Space systems — Electromagnetic compatibility requirements

This document contains a process to establish performance requirements for the purpose of ensuring space systems electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The engineering issues to be addressed in order to achieve system-level EMC are identified herein, with guidance and rationale towards achieving specification conformance. The method for the derivation of typical equipment-level requirements from a space-system-level requirement is illustrated. This document also aids in the selection of tailored requirements for a specific mission (see Annex A).

Systèmes spatiaux — Exigences relatives à la compatibilité électromagnétique

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
14-Jun-2022
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Due Date
07-Dec-2021
Completion Date
15-Jun-2022
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14302
Second edition
2022-06
Space systems — Electromagnetic
compatibility requirements
Systèmes spatiaux — Exigences relatives à la compatibilité
électromagnétique
Reference number
ISO 14302:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 14302:2022(E)
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© ISO 2022

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© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 14302:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................. 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................. 3

4 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1 General system requirements ................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.1.2 System-level EMC programme ............................................................................................................................... 5

4.1.3 Equipment/subsystem criticality categories ............................................................................................ 8

4.1.4 Safety margins ..................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2 Specific system requirements ........................................................................................................................................... ........ 8

4.2.1 External electromagnetic environment ........................................................................................................ 8

4.2.2 Intrasystem EMC ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.3 EMI control .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.2.4 Grounding and wiring design ................................................................................................................................. 8

4.2.5 Electrical bonding ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

4.2.6 Antenna-to-antenna (RF) compatibility .................................................................................................... 10

4.2.7 Lightning ................................................................................................................................................................................ 10

4.2.8 Spacecraft and electrostatic charging ......................................................................................................... 10

4.2.9 Hazards of electromagnetic radiation .........................................................................................................12

4.2.10 Life cycle considerations ..........................................................................................................................................12

4.2.11 External grounds ............................................................................................................................................................12

4.2.12 Spacecraft d.c. magnetic emissions ................................................................................................................12

4.2.13 Electric propulsion systems ..................................................................................................................................12

4.3 Equipment-level EMI requirements .................................................................................................................................. 13

4.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.3.2 Power bus conducted interference, time and frequency domain, source

induced .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

4.3.3 Power bus conducted interference, load induced, frequency domain .............................13

4.3.4 Power bus load-induced switching transient emissions.............................................................. 14

4.3.5 Power bus load-induced time domain ripple.......................................................................................... 15

4.3.6 Signal cable conducted interference, frequency domain ................................... ..........................15

4.3.7 Antenna connection port spurious emissions ...................................................................................... 15

4.3.8 Magnetic field radiated emissions ................................................................................................................... 15

4.3.9 Radiated electric field emissions ...................................................................................................................... 15

4.3.10 Immunity to audio frequency power-line ripple ................................................................................. 15

4.3.11 Immunity to power-line switching transients ...................................................................................... 15

4.3.12 Immunity to the conducted effects of radiated electromagnetic fields ......................... 16

4.3.13 Immunity to audio frequency radiated magnetic fields ............................................................... 16

4.3.14 Immunity to radiated electromagnetic fields ....................................................................................... 16

4.3.15 Immunity to magnetic fields induced signals to cabling ............................................................. 16

4.3.16 Control of antenna port immunity to out-of-band interference ............................................ 16

4.3.17 Immunity to electrostatic discharge ............................................................................................................. 16

4.3.18 Passive Intermodulation (PIM) .......................................................................................................................... 16

4.3.19 Multipaction ........................................................................................................................................................................ 16

5 Verification .............................................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.1 General system requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 16

5.1.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

5.1.2 System-level electromagnetic effects verification plan (EMEVP) ...................................... 17

iii
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ISO 14302:2022(E)

5.1.3 Electromagnetic effects verification report (EMEVR) .................................................................. 17

5.1.4 Safety margin demonstration of critical/EED circuit .................................................................... 17

5.2 Specific system requirements ........................................................................................................................................... ..... 18

5.2.1 External electromagnetic environment ..................................................................................................... 18

5.2.2 Intrasystem electromagnetic compatibility ........................................................................................... 18

5.2.3 Electromagnetic interference control .......................................................................................................... 18

5.2.4 Grounding and wiring design .............................................................................................................................. 18

5.2.5 Electrical bonding .......................................................................................................................................................... 18

5.2.6 Antenna-to-antenna (RF) compatibility .................................................................................................... 19

5.2.7 Lightning ................................................................................................................................................................................ 19

5.2.8 Spacecraft and static charging............................................................................................................................ 19

5.2.9 Hazards of electromagnetic radiation ......................................................................................................... 20

5.2.10 Life cycle ................................................................................................................................................................................. 20

5.2.11 External grounds ............................................................................................................................................................20

5.2.12 Spacecraft d.c. magnetic emissions ................................................................................................................ 20

5.3 Equipment-level EMI testing ................................................................................................................................................... 20

5.3.1 General .....................................................................................................................................................................................20

5.3.2 Power bus conducted interference, time and frequency domain, source

induced ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 21

5.3.3 Power bus conducted interference, load induced, frequency domain ............................. 21

5.3.4 Power bus load-induced switching transients ...................................................................................... 21

