Ultrasonics - Measurements of electroacoustical parameters and acoustic output power of spherically curved transducers using the self-reciprocity method

IEC TS 62903:2018, which is a Technical Specification,
a) establishes the free-field convergent spherical wave self-reciprocity method for ultrasonic transducer calibration,
b) establishes the measurement conditions and experimental procedure required to determine the transducer's electroacoustic parameters and acoustic output power using the self-reciprocity method,
c) establishes the criteria for checking the reciprocity of these transducers and the linear range of the focused field, and
d) provides guiding information for the assessment of the overall measurement uncertainties for radiation conductance.
This document is applicable to:
i) circular spherically curved concave focusing transducers without a centric hole working in the linear amplitude range,
ii) measurements in the frequency range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz, and
iii) acoustic pressure amplitudes in the focused field within the linear amplitude range.

Vodne turbine, akumulacijske črpalke in črpalne turbine – Razpisna dokumentacija – 3. del: Smernice za tehnične specifikacije Peltonovih turbin

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jan-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
PPUB - Publication issued
Completion Date
09-Jan-2018

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IEC TS 62903
Edition 1.0 2018-01
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
Ultrasonics – Measurements of electroacoustical parameters and acoustic
output power of spherically curved transducers using the self-reciprocity
method
IEC TS 62903:2018-01(en)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
THIS PUBLICATION IS COPYRIGHT PROTECTED
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---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
IEC TS 62903
Edition 1.0 2018-01
TECHNICAL
SPECIFICATION
Ultrasonics – Measurements of electroacoustical parameters and acoustic
output power of spherically curved transducers using the self-reciprocity
method
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 17.140.50 ISBN 978-2-8322-5026-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
– 2 – IEC TS 62903:2018  IEC 2018
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 5

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 8

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 8

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 8

4 Symbols ........................................................................................................................ 12

5 General ......................................................................................................................... 13

6 Requirements of the measurement system .................................................................... 14

6.1 Apparatus configuration ........................................................................................ 14

6.2 Measurement water tank ....................................................................................... 14

6.3 Fixturing, positioning and orientation systems ....................................................... 14

6.4 Reflector ............................................................................................................... 14

6.5 Current monitor (probe) ........................................................................................ 14

6.6 Oscilloscope ......................................................................................................... 15

6.7 Measurement hydrophone ..................................................................................... 15

7 Measurement of the effective half-aperture of the spherically curved transducer ............ 15

7.1 Setup .................................................................................................................... 15

7.2 Alignment and positioning of the hydrophone in the field ....................................... 15

7.3 Measurements of the beamwidth and the effective half-aperture ........................... 15

7.4 Calculations of the focus half-angle and the effective area .................................... 16

8 Measurements of the electroacoustical parameters and the acoustic output power ........ 16

8.1 Self-reciprocity method for transducer calibration .................................................. 16

8.1.1 Experimental procedures ............................................................................... 16

8.1.2 Criterion for checking the linearity of the focused field ................................... 16

8.1.3 Criterion for checking the reciprocity of the transducer .................................. 16

8.2 Calculations of the transmitting response to current (voltage) and voltage

sensitivity .............................................................................................................. 17

8.3 Calculations of the transmitting response at geometric focus to current

(voltage) ............................................................................................................... 17

8.4 Calculation of the pulse-echo sensitivity level ....................................................... 18

8.5 Measurements of the radiation conductance and the mechanical quality

factor Q .............................................................................................................. 18

8.5.1 Calculations of the acoustic output power and the radiation

conductance .................................................................................................. 18

8.5.2 Measurement of the frequency response of the radiation conductance .......... 18

8.6 Measurement of the electroacoustic efficiency ...................................................... 18

8.6.1 Calculation of the electric input power ........................................................... 18

8.6.2 Calculation of the electroacoustic efficiency ................................................... 18

8.7 Measurement of the electric impedance (admittance) ............................................ 19

9 Measurement uncertainty .............................................................................................. 19

Annex A (informative) Relation of the average amplitude reflection coefficient on a

plane interface of water-stainless steel and the focus half-angle for a normally

incident beam of a circular spherically curved transducer [1, 2] ..................................... 20

Annex B (informative) Diffraction correction coefficient G in the free-field self-

reciprocity calibration method for circular spherically curved transducers in water

neglecting attenuation [2, 3, 4]....................................................................................... 24

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
IEC TS 62903:2018  IEC 2018 – 3 –

Annex C (informative) Calculation of the diffraction correction coefficient G (R/λ,β) in

the free-field self-reciprocity calibration in a non-attenuating medium for a circular

spherically curved transducer [2, 3, 4, 7] ....................................................................... 26

