Solid biofuels — Vocabulary

This document establishes a vocabulary for solid biofuels. This document only includes raw and processed material originating from — forestry and arboriculture, — agriculture and horticulture, and — aquaculture. NOTE 1 Chemically treated material cannot include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material values (see also ISO 17225-1:2021, Annex B) or higher than typical values of the country of origin. NOTE 2 Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit and aquatic biomass and biodegradable waste originating from above sectors. Materials originating from different recycling processes of end-of-life-products are outside the scope of this document but relevant terms are included for information. Liquid biofuels (ISO/TC 28/SC 7), natural gas (ISO/TC 193) and solid recovered fuels (ISO/TC 300) are outside the scope of this document.

Biocombustibles solides — Vocabulaire

Le présent document établit un vocabulaire pour les biocombustibles solides. Le présent document ne couvre que les matières premières et les matières issues de processus provenant de: — la sylviculture et l'arboriculture; — l'agriculture et l'horticulture; et — l'aquaculture. NOTE 1 Les niveaux de composés organiques halogénés ou de métaux lourds inclus dans les matériaux traités chimiquement ne peuvent pas dépasser les valeurs des matériaux vierges (voir également l'Annexe B de l'ISO 17225-1:2021) ou les valeurs types du pays d'origine. NOTE 2 Les matières premières et les matières transformées comprennent la biomasse ligneuse, herbacée, fruitière et aquatique ainsi que des déchets biodégradables provenant des secteurs cités ci-dessus. Les matériaux provenant de différents processus de recyclage de produits en fin de vie ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application du présent document, mais les termes qui s'y rapportent sont inclus à titre d'information. Les biocombustibles liquides (ISO/TC 28/SC 7), le gaz naturel (ISO/TC 193) et les combustibles solides de récupération (ISO/TC 300) ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application du présent document.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Jan-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Completion Date
30-Oct-2021
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16559
Second edition
2022-01
Solid biofuels — Vocabulary
Biocombustibles solides — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 16559:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annex A (informative) Scheme of sample hierarchy .......................................................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

iii
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 335, Solid biofuels, in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16559:2014), which has been technically

revised. The main changes are as follows:
— Clause 3 has been updated;
— the title of this document has been changed;
— Annex A has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
Introduction

Some of the terms included in this document are only used in particular countries.

In this document, terms for virgin biomass, residue, and by-product are used to describe co-products

from forestry, arboriculture, agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture as well as related virgin biomass

industries. The terms and definitions are harmonized as far as possible with the current language used

in management as well as in regulatory activities.

This document only contains terms used to describe solid biofuels within the scope of ISO/TC 238, see

Figure 1.
Figure 1 — ISO/TC 238 within the biomass-biofuel-bioenergy field

Solid biofuels are produced from different sources. Terms and definitions are categorized in a logical

structure based on the fact that solid biofuels are produced from different sources and that solid

biofuels are used to produce bioenergy:
— origin and source of solid biofuels in the overall supply chain;

— the different traded forms as well as the different forms of biofuels produced within the preparation

processes;

— the most relevant solid biofuel properties and terms of sampling and testing as well as classification

and specification;

— the description of the solid biofuels itself as well as their handling and processing given in the same

structure as the biomass sources;
— bioenergy as the result of solid biofuel conversion.

Appropriate terms for sampling and testing as well as classification and specification of properties

should be defined and described together with the category source/origin, type and properties of

solid biofuels. The inclusion of terms defined in this document is, in many cases, based on the detailed

classification system of solid biofuels given in ISO 17225-1.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16559:2022(E)
Solid biofuels — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document establishes a vocabulary for solid biofuels. This document only includes raw and

processed material originating from
— forestry and arboriculture,
— agriculture and horticulture, and
— aquaculture.

NOTE 1 Chemically treated material cannot include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels

higher than those in typical virgin material values (see also ISO 17225-1:2021, Annex B) or higher than typical

values of the country of origin.

NOTE 2 Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit and aquatic biomass and biodegradable

waste originating from above sectors.