5.3.5 Power bus load-induced time domain ripple.......................................................................................... 21

5.3.6 Signal cable conducted interference, frequency domain ................................... .......................... 21

5.3.7 Antenna connection port spurious emissions ......................................................................................22

5.3.8 Magnetic field radiated emissions ................................................................................................................... 22

5.3.9 Radiated electric field emissions ...................................................................................................................... 22

5.3.10 Immunity to audio frequency power-line ripple .................................................................................22

5.3.11 Immunity to power-line switching transients ......................................................................................22

5.3.12 Immunity to the conducted effects of radiated electromagnetic fields .........................22

5.3.13 Immunity to audio frequency radiated magnetic fields ...............................................................22

5.3.14 Immunity to radiated electromagnetic fields .......................................................................................22

5.3.15 Immunity to magnetic fields induced signals to cabling .............................................................22

5.3.16 Control of antenna port immunity to out-of-band interference ............................................22

5.3.17 Immunity to electrostatic discharge ............................................................................................................. 22

Annex A (informative) Rationale behind requirements and tests ...................................................................................24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................46

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ISO 14302:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles,

Subcommittee SC 14, Space systems and operations.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14302:2002), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are as follows:

— updating related standard documents such as AIAA, ECSS, MIL-STD and etc., considering with

new work has been accomplished over the past 10 years in this field within the US AIAA and ECSS.

Particularly in space - there are many more orbiting transmitters and receivers exploiting the EM

spectrum for earth observation, communications etc.;

— the inclusion of EMC flow chart to clarify timeline for EMC plan, design, analysis and test/evaluation

phase of project;

— the inclusion of technical requirements for multipaction, intermodulation and electrostatic

discharge with consideration of changes of electronic equipment with higher speed digital devices,

data bus & clock frequencies, and switch mode Power supplies by PWM signalling;

— updating of technical requirements, taking into account that equipment is still being qualified or

qualified by similarity to heritage specifications from the 80's.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
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ISO 14302:2022(E)
Introduction

This document addresses the equipment-level requirements, verification and rationale of system-level

compatibility concerns used in the development and procurement of complete space systems.

This document includes requirements at all the following levels:
— general system requirements;
— specific system requirements;
— equipment-level electromagnetic interference requirements.
The equipment-level requirements are summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

This document does not include detailed design requirements. Instead, engineering issues to be

addressed during execution of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) control programme are

presented. Requirements in this document may be tailored based on contractual agreements.

This document references civilian equipment-level electromagnetic interference (EMI) test methods

to minimize cost and allow the use of standard test methods. This document does not contain EMI

test limits. Test limits should be developed based on the environment, power quality definition and

operational requirements.

Annex A presents the rationale behind each requirement/test technique, guidance for meeting

requirements and test procedures where an acceptable reference is not available. Use of Annex A is

advised in order to allow for optimal tailoring of this document for individual programmes.

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14302:2022(E)
Space systems — Electromagnetic compatibility
requirements
1 Scope

This document contains a process to establish performance requirements for the purpose of ensuring

space systems electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). The engineering issues to be addressed in order

to achieve system-level EMC are identified herein, with guidance and rationale towards achieving

specification conformance. The method for the derivation of typical equipment-level requirements from

a space-system-level requirement is illustrated. This document also aids in the selection of tailored

requirements for a specific mission (see Annex A).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7137:1995, Aircraft — Environmental conditions and test procedures for airborne equipment

IEC 61000-4-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) — Part 4-2: Testing and measurement techniques —

Electrostatic discharge immunity test

ISO 24637, Space systems — Electromagnetic interference (EMI) test reporting requirements

ECSS-E-20-01A, Multipaction Design and Test

Aerospace Report No. TOR-2014-02198, Standard/Handbook for Multipactor Breakdown Prevention in

Spacecraft Components
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1.1
break-out box

non-flight piece of test support equipment that is connected in-line with a cable that accommodates

external connection (usually binding posts) of instrumentation or series/parallel test networks to the

wiring in that cable
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ISO 14302:2022(E)
3.1.2
complete space system

suite of equipment, subsystems, skills, and techniques capable of performing or supporting an

operational role

Note 1 to entry: A complete space system includes related facilities, equipment, subsystems, materials, services,

and personnel required for its operation to the degree that it can be considered self-sufficient within its

operational or support environment.

Note 2 to entry: The complete space system normally refers to the spacecraft or launch vehicle itself.

3.1.3
dead-facing

removal of power from a circuit prior to mating/de-mating of the circuit interface (usually to prevent

arcing or inadvertent short circuits)
3.1.4
electromagnetic compatibility
EMC

ability of a space equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its intended electromagnetic

environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbances to anything in that

environment
3.1.5
electromagnetic interference
EMI

degradation of the performance of a space equipment (3.1.6), transmission, channel, or system caused

by an electromagnetic disturbance
3.1.6
equipment
integrated set of parts, and components
Note 1 to entry: An equipment accomplishes a specific function.