Annex D (informative) Speed of sound and attenuation in water.......................................... 28

D.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

D.2 Speed of sound for propagation in water ............................................................... 28

D.3 Acoustic attenuation coefficient for propagation in water ....................................... 28

Annex E (informative) Principle of reciprocity calibration for spherically curved

transducers [2, 3, 4]....................................................................................................... 29

E.1 Principle of reciprocity calibration for an ideal spherically focused field of a

transducer ............................................................................................................ 29

E.2 Principle of reciprocity calibration of a real spherically focused field of a

transducer ............................................................................................................ 30

E.3 Self-reciprocity calibration of a spherically curved transducer ............................... 30

Annex F (informative) Experimental arrangements ............................................................... 35

F.1 Experimental arrangement for determining the effective radius of a

transducer [2, 3, 4, 13] .......................................................................................... 35

F.2 Experimental arrangement of the self-reciprocity calibration method for a

spherically curved transducer [2, 3, 4, 13] ............................................................. 35

Annex G (informative) Relationships between the electroacoustical parameters used

in this application [13] .................................................................................................... 37

G.1 Relations between the free-field transmitting response to voltage (current)

and the voltage sensitivity with the radiation conductance ..................................... 37

G.2 Relation of the radiation conductance and the electroacoustic efficiency ............... 38

G.3 Relation of the transmitting response and voltage and acoustic output power ....... 38

G.4 Relation of the pulse echo sensitivity and the radiation conductance .................... 38

Annex H (informative) Evaluation and expression of uncertainty in the measurements

of the radiation conductance .......................................................................................... 39

H.1 Executive standard ............................................................................................... 39

H.2 Evaluation of uncertainty in the measurement of the radiation conductance .......... 39

H.2.1 Mathematical expression ............................................................................... 39

H.2.2 Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty ..................................................... 40

H.2.3 Type B evaluation of standard uncertainty ..................................................... 40

H.2.4 Evaluation of the combined standard uncertainty for the radiation

conductance .................................................................................................. 42

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 46

Figure A.1 – Relation curve of the amplitude reflection coefficient r(θ ) on the interface

of water-stainless steel for a plane wave with the incident angle θ ....................................... 22

Figure A.2 – Average amplitude reflection coefficient r (β) on the plane interface of

water-stainless steel in the geometric focal plane of a spherically curved transducer vs.

the focus half-angle β ............................................................................................................ 23

Figure C.1 – Geometry of the concave radiating surface A of a spherically curved

transducer and its virtual image surface A′ for their symmetry of mirror-images about

the geometric focal plane (x,y,0) ........................................................................................... 26

Figure E.1 – Spherical coordinates ....................................................................................... 31

Figure E.2 Function G (kasinθ), diffraction pattern F (kasinθ) and F (kasinθ) in the

a 0 0

geometric focal plane [7] ....................................................................................................... 32

Figure F.1 – Scheme of the measurement apparatus for determining the effective half-

aperture of a transducer ........................................................................................................ 35

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
– 4 – IEC TS 62903:2018  IEC 2018

Figure F.2 – Scheme of free-field self-reciprocity method applied to a spherically

curved transducer ................................................................................................................. 36

Table A.1 – Parameters used in calculation of the average amplitude reflection

coefficient ............................................................................................................................. 21

Table A.2 – Amplitude reflection coefficient r(θ ) on a plane interface of water-stainless

steel for plane wave vs. the incident angle θ ........................................................................ 21

Table A.3 – Average amplitude reflection coefficient r (β) on plane interface of

water-stainless steel in the geometric focal plane of a spherically curved transducer vs.

the focus half-angle β ............................................................................................................ 22

Table B.1 – Diffraction correction coefficients G of a circular spherically curved

transducer in the self-reciprocity calibration method [2, 3, 4] ................................................. 24

Table D.1 – Dependence of speed of sound in water on temperature [5] ............................... 28

Table E.1 – G values dependent on kasinθ for β ≤ 45° where x = kasinθ (according to

O'Neil [7]) ............................................................................................................................. 32

Table E.2 – The (R/λ) values dependent on β when θ ≥ θ and β < 45° for G
min max Ga a

= 0,94; 0,95; 0,96; 0,97; 0,98; 0,99 ....................................................................................... 33

Table H.1 – Type B evaluation of the standard uncertainties (SU) of input quantities in

measurement ........................................................................................................................ 41

Table H.2 – Components of the standard uncertainty for the measurement of the

radiation conductance using the self-reciprocity method ....................................................... 44

Table.H.3 – The measurement results and evaluated data of uncertainty for five

transducers ........................................................................................................................... 45

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
IEC TS 62903:2018  IEC 2018 – 5 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
ULTRASONICS – MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTROACOUSTICAL
PARAMETERS AND ACOUSTIC OUTPUT POWER OF SPHERICALLY
CURVED TRANSDUCERS USING THE SELF-RECIPROCITY METHOD
FOREWORD

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8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

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9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. In

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• the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard,

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• the subject is still under technical development or where, for any other reason, there is the

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Technical specifications are subject to review within three years of publication to decide

whether they can be transformed into International Standards.

