjustment/black point setup, post-processing

and encoding. For example, inadequate selection of the scanning resolution can cause moiré

in halftone images and discontinuation of lines in text images. The purpose of this document

is to specify a scanning scheme for developing raster-graphics image-based e-books. When

conforming to this document, a reasonable quality of raster-graphics image-based e-books is

to be expected.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017 – 7 –
AUDIO, VIDEO MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT –
MULTIMEDIA E-PUBLISHING AND E-BOOK TECHNOLOGIES –
RASTER-GRAPHICS IMAGE-BASED E-BOOKS
1 Scope

This document specifies the scanning scheme to develop raster-graphics image-based e-

books from existing printed books.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 61966-2-1, Multimedia systems and equipment – Colour measurement and management

– Part 2-1: Colour management – Default RGB colour space – sRGB

ISO 12639, Graphic technology – Prepress digital data exchange – Tag image file format for

image technology (TIFF/IT)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
bitmap image of sourcebook

two-dimensional raster data of each page of a sourcebook that can be aligned in exactly same

page order as the sourcebook
3.2
raster-graphics image-based e-book
category of an e-book which consists of the bitmap image of sourcebook
3.3
sourcebook
printed book to be scanned
4 Raster-graphic image-based e-book
4.1 General

The creation sequence for raster-graphics image-based e-books is shown in Figure 1.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017
Preparation of sourcebook
Cutting sourcebook
Scanning sourcebook
Retouch
software
Setup / adjust scanning parameters
(Resolution, tone curve etc.)
Post-processing / encoding
Authoring e-book
IEC
Figure 1 – Workflow for generating e-book from sourcebook

There are six steps to generating an e-book from the sourcebook, such as the preparation of

the sourcebook, cutting the sourcebook, scanning the sourcebook, setup/adjustment of image

quality related parameters, post-processing/encoding, authoring e-book. The first step is to

clean up and to repair the sourcebook so that it becomes as close as possible to its original

condition. A flatbed scanner is normally used for the third step, sourcebook scanning

operation, so the second step is to cut the sourcebook to make the scanning operation easier.

The fourth step is to setup/adjust scanning parameters such as resolution and tone curve. The

fifth step is to adjust and to encode the scanned data for output media. The sixth step is

authoring the e-book. This document specifies the second to fifth steps, which form the

scanning scheme. Raster-graphics image-based e-books can be categorized as one of the

fixed layout e-books.
4.2 Target sourcebook

The sourcebooks to which this document applies are mangas, paperbacks, hard covers,

textbooks, magazines, music scores and newspapers.
5 Scanning scheme
5.1 Cutting the sourcebook

To avoid image loss, sheet cutting should be carried out exactly on the perimeter of the

binding and the margin. If this is not possible, the cutting line shall be less than or equal to

2 mm from the perimeter of the binding and the margin. The cutting line should be parallel to

the edge. To avoid variation of image area position between pages, the margin between

pages should be less than or equal to 1 mm.
NOTE See Clause A.1 for a description of image loss.
5.2 Scanning sourcebook

Scanning shall be done in at least 8 bits per pixel, 256 grey levels unless otherwise instructed.

The sourcebook image area in the corresponding scanned image data should not have any tilt.

Image tilt adjustment shall be done to achieve tilt angle of less than or equal to 0,5°.

NOTE See Clause A.2 for a description of image tilt.

The scanning of the monochrome original shall be carried out in monochrome scanning mode.

Colour original shall be carried out in colour scanning mode.
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NOTE When a black and white original is scanned using colour scanning mode, black text is likely to be greyed or

coloured partially, and it can degrade text readability.
The tone curve of an original text image shall be adjusted for legibility.
5.3 Setup/adjustment of image quality related parameters
5.3.1 Elimination of unintended density variation

In general, there are four types of unintended original density variations as follows:

– foreign objects such as dripping coffee, soiling by handling, shading due to bump of

correcting fluid on substrate and so on;
– degradation of substrate such as yellowing due to light fading or oxidization;
– show-through of image printed in opposite side of substrate;

– misplacement of original on scanning device leading to unpredictable unintended density

variation at the border of the scanned data.
NOTE See Clause A.3 for a description of show-through.

The first three can be eliminated by adjusting the highlight washout point during the scanning

operation or by erasing the defects, and the fourth one can be eliminated by trimming during

post-processing.
5.3.2 Resolution

It is recommended to adopt a sufficiently high scanning resolution and bit depth in order to

avoid line image discontinuity. Graphics and halftone image area may require moiré

suppression. If moiré occurred due to too low a scanning resolution, use a higher scanning

resolution.

NOTE See A.4 for a description of line image discontinuity and A.5 for a description of moiré.