Note 2 to entry: An equipment is self-contained and classified as such for the purposes of separate manufacture,

procurement, drawings, specification, storage, issue, maintenance, or use.
SOURCE: ISO 10795 3.93
3.1.7
faying surface

prepared conductive surface of sufficient area and conductivity that, when joined under pressure

contact, ensures a low electrical bond impedance for the required life of the connection

3.1.8
floating

status of a circuit isolated from another one, which is characterized by a resistance of strong value in

parallel with a capacity.

Note 1 to entry: In low frequency, the circuit is actually high impedance; it is not the case in HF considering the

parasitic capacitor. “Floating” is therefore to use for a frequency domain that it is then necessary to specify.

3.1.9
immunity

ability of a device, equipment (3.1.6), or system to perform without degradation in the presence of an

electromagnetic disturbance
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ISO 14302:2022(E)
3.1.10
internal charging

phenomenon caused by penetration of high-energy electrons through spacecraft structures and/

or component walls so that these particles are incident on ungrounded metallic or dielectric internal

surfaces
3.1.11
line impedance stabilization network
LISN

network inserted in the supply mains lead of an apparatus to be tested which provides, in a given

frequency range, specified source or load impedance for the measurement of disturbance currents and

voltages and which may isolate the apparatus from the supply mains in that frequency range

3.1.12
power quality requirement

requirement developed for the space system that defines the conducted voltage and current noise (from

load regulation, spikes, sags, etc.) the power user can expect
3.1.13
procuring authority

agency or organization funding or administering a contract for the development of the space system

3.1.14
radio frequency interference
RFI

degradation of the reception of a wanted signal caused by a radio frequency disturbance

3.1.15
safety margin

ratio of circuit threshold of susceptibility (3.1.18) to induced circuit noise under worse-case expected

environmental conditions (intrasystem and intersystem)
3.1.16
subsystem

set of interdependent elements constituted to achieve a given objective by performing a specified

function, but that does not, on its own, satisfy the customer's requirement

Note 1 to entry: Generally, a piece of equipment is housed within a single enclosure, while a subsystem may

consist of several interconnected units.
Note 2 to entry: ISO 10795 3.231, modified — Note 1 to entry added.
3.1.17
susceptibility

correct operation of electrical equipment (3.1.6), referred to as the victim, in the presence of unplanned

electromagnetic disturbances

Note 1 to entry: A victim is a component/subsystem that is susceptible to interference.

3.1.18
suppression

act of eliminating electromagnetic noise through the process of filtering, shielding, or other methods

that reduce the impact of noise on a system
3.2 Abbreviated terms
ACS attitude control system
BCI bulk current injection
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ISO 14302:2022(E)
CDR critical design review
CE conducted emissions
CISPR International Special Committee on Radio Interference
COTS commercial off-the-shelf
CS conducted susceptibility
DSO digital storage oscilloscope
EED electro-explosive device
EGSE electrical ground support equipment
EMCAB electromagnetic compatibility advisory board
EME electromagnetic environment
EMEVP electromagnetic effects verification plan
EMEVR electromagnetic effects verification report
EMISM electromagnetic interference safety margin
ESD electrostatic discharge
EUT equipment under test
FMEA failure mode effects analysis
GEO geosynchronous Earth orbit
HF high frequency
ICD interface control document
LEO low Earth orbit
Mil-Std military standard
NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration
PDR preliminary design review
RDR requirements definition review
RE radiated emissions
RF radio frequency
RFP request for proposal
r.m.s. root-mean-square
RS radiated susceptibility
r.s.s. root-sum-square
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
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ISO 14302:2022(E)
SMPS switched mode power supply
TTL transistor-to-transistor logic
UHF ultrahigh frequency
VHF very high frequency
VLF very low frequency
4 Requirements
4.1 General system requirements
4.1.1 General

The space system shall be electromagnetically compatible among all equipment/subsystems within the

space system and with the self-induced and defined external electromagnetic environment during all

phases of its mission.
4.1.2 System-level EMC programme
4.1.2.1 General

The procuring authority and prime contractor shall establish an overall EMC programme based

on requirements of this document, the statement of work, space system specification, and other

applicable contractual documents. The purpose of the EMC programme is to ensure space-system-

level compatibility with minimum impact to programme, cost, schedule, and operational capabilities.

An EMC programme shall include EMC control documentation and an EMC advisory board (EMCAB).

The EMC staff responsible for these functions should be appropriate to the size and complexity of

the programme. Typical programme milestones and their corresponding EMC data/deliverables are

provided in Annex A (see Table A.1). Commercial space programmes having historically successful EMC

control and management programmes in place may submit documentation to the procuring authority

for an alternate means of equipment-level conformance, providing that the system-level interface

requirements of this document are met.

When viewed from the perspective of a specific program or project context, the requirements defined

in this document may be tailored to match the actual requirements of the particular program or

project. Tailoring of requirements shall be undertaken in consultation with the procuring agency where

applicable.

NOTE Tailoring is a process by which individual requirements or specifications, st

...

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