IEC TS 62903, which is a Technical Specification, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 87: Ultrasonics.
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
– 6 – IEC TS 62903:2018  IEC 2018
The text of this technical specification is based on the following documents:
Enquiry draft Report on voting
87/652/DTS 87/659/RVDTS

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical specification can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

In this standard, the following print types are used:
• terms defined in Clause 3: in bold type.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC website under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related to

the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
A bilingual version of this publication may be issued at a later date.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
IEC TS 62903:2018  IEC 2018 – 7 –
INTRODUCTION

An ultrasonic transducer is an important acoustic device that can act as a transmitter or a

receiver in the applications of medical ultrasound, non-destructive testing, and ultrasonic

materials processing. The performance of a transducer is a decisive factor that governs the

device's range of applicability, efficiency and quality control in the manufacturing. The

mechanisms, transmitting fields, performances, and measurement methods used for these

transducers have been studied over the past few decades. However, the electroacoustical

characterization and measurement methods applied for spherically curved transducers have

not been defined in standard documents for either terms or protocols.

This document defines the relevant electroacoustical parameters for these devices and

establishes the self-reciprocity measurement method for spherically curved concave focusing

transducers.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
– 8 – IEC TS 62903:2018  IEC 2018
ULTRASONICS – MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTROACOUSTICAL
PARAMETERS AND ACOUSTIC OUTPUT POWER OF SPHERICALLY
CURVED TRANSDUCERS USING THE SELF-RECIPROCITY METHOD
1 Scope
This document, which is a Technical Specification,

a) establishes the free-field convergent spherical wave self-reciprocity method for ultrasonic

transducer calibration,
b) establishes the measurement conditions and experimental procedure required to

determine the transducer's electroacoustic parameters and acoustic output power using

the self-reciprocity method,

c) establishes the criteria for checking the reciprocity of these transducers and the linear

range of the focused field, and

d) provides guiding information for the assessment of the overall measurement uncertainties

for radiation conductance.
This document is applicable to:

i) circular spherically curved concave focusing transducers without a centric hole working in

the linear amplitude range,
ii) measurements in the frequency range 0,5 MHz to 15 MHz, and

iii) acoustic pressure amplitudes in the focused field within the linear amplitude range.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including

any amendments) applies.

IEC 60050-801:1994, International Electrotechnical Vocabulary – Chapter 801: Acoustics and

electroacoustics
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60050-801:1994

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
average acoustic pressure
acoustic pressure averaged over the effective area of the transducer
Note 1 to entry: Average acoustic pressure is expressed in pascals (Pa).
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
IEC TS 62903:2018  IEC 2018 – 9 –
3.2
r (β)
average amplitude reflection coefficient

ratio of the free-field echo average acoustic pressure p (β) reflected by the reflector on the

geometric focal plane over the space area coincident with the effective area of the

spherically curved transducer of focus half-angle β, if the transducer were removed, to the

reference acoustic pressure p on the effective area of the transducer in a non-attenuation

medium with negligible diffraction, r (β) = p (β)/p
av av 0
3.3
diffraction correction coefficient

ratio of the average acoustic pressure over the spherical segment surface of the spherically

curved transducer's virtual image at a position in the distance of twice geometric focal

length from the transducer, if an ideal reflecting mirror were located on the geometric focal

plane, to the reference acoustic pressure of the transducer in the free-field of a non-

attenuation medium
3.4
effective area

area of the radiating surface of a theoretically predicted transducer with specific

field distribution characteristics that are approximately the same as those of a real transducer

of the same type

Note 1 to entry: For a spherically curved transducer, the theoretically predicted acoustic pressure distribution on

the geometric focal plane of a transducer should be approximately the same as that of the real transducer with the

same geometric focal length when operating at the same frequency.

Note 2 to entry: The half-aperture of an effective area is also named the effective half-aperture or the effective

radius.

Note 3 to entry: The effective area of a transducer is expressed in metres squared (m ).

3.5
a/e
electroacoustic efficiency
ratio of the acoustic output power to the electric input power
3.6
electroacoustical reciprocity principle
electroacoustical reciprocity theorem

principle that the ratio of the free-field voltage (current) sensitivity of a reciprocal

transducer as a receiver, to the transmitting response to current (voltage) of the

reciprocal transducer as a projector is constant

Note 1 to entry: This principle is independent of the construction of the reciprocal transducer.