Materials originating from different recycling processes of end-of-life-products are outside the scope

of this document but relevant terms are included for information. Liquid biofuels (ISO/TC 28/SC 7),

natural gas (ISO/TC 193) and solid recovered fuels (ISO/TC 300) are outside the scope of this document.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminology databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
absorption

phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid permeates or is

dissolved by a liquid or solid (the absorbent)

Note 1 to entry: Adsorption (3.3) is a surface-based process while absorption involves the whole volume (3.214) of

the material.
3.2
additive

material which has been intentionally introduced into the fuel feedstock (3.86) to improve quality

(3.160) of fuel (3.99) (e.g. combustion or durability properties), to reduce emissions or to make

production more efficient

Note 1 to entry: Trace amounts of, e.g. grease or other lubricants that are introduced into the fuel (3.99)

processing stream as part of typical mill operations are not considered as additives.

[SOURCE: ISO 17225-2:2021, 3.1]
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.3
adsorption

phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid adheres to a

surface whereby the process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent

3.4
agrofuel

biofuel (3.27) obtained from energy crops (3.76) and/or agricultural by-products (agricultural residues)

[SOURCE: FAO unified bioenergy terminology (UBET)]
3.5
air-dried

in a condition, in which the solid biofuel (3.185) has been brought to equilibrium moisture content

(3.132) by drying in air
3.6
angle of drain

steepest angle of descent within a silo or a hopper when granular material on the slope face is on the

verge of sliding

Note 1 to entry: The angle of drain is measured in degrees of slope relative to the horizontal plane.

Note 2 to entry: The angle of drain is typically a few degrees higher than the angle of repose (3.7).

3.7
angle of repose
critical angle of repose

steepest angle of descent of a stock pile when granular material on the slope face is on the verge of

sliding

Note 1 to entry: The angle of repose is measured in degrees of the slope of material relative to the horizontal

plane.

Note 2 to entry: The angle of repose is typically a few degrees lower than the angle of drain (3.6).

3.8
animal biomass
biomass (3.32) obtained from livestock

Note 1 to entry: Animal biomass is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only.

3.9
animal by-products
animal residues

agricultural by-products (or agricultural residues) obtained from livestock operations

Note 1 to entry: It includes among others solid excreta of animals.
3.10
aquatic biomass
biomass (3.32) from hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes

Note 1 to entry: Hydrophytes are plants that have adapted to living in or on aquatic environments.

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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.11
as determined
as analysed

reference moisture content (3.132) of the material at the moment of analysis/determination

Note 1 to entry: “ad” is used as a subscript, e.g. M is equivalent to moisture content (3.132) at the time of

determination.
3.12
as received
as delivered
calculation basis for a material in the delivery state
Note 1 to entry: The abbreviation of as received is "ar".
3.13
ash
ash content
total ash

mass of inorganic residue remaining after complete combustion of a fuel (3.99) under specified

conditions, typically expressed as a percentage of the mass of dry matter (3.71) in fuel (3.99)

Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).

Note 2 to entry: Depending on the combustion efficiency, the ash can contain combustibles.

Note 3 to entry: If a complete combustion is realised, ash contains only inorganic, non-combustible components.

3.14
ash deformation temperature
deformation temperature
temperature at which first signs of melting occur
Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).

Note 2 to entry: Ash deformation temperature can be seen as rounding of the edges, smoothing of surfaces,

expansion of the cylinder or general changing of the cylinder shape. If the test piece starts to swell or bubble

without the edges being rounded, the temperature is registered as DT (since swelling and bubbling only occur

when a fraction of the ash (3.13) is melted).

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.2, modified — First preferred term added, Notes 1 and 3 to entry deleted,

new Note 1 to entry added.]
3.15
ash flow temperature
flow temperature

temperature at which the ash (3.13) is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which

is half of the height of the test piece at the ash hemisphere temperature (3.16)
Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.16
ash hemisphere temperature
hemisphere temperature

temperature at which the test piece forms approximately a hemisphere, i.e. when the height is half of

the base diameter
Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.3, modified — First preferred term added, Note to entry added.]

3.17
ash melting behaviour
ash fusibility

characteristic set of temperatures at which the ash (3.13) undergoes certain physical stages of melting

during heating under specific conditions

Note 1 to entry: Ash melting behaviour is determined under either oxidising or reducing conditions.