For a text-based original document, 200 dpi or higher resolution is recommended. For text

and low resolution halftone originals, 400 dpi or higher resolution is recommended. For high

resolution halftone and graphics originals, 600 dpi or higher resolution is recommended for

avoiding moiré. For on-demand printing and on-demand publishing usage, minimum resolution

shall be 600 dpi.

The shape of the text is different between alphabets and it requires additional care to choose

appropriate resolution and tone settings in order to avoid line image discontinuity. Clause A.4

shows an example of alphabet dependency.
5.3.3 Highlight washout point

The highlight washout point is effective for elimination of unintended density variation

(see 5.3.3). But if the highlight washout point is set too high, it may cause discontinuity of line

image in text and graphics. So, it is recommended to set the highlight washout point as low as

possible. If line image discontinuity occurred after minimizing the highlight washout point, then

it is recommended to adopt a higher scanning resolution and higher bit depth (see 5.3).

NOTE See Clause A.6 for a description of highlight washout.
5.3.4 Tone curve adjustment / Black point setup

In order to avoid tone-related issues, such as sleepy image, highlight washout and unwanted

shadow clipping, it is recommended to adjust the density range by selecting a proper black

point value and to adjust the tone curve shape appropriately for image appearance as shown

in Figure 2.
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Pixel
count
Not "black Not "white
enough" enough"
Pixel
count
Range
adjustment
0 Pix value 255
Pixel
count
Light pixels
not visible
Pix value
Dark pixels not 0
(saturated)
255
distinguishable
Pix value
0 255
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Figure 2 – Tone curve adjustment / Black point setup

NOTE See Clause A.7 for a description of highlight washout and unwanted shadow clipping.

5.4 Post-processing / encoding
5.4.1 Post-processing

If the resolution of the scanned data is higher than the output media resolution, the scanned

data resolution shall be converted to match the output media resolution using a resolution

conversion method such as the nearest neighbour method, the bilinear interpolation method

or the bicubic convolution method.
5.4.2 Encoding

In order to avoid unwanted image noise due to lossy image encoding, such as mosquito noise

or block noise, lossless compression shall be used.

For black and white images, the recommended data file format is 8 bits per pixel TIFF/IT as

specified in ISO 12639. For colour images, the recommended data file format is 8 bits per

pixel sRGB as specified in IEC 61966-2-1 with TIFF/IT.
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IEC 63029:2017  IEC 2017 – 11 –
Annex A
(informative)
Defect examples
A.1 Image loss

Printed books are normally bound by glue and string. So the horizontal length of the pages

inside is shorter than the overall horizontal size of the book. In other words, the inside margin

is shorter than the outside margin. As a result, image loss sometimes occurs at the inside

margin. By comparison with the image without image loss in Figure A.1, it is clear that a part

of the image disappeared vertically right at the centre of the image in Figure A.2. Therefore,

special care is required during the sheet cutting process to avoid image loss and image

position variation between pages at the inside margin.
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Figure A.1 – An example of the double-page spread without image loss
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Figure A.2 – An example of the double-page spread with image loss
A.2 Image tilt

The scanned image is tilted when the sourcebook does not properly set with the scanner. By

comparison to the image without image tilt in Figure A.3, it is clear that the image is only

slightly tilted anticlockwise in Figure A.4 but it significantly degrades the scanned image

quality.
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Figure A.3 – An example of the text image without image tilt
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Figure A.4 – An example of the text image with image tilt
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A.3 Show-through

An image printed on the rear side of the page is sometimes visible from the front side of the

page. This is called show-through. By comparison with the image without show-through in

Figure A.5, it is clear to see the show through which appears as low contrast text flipped

horizontally in Figure A.6 and show through, in general, is an obstacle to readability.

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Figure A.5 – An example of the text image without show through
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Figure A.6 – An example of the text image with show through
A.4 Line image discontinuity

Scanning resolution is important for avoiding line image discontinuity and moiré. By

comparison with the image without line image discontinuity in Figure A.7, it is clear to see the

line image discontinuity in Figure A.8. Line image discontinuity is an obstacle to text

readability. In addition, text readability due to line image discontinuity varies according to the

alphabet used. As shown in Figure A.8, Japanese text in the bottom half is worse than the

English text in the top half. This is because, in general, Japanese text consists of more

strokes and therefore a greater number of thinner lines than English text.
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Figure A.7 – An example of the text image without line image discontinuity
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Figure A.8 – An example of the text image with line image discontinuity
A.5 Moiré

Moiré is a relatively low periodic-frequency density-variation pattern, appearing in scanned

images, that does not exist in the corresponding high-frequency periodic density-variation

pattern in the original images. In other words, moiré is false information in scanned images

added by an inappropriate scanning operation. By comparison with the image without moiré

in Figure A.9, moiré can be clearly seen on the door of
...

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