3.7
free-field

sound field in a homogeneous isotropic medium whose boundaries exert a negligible effect on

the sound wave
[SOURCE: IEC 61161:2013, 3.2]
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
– 10 – IEC TS 62903:2018  IEC 2018
3.8
free-field voltage sensitivity of a spherically curved transducer
receiving voltage response of a spherically curved transducer

ratio of the open-circuit output voltage of a spherically curved transducer within the field of a

point source at the geometric focus to the free-field acoustic pressure acting on the space

surface where the transducer surface was present, if that transducer were removed

Note 1 to entry: Free-field voltage sensitivity of a spherically curved transducer is expressed in volts per

pascal (V/Pa).
3.9
geometric beam boundary

surface containing straight lines passing through the geometric focus and all points around

the periphery of the transducer aperture
Note 1 to entry: The definition applies to transducers of known construction.
[SOURCE: IEC 61828:2006, 4.2.36]
3.10
geo
geometric focal length

distance from the geometric focus to the ultrasonic transducer's focusing surface

Note 1 to entry: The definition applies to transducers with known construction and is equal to the radius of

curvature of the radiating surface.

Note 2 to entry: The focusing surface is the surface of constant phase, whose periphery is coincident with the

transducer's aperture.
Note 3 to entry: Geometric focal length is expressed in metres (m).
3.11
geometric focus

point for which all of the effective path lengths in a specified longitudinal plane are equal

Note 1 to entry: The geometric focus is also the point for which all waves from the transducer have the same

delay as viewed in the approximation of geometrical acoustics neglecting diffraction.

[SOURCE: IEC 61828:2006, 4.2.39, modified – In the definition, the added explanation for the

definition "Also, the point for which all...diffraction." has been moved to a Note to entry.]

3.12
Mpe
pulse-echo sensitivity level

ratio of the received open-circuit voltage for the first echo signal of the spherically curved

transducer when acting as a receiver to the exciting voltage of the transducer when it is

transmitting a tone burst ultrasonic beam in a direction perpendicular to an ideal plane

reflector (r = 1) at the geometric focal plane
Note 1 to entry: The ratio is expressed in decibels (dB).
3.13
radiation conductance

ratio of the acoustic output power and the squared effective transducer input voltage

Note 1 to entry: It is used to characte
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST IEC/TR 61366-3:1999
01-april-1999
9RGQHWXUELQHDNXPXODFLMVNHþUSDONHLQþUSDOQHWXUELQH±5D]SLVQDGRNXPHQWDFLMD
±GHO6PHUQLFH]DWHKQLþQHVSHFLILNDFLMH3HOWRQRYLKWXUELQ

Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines - Tendering documents - Part 3:

Guidelines for technical specifications for Pelton turbines
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: IEC/TR 61366-3
ICS:
27.140 Vodna energija Hydraulic energy engineering
SIST IEC/TR 61366-3:1999 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST IEC/TR 61366-3:1999
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST IEC/TR 61366-3:1999
TECHNICAL
IEC
REPORT – TYPE 3
61366-3
First edition
1998-03
Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps
and pump-turbines –
Tendering documents –
Part 3:
Guidelines for technical specifications
for Pelton turbines
Turbines hydrauliques, pompes d’accumulation
et pompes-turbines –
Documents d’appel d’offres –
Partie 3:
Guide des spécifications techniques pour les turbines Pelton
 IEC 1998  Copyright - all rights reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or

mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the publisher.

International Electrotechnical Commission 3, rue de Varembé Geneva, Switzerland
Telefax: +41 22 919 0300 e-mail: inmail@iec.ch IEC web site http: //www.iec.ch
Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
PRICE CODE
International Electrotechnical Commission
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST IEC/TR 61366-3:1999
– 2 – 61366-3 IEC:1998(E)
CONTENTS
Page

FOREWORD ................................................................................................................... 4

Clause

0 Introduction to technical specifications ...................................................................... 7

1 Scope....................................................................................................................... 9

2 Reference documents ............................................................................................... 9

3 Technical requirements............................................................................................. 9

3.1 Scope of work.................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Limits of the contract ....................................................................................... 10

3.3 Supply by Employer ......................................................................................... 10

3.4 Design conditions ............................................................................................ 11

3.5 Technical performance and other guarantees................................................... 14

3.6 Mechanical design criteria ............................................................................... 17

3.7 Design documentation ..................................................................................... 17

3.8 Materials and construction ............................................................................... 18

3.9 Shop inspection and testing ............................................................................. 19

4 Technical specifications for fixed/embedded components.......................................... 20

4.1 Manifold .......................................................................................................... 21