Note 2 to entry: See also ash deformation temperature (3.14), ash flow temperature (3.15), ash hemisphere

temperature (3.16) and ash shrinkage starting temperature (3.18).
3.18
ash shrinkage starting temperature
shrinkage starting temperature
SST

temperature at which the area of a test piece falls below 95 % of the original test piece area under

specific conditions due to shrinking of a test piece
Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17).

Note 2 to entry: Shrinkage can be due to liberation of carbon dioxide and volatile alkali compounds. It can also be

due to sintering and may be a first sign of partial melting.

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.1, modified — First preferred term added, Note 1 to entry added.]

3.19
bag weight
weight of the fuel (3.99) including the bag
3.20
baled biofuel
bale

solid biofuel (3.185) which has been compressed and bound to keep its shape and bulk density (3.40)

EXAMPLE Straw bales, bales of energy grass (3.80), bales of logging residues (3.124).

3.21
bark

organic cellular tissue which is formed by taller plants (trees, bushes) on the outside of the growth zone

(cambium) as a shell for the wooden body
3.22
basic density

ratio of the mass on dry basis (3.70) and the solid volume (3.187) as received (3.12)

3.23
bio-based
derived from biomass (3.32)
[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.1 modified — Notes to entry deleted.]
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.24
bio-based content
fraction of a fuel (3.99) that is derived from biomass (3.32)

Note 1 to entry: Typically expressed as a percentage of the total mass (3.205) of the product.

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.4, modified — "product" changed to "fuel" and Note 2 to entry deleted.]

3.25
bio-based product
bio-based industrial product
bioproduct
product wholly or partly derived from biomass (3.32)

Note 1 to entry: The bio-based product is typically characterized by the bio-based (3.23) carbon content (3.202) or

the bio-based content (3.24).

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.5, modified — Two new preferred terms added; Note 1 to entry modified

and Notes 2 and 3 to entry deleted.]
3.26
bioenergy
energy derived from biomass (3.32)
3.27
biofuel

solid, liquid or gaseous fuel (3.99) produced directly or indirectly from biomass (3.32)

3.28
biofuel blend
biofuel resulting from intentionally mixing of different biofuels (3.27)

EXAMPLE Straw or energy grass (3.80) with wood, dried biosludge (3.37) with bark (3.21).

3.29
biofuel briquette

densified biofuel (3.64) made with or without additives (3.2) in pre-determined geometric form with at

least two dimensions (length, width, height) of more than 25 mm, produced by compressing biomass

(3.32)
3.30
biofuel mixture

biofuel (3.27) resulting from natural or unintentional mixing of different biofuels (3.27) and/or different

types of biomass (3.32)
3.31
biofuel pellet

densified biofuel (3.64) made with or without additives (3.2) usually with a cylindrical form, random

length typically 5 mm to 40 mm and diameter up to 25 mm and broken ends, produced by compressing

biomass (3.32)

Note 1 to entry: Usually the biomass (3.32) has been milled before densification.

Note 2 to entry: See also non-woody pellet (3.140) and wood pellet (3.224).
3.32
biomass

material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized

EXAMPLE Including but not limited to energy crops (3.76), agricultural crops and trees, food, feed and fibre

crop residues, aquatic plants, algae, forestry and wood residues, agricultural wastes, processing by-products and

other non-fossil organic matters (3.143).
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ISO 16559:2022(E)

Note 1 to entry: See also aquatic biomass (3.10), fruit biomass (3.98), herbaceous biomass (3.110) and woody

biomass (3.227).
3.33
biomass by-product

secondary product which is made incidentally during the production of something else

EXAMPLE Sawdust (3.176) when sawing timber.
3.34
biomass residue

biomass (3.32) from well-defined side-streams from forestry, agriculture, aquaculture and related

industrial operations
EXAMPLE Olive press cake after pressing of oil, logging residues (3.124).
3.35
biomass resource owner
body or enterprise with the right to exploit the biomass (3.32) resources

Note 1 to entry: The biomass resource owner can be a land or forest owner, a company, etc.