4.2 Turbine housing............................................................................................... 21

5 Technical specifications for stationary/removable components .................................. 22

5.1 Branch pipe (including intake pipe and nozzle pipe).......................................... 22

5.2 Upper turbine housing (if not embedded).......................................................... 22

5.3 Turbine cover .................................................................................................. 23

5.4 Brake jet assembly .......................................................................................... 23

6 Technical specifications for injector/deflector system ................................................ 23

6.1 Injector system ................................................................................................ 23

6.2 Deflector system.............................................................................................. 24

7 Technical specifications for rotating parts, guide bearings and seals ......................... 24

7.1 Runner ............................................................................................................ 24

7.2 Main shaft ....................................................................................................... 25

7.3 Turbine guide bearing...................................................................................... 25

7.4 Main shaft seal (if necessary) .......................................................................... 25

7.5 Standstill maintenance seal (if necessary)........................................................ 26

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST IEC/TR 61366-3:1999
61366-3 © IEC:1998(E) – 3 –
Clause Page
8 Technical specifications for thrust bearing (when specified as part of the

hydraulic machine).................................................................................................... 26

8.1 Design data ..................................................................................................... 26

8.2 Bearing support ............................................................................................... 26

8.3 Bearing assembly ............................................................................................ 26

8.4 Oil injection pressure system ........................................................................... 27

9 Technical specifications for miscellaneous components ............................................ 27

9.1 Walkways, access platforms and stairs ............................................................ 27

9.2 Lifting fixtures.................................................................................................. 27

9.3 Special tools.................................................................................................... 27

9.4 Standard tools ................................................................................................. 27

9.5 Turbine pit hoist............................................................................................... 27

9.6 Nameplate....................................................................................................... 27

9.7 Runner cart and rails (if required) .................................................................... 28

9.8 Access door to turbine housing interior (if required).......................................... 28

10 Technical specifications for auxiliary systems............................................................ 28

10.1 Bearing lubrication system ............................................................................... 28

10.2 Cooling water system for runner....................................................................... 28

10.3 Tailwater air admission system ........................................................................ 28

10.4 Turbine pit drainage......................................................................................... 28

11 Technical specifications for instrumentation .............................................................. 29

11.1 Controls........................................................................................................... 29

11.2 Indication......................................................................................................... 29

11.3 Protection........................................................................................................ 29

12 Spare parts............................................................................................................... 29

13 Model acceptance tests ............................................................................................ 29

14 Site installation and commissioning tests .................................................................. 30

14.1 General ........................................................................................................... 30

14.2 Installation procedures..................................................................................... 30

14.3 Tests during installation ................................................................................... 31

14.4 Commissioning tests........................................................................................ 31

15 Field acceptance tests .............................................................................................. 31

15.1 Scope and reports ........................................................................................... 31

15.2 Inspection of cavitating pitting.......................................................................... 31

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SIST IEC/TR 61366-3:1999
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INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
HYDRAULIC TURBINES, STORAGE PUMPS AND PUMP-TURBINES –
TENDERING DOCUMENTS –
Part 3: Guidelines for technical specifications
for Pelton turbines
FOREWORD

1) The IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of the IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, the IEC publishes International Standards. Their preparation is

entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with may

participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. The IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization

for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two

organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an

international consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation

from all interested National Committees.

3) The documents produced have the form of recommendations for international use and are published in the form

of standards, technical reports or guides and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense.

4) In order to promote international unification, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC International

Standards transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional standards. Any

divergence between the IEC Standard and the corresponding national or regional standard shall be clearly

indicated in the latter.

5) The IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with one of its standards.

6) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject

of patent rights. The IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

The main task of IEC technical committees is to prepare International Standards. In

exceptional circumstances, a technical committee may propose the publication of a technical

report of one of the following types:

• type 1, when the required support cannot be obtained for the publication of an International

Standard, despite repeated efforts;

• type 2, when the subject is still under technical development or where for any other reason

there is the future but no immediate possibility of an agreement on an International

Standard;

• type 3, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that which is

normally published as an International Standard, for example "state of the art".

Technical reports of types 1 and 2 are subject to review within three years of publication to

decide whether they can be transformed into International Standards. Technical reports of

type 3 do not necessarily have to be reviewed until the data they provide are considered to be

no longer valid or useful.

IEC 61366-3, which is a technical report of type 3, has been prepared by IEC technical

committee 4: Hydraulic turbines.
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61366-3 © IEC:1998(E) – 5 –
The text of this technical report is based on the following documents:
Committee draft Report on voting
4/110/CDV 4/122/RCV

Full information on the voting for the approval of this technical report can be found in the report

on voting indicated in the above table.