3.36
biomethane
methane produced from biomass (3.32), e.g. solid biofuels (3.185)

Note 1 to entry: Biomethane is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only.

3.37
biosludge

sludge formed in the aeration basin during biological waste water treatment or biological treatment

process and separated by sedimentation or flotation

Note 1 to entry: Biosludge must be treated for the transformation into solid biomass (3.32).

3.38
black liquor
fluid containing lignin (3.121) removed from the wood in the pulping process
Note 1 to entry: Black liquor also contains pulping chemicals.

Note 2 to entry: Black liquor is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only.

3.39
bridging
arching

tendency of particles (3.147) to form a stable arch across an opening which restricts flow

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.8, modified — "bridge" replaced by "arch".]
3.40
bulk density

mass of a portion of a particulate matter divided by the volume (3.214) of the container which is filled

by that portion under specific conditions

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.9, modified — abbreviation “BD” added, "solid fuel" replaced by "particulate

matter", text in parentheses deleted.]
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.41
bulk permeability
permeability in storage

ability of gas such as air to pass through the void spaces in biomass (3.32) during storage

3 2

Note 1 to entry: Permeability is measured in pressure (Pa) vs. flow of gas (m /s/m ) and depends for example

on the viscosity and density (3.65) of the gas (including moisture content (3.132) and temperature), shape, and

orientation of particles (3.147) and the bulk porosity of biomass (3.32).
3.42
bundled biofuel
bundle

solid biofuels (3.185) which have been bound together and where there is a lengthwise orientation of

the material

EXAMPLE Bundles of short rotation coppice (3.178), logging residues (3.124) or small trees.

3.43
calorific value
heating value
energy amount per unit mass released on complete combustion

Note 1 to entry: Q is used as designation for the net calorific value (3.136) as received (3.12) basis at constant

pressure (q ).
p,net,ar

Note 2 to entry: See also gross calorific value (3.106), energy density (3.77), net calorific value (3.136).

3.44
cereal crops
annual crops grown with the main purpose of using the seed for food production
EXAMPLE Barley, wheat, rye, oat.
Note 1 to entry: Some cereal crops can be used as a solid biofuel (3.185).
3.45
certified reference material
CRM

reference material (3.164) of which one or more property values are certified by a technically valid

procedure, accompanied by or traceable to a certificate or other documentation which is issued by a

certifying body
3.46
charcoal
biochar
biocarbon
biocoke
biocoal

solid biofuel (3.185) derived from carbonization, distillation or pyrolysis of biomass (3.32)

[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.47
chemical treatment
any treatment with chemicals other than air, water or heat
[SOURCE: ISO 17225-1:2021, 3.1, modified — Note 1 to entry deleted.]
3.48
chopped straw
straw which has been cut into small pieces
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.49
chunkwood

wood cut with sharp cutting devices where most of the material have typical particle (3.147) lengths of

50 mm to 150 mm

Note 1 to entry: Chunkwood is substantially longer and coarser than wood chips (3.222).

3.50
coarse pellet fines
CPF

particles (3.147) with a size ranging from ≥3,15 mm to <5,6 mm resulting from breakage of pellets

during production or handling

Note 1 to entry: The fraction of coarse pellet fines contains all particles (3.147) which pass through a sieve with

an aperture size of 5,6 mm round hole and which are retained on a sieve with an aperture size of 3,15 mm round

hole.
3.51
coke

solid residue of impure carbon obtained from carbon rich feedstock (3.86) after removal of volatile

material by destructive distillation
[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.52
combined sample
composite sample

sample (3.168) consisting of all the increments (3.118) taken from a lot (3.126) or a sub-lot (3.193)

Note 1 to entry: The increments (3.118) may be reduced by division before being added to the combined sample.