Technical Report IEC 61366-3 is one of a series which deals with Tendering documents for

hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines. The series consists of seven parts:

Part 1: General and annexes (IEC 61366-1)

Part 2: Guidelines for technical specification for Francis turbines (IEC 61366-2)

Part 3: Guidelines for technical specification for Pelton turbines (IEC 61366-3)

Part 4: Guidelines for technical specification for Kaplan and propeller turbines (IEC 61366-4)

Part 5: Guidelines for technical specification for tubular turbines (IEC 61366-5)

Part 6: Guidelines for technical specification for pump-turbines (IEC 61366-6)
Part 7: Guidelines for technical specification for storage pumps (IEC 61366-7)

Parts 2 to 7 are "stand-alone" publications which when used with Part 1 contain guidelines for a

specific machine type (i.e. Parts 1 and 4 represent the combined guide for Kaplan and

propeller turbines). A summary of the proposed contents for a typical set of Tendering

documents is given in the following table 1 and annex A. Table 1 summarizes the arrangement

of each part of this guide and serves as a reference for the various chapters and sections of

the Tendering documents (see 3.2 of this part).
A bilingual edition of this technical report may be issued at a later date.
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SIST IEC/TR 61366-3:1999

Table 1 – Summary of guide for the preparation of Tendering Documents for hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines

CONTENTS OF GUIDE IEC 61366-1 TO IEC 61366-7 SAMPLE TABLE OF CONTENTS OF TENDERING DOCUMENTS (TD)

(Example for the Francis turbines; see 61366-1, annex A)
Part Clause Title Chapter Title
1 General and annexes 1 Tendering requirements
1– 2 Project information
1 1 Object and scope of this guide 3 General conditions
1 2 Reference documents and definitions 4 Special conditions
1 3 Arrangement of Tendering Documents 5 General requirements
1 4 Guidelines for tendering requirements 6 Technical specifications
1 5 Guidelines for project information 6.1 Technical requirements

1 6 Guidelines for general conditions, special conditions and general 6.1.1 Scope of work

requirements 6.1.2 Limits of the contract
6.1.3 Supply by Employer
1 Annexes 6.1.4 Design conditions
6.1.5 Performance and other guarantees

A Sample table of contents of Tendering Documents for Francis turbines 6.1.6 Mechanical design criteria

B Comments on factors for evaluation of tenders 6.1.7 Design documentation
C Check list for tender form 6.1.8 Materials and construction
D Examples of technical data sheets 6.1.9 Shop inspection and testing

E Technical performance guarantees 6.2 Technical specifications for fixed/embedded components

F Example of cavitation pitting guarantees 6.3 Technical specifications for stationary/removable components

G Check list for model test specifications 6.4 Technical specifications for guide vane regulating apparatus

H Sand erosion considerations 6.5 Technical specifications for rotating parts, bearings and seals

6.6 Technical specifications for thrust bearings

2 to 7 Technical specifications 6.7 Technical specifications for miscellaneous components

6.8 Technical specifications for auxiliary systems
2 Francis turbines 6.9 Technical specifications for instrumentation
3 Pelton turbines 6.10 Spare parts
4 Kaplan and propeller turbines 6.11 Model tests
5 Tubular turbines 6.12 Installation and commissioning
6 Pump-turbines 6.13 Field acceptance tests
7 Storage pumps
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HYDRAULIC TURBINES, STORAGE PUMPS AND PUMP-TURBINES –
TENDERING DOCUMENTS –
Part 3: Guidelines for technical specifications
for Pelton turbines
0 Introduction to technical specifications

The main purpose of the technical specifications is to describe the specific technical

requirements for the hydraulic machine for which the Tendering documents (TD) are being

issued. To achieve clarity and to avoid confusion in contract administration, the Employer

should not specify anything in the technical specifications which is of importance only to the

preparation of the tender. Such information and instructions should be given only in the

Instructions to Tenderers (ITT). Accordingly, the ITT may refer to other chapters and sections

the Tendering documents but not vice versa. As a general rule the word "Tenderer" should be

confined in use only to TD chapter 1 "Tendering requirements"; elsewhere the term

"Contractor" should be used.

Special attention should be given to items of a project specific nature such as materials,

protective coating systems, mechanical piping systems, electrical systems and instrumentation.

It is common for the Employer to use technical standards for such items which would apply to

all contracts for a particular project or projects. In this event, detailed technical standards

should be specified in TD chapter 5 "General requirements".

Technical specifications for the various types of hydraulic machines included in this guide are

provided in the following parts:
– Francis turbines (Part 2);
– Pelton turbines (Part 3);
– Propeller and Kaplan turbines (Part 4);
– Tubular turbines (Part 5);
– Pump-turbines (Part 6);
– Storage pumps (Part 7).

The guidelines for preparation of Pelton turbine specifications include technical specifications

for the following:

– Design conditions: Project arrangement, hydraulic conditions, specified conditions, mode of

operation, generator characteristics, synchronous condenser characteristics, transient

behaviour data, stability of the system, noise, vibration, pressure fluctuations and safety

requirements.
– Technical performance and other guarantees:
ypower;
ydischarge (if required);
yefficiency;
ymaximum momentary pressure;
yminimum momentary pressure;
ymaximum momentary overspeed;
ymaximum steady-state runaway speed;
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ycavitation pitting;
yhydraulic thrust;
ymaximum weights and dimensions for transportation, erection and maintenance.

– Mechanical design criteria: design standards, stresses and deflections and special design

considerations (earthquake acceleration, etc.).

– Design documentation: Contractor’s input needed for the Employer's design, Contractor's

drawings and data, Contractor's review of the Employer's design and technical reports by

Contractor.

– Materials and construction: material selection and standards, quality assurance procedures,

shop methods, corrosion protection and painting.

– Shop inspection and testing: general requirements and reports, material tests and

certificates, dimensional checks, shop assembly and tests.

– Fixed/embedded components: manifold for multi-jet turbines and turbine housing.

– Stationary/removable components: branch pipe for horizontal turbines, upper turbine

housing (if not embedded), turbine cover, brake jet assembly).

– Injector and deflector systems: nozzles, needles, needle servomotors, deflectors or cut-in

deflectors, deflector servomotors, links, needle-deflector combining mechanism and oil

piping.

– Rotating parts, bearings and seals: runner, main shaft, guide bearing with oil supply,

oil/water cooler, shaft seal.

– Thrust bearing (when part of the hydraulic machine supply): bearing support, thrust block,

rotating ring, thrust bearing pads and pivots, oil sump with oil supply (common with guide

bearing, if any), oil/water coolers, instrumentation.

– Miscellaneous components: walkways, lifting fixtures, special tools, standard tools, turbine

pit hoist, nameplate, runner inspection platform (if required).

– Auxiliary systems: bearing lubrication system (if required), tailwater air admission system,

turbine pit drainage (if required), turbine housing ventilation, tailwater depression (if

required).
– Instrumentation: controls, indication and protection.
– Spare parts: basic spare parts.
– Model acceptance tests: test requirements.

– Site installation and commissioning tests: Installation procedures and commissioning tests.

– Field acceptance tests: scope of field tests, reports and inspection of cavitation pitting.

An example of the proposed table of contents for Tendering documents for a Francis turbine is

given in annex A of IEC 61366-1. The example does not include technical specifications for the

control system, or high-pressure side valves which, at the Employer’s option, may be included

in the Tendering documents for the Pelton turbine or may be specified in separate Tendering

documents.

Chapter 6 (technical specifications) of the Tendering documents should be arranged as follows:

6.1 Technical requirements;
6.2 Technical specifications for fixed/embedded components;
6.3 Technical specifications for stationary/removable components;

6.4 Technical specifications for deflector/cut-in deflector regulating apparatus;

6.5 Technical specifications for rotating parts, guide bearings and seals;
6.6 Technical specifications for thrust bearing;
6.7 Technical specifications for miscellaneous components;
6.8 Technical specifications for auxiliary systems;
6.9 Technical specifications for instrumentation;
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6.10 Spare parts;
6.11 Model acceptance tests;
6.12 Site installation and commissioning tests;
6.13 Field acceptance tests.
1 Scope

This Technical Report, referred to herein as “Guide”, is intended to assist in the preparation of

Tendering documents and Tendering proposals and in the evaluation of tenders for hydraulic

machines. This part of IEC 61366 provides guidelines for Pelton turbines.
2 Reference documents

IEC 60041:1992, Field acceptance tests to determine the hydraulic performance of hydraulic

turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines

IEC 60193:1965, International code for model acceptance tests of hydraulic turbines

IEC 60308:1970, International code for testing of speed governing systems for hydraulic

turbines

IEC 60545:1976, Guide for commissioning, operation an maintenance of hydraulic turbines

IEC 60609-2:1997, Cavitation pitting evaluation in hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and

pump-turbines – Part 2: Evaluation in Pelton turbines

IEC 60994:1991, Guide for field measurement of vibrations and pulsations in hydraulic

machines (turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines)

IEC 60995:1991, Determination of the prototype performance from model acceptance tests of

hydraulic machines with consideration of scale effects
IEC 61362, Guide to specification of hydro-turbine control systems

ISO 3740:1980, Acoustics – Determination of sound power levels of noise sources – Guidelines

for the use of basic standards and for the propagation of noise test codes
3 Technical requirements
3.1 Scope of work

This subclause should describe the scope of work and the responsibilities which are to be

conferred upon the Contractor. The general statement of scope of work presented in TD

section 2.1 (5.1) shall be consistent with what is presented here. In a similar manner, pay items

in the tender form, TD section 1.2 (subclause 4.2) should be defined directly from TD

subsection 6.1.1.

The scope of work should begin with a general statement which outlines the various elements

of the work including (where applicable) the design, model testing, supply of materials and

labour, fabrication, machining, quality assurance, quality control, shop assembly, shop testing,

spare parts, transportation to site, site installation, commissioning, acceptance testing,

warranty and other services specified or required for the items of work. The general statement

should be followed by a specific and detailed list of the major items which the Employer wishes

to have as separate payment items in the tender form, for example:
___________
To be published.
All references to Tendering documents (TD) apply to annex A of IEC 61366-1.
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Item Description

1 Two (2) vertical shaft Pelton type hydraulic turbines each with a specified power of not

less than 180 000 kW under a specified specific hydraulic energy of 11 500 J/kg
(specified head of 1 172 m);
2 Turbine model testing;
3 Tools, slings and handling devices required for maintenance of the turbines;
4 Transportation and delivery to site;
5 Site installation, commissioning, and acceptance testing of the turbines;
6 Preparation and submission of operation and maintenance manual and training of

Employer's operating and maintenance staff in the optimum use of these manuals; and

7 Spare parts required for operation and maintenance.
3.2 Limits of the contract

This subclause, making reference to Employer's drawings and data, should describe the limits

of the contract considering the following:

– details of the design and supply limits of the high and low-pressure sides of the machine;

– details, location, and responsibility for field connection of manifold/branch pipe to penstock

or valve on high-pressure side;

– details and location of the downstream termination of the turbine housing (including

inspection platform, if required);
– details and location of gate(s) on low-pressure side (if required);
– orientation and location of turbine/generator shaft flange interface;

– responsibility for supply and installation of flange coupling bolts, nuts and guards at

generator/turbine coupling, including drilling jig;

– responsibility for supply and installation of bolts, nuts, gaskets at piping terminations;

– termination of governor piping;
– termination of manifold dewatering piping;
– termination of manifold or branch pipe air exhaust piping (if any);
– termination of pit drainage piping (if required);
– termination of bearing lubricating oil piping (if required);
– termination of shaft seal piping (if specified);
– termination of cooling water piping for bearings;
– turbine mounted thrust bearing (if desired);

– termination points and junction boxes for wiring for power, control, indication, protection,

and lighting;
– compressed air for service and other functions.

NOTE – Contract limits will change if other major items of equipment (such as hydro-turbine control systems,

valves, gates, generators, excitation systems, control metering and relaying systems, switchgear, and power

transformers) are included with the hydraulic machine in a common set of Tendering documents.

3.3 Supply by Employer

This subclause should be complementary to 5.6 of IEC 61366-1 (TD section 2.6) and should

list the items and services which will be the responsibility of the Employer. The following items

should be considered:
– services during site installation and testing;
– temporary enclosures for site storage of turbine parts or for erection;
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– installation in primary concrete of small items provided by the Contractor, such as anchors,

sole plates, and piping;

– concrete for embedment of turbine components-supply, placement and controls, including

monitoring and verification during and after concrete placement by others;
– grout injection, if required, either within or around turbine components;
– powerhouse crane and operator;
– connections to powerhouse air, oil and water piping systems;
– supply of filtered water for turbine shaft seal (if by Employer);
– electrical wiring and hardware external to specified termination points;
– electric motor starters and controls;

– control, annunciation and protection systems external to specified termination points;

– external lubricating oil storage, distribution, and purification systems;
– lubricants, bearing and governor oil to the Contractor's specifications.

It should be stated that any materials or services required for installation and commissioning of

the units, and not specifically mentioned in the above list of the Employer supplied items and

services are to be provided by the Contractor under contract.
3.4 Design conditions
3.4.1 Project arrangement

The project arrangement should contain the Employer's detailed description together with

general arrangement drawings (by the Employer) of the powerhouse and waterways at the low

and high-pressure sides including channels, galleries, penstocks, surge tanks, gates, valves,

etc. The description should be an extension of the applicable data provided in TD chapter 2

"Project information". The data shall be sufficiently clear so that the Contractor is aware of

physical co
...

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