Note 2 to entry: See also Annex A.
3.53
complete tree
tree, including branches and root system
Note 1 to entry: See also whole tree (3.218).
3.54
contamination

occurrence of any undesirable matter such as chemical, physical and/or microbiological matter in the

product
[SOURCE: ISO 22716:2007, 2.10]
3.55
co-product
any of two or more products coming from the same unit process or product system
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.10]
3.56
critical control point
CCP

quality control (3.162) point within or between processes at which relevant properties can be most

readily assessed and which offer the greatest potential for quality (3.160) improvement

3.57
cross-cut ends

short pieces of woody biomass (3.227) which occur when the ends of logs or sawn timber are cross cut

off, with or without bark (3.21)
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.58
cutter chips

wood chips (3.222) made as a by-product of the wood processing industry, with or without bark (3.21)

3.59
deflagration

violent event describing subsonic combustion propagating by means of hot burning material [usually

dust (3.73)] heating the next layer of cold material and igniting it in consecutive sequence

Note 1 to entry: The process can be characterized as an exploding fire whereby the burning material partly

deposits on surfaces in its path and causing significant damage and injuries.
[SOURCE: EN 13857-1:2003, 2.13, modified — With regard to solid biofuels.]
3.60
deflagration index

measure in bar meter per second and is a product of the pressure rate and propagation of an explosion

(3.83) as established by testing standards
3.61
delivery agreement

contract for fuel (3.99) trade, which specifies, e.g. origin and source, quality (3.160) and quantity of the

fuel (3.99), as well as delivery terms
3.62
delivery lot

amount of a solid biofuel (3.185) delivery to which the essential quality (3.160) requirements are related

Note 1 to entry: The delivery lot can be an individual delivery lot, which is an agreed quantity of solid biofuel

(3.185) (e.g. a package, shipload or truck load), or continuous delivery, where several loads are delivered to the

end-user (3.75) during an agreed period of time (usually daily or weekly delivery).

Note 2 to entry: In continuous delivery, the delivery lot is the amount of solid biofuel (3.185) delivered during a

specified period of time, e.g. 24 h, unless otherwise agreed by supplier (3.195) and end-user (3.75). If the delivery

lot in continuous delivery is more than 1 500 to 2 000 m in 24 h, it should be divided into two or more individual

lots (3.126).
3.63
demolition wood

used wood (3.212) arising from demolition of buildings or civil engineering installations

3.64
densified biofuel
compressed biofuel

solid biofuel (3.185) made by mechanically compressing biomass (3.32) or thermally treated biomass

(3.200) to mould the solid biofuel (3.185) into a specific size and shape such as cubes, pressed logs,

biofuel pellets (3.31) or biofuel briquettes (3.29)
3.65
density
ratio of mass to volume (3.214) or ratio of energy content to volume (3.214)

Note 1 to entry: It shall always be stated whether the density refers to the density of individual particles (3.147)

or to the bulk density (3.40) of the material and whether the mass of water in the material is included.

Note 2 to entry: See also particle density (3.148) and energy density (3.77).
3.66
desorption
phenomenon whereby a substance is released from or through a surface

Note 1 to entry: The process is the opposite of absorption (3.1) and adsorption (3.3).

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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.67
detonation

violent event generated by sudden expansion of gas in to a supersonic shock wave (molecular speed

higher than the speed of sound) not followed by fire
3.68
devolatilization

process (usually pyrolysis or gasification) whereby volatile matter (3.213) is removed from carbon rich

feedstock (3.86) [e.g. biomass (3.32)]
[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.69
dry ash free
dry ash free basis
daf

calculation basis in which the solid biofuel (3.185) is considered free from moisture (3.132) and inorganic

matter (3.119)
3.70
dry
dry basis

calculation basis in which the solid biofuel (3.185) is considered free from moisture (3.132)

3.71
dry matter
material remaining after removal of moisture (3.132) under specific conditions
3.72
dry matter content
portion of dry matter (3.71) in the total material on mass basis

Note 1 to entry: Expressed as a percentage of the total mass (3.205) of the solid biofuel (3.185).

3.73
dust

fragmented material of small size passing a 500 µm sieve caused by a non-intentional process

Note 1 to entry: It is opposed to fuel powder (3.101) which is intentionally manufactured to size.

3.74
edgings

parts of woody biomass (3.227) which occur when trimming sawn timber and which show a remainder

of the original rounded surface of the tree, with or without bark (3.21)
3.75
end-user
consumer (private person, enterprise, utility etc.) using biofuel (3.27)
3.76
energy crops

woody or herbaceous crops grown and harvested specifically for their fuel (3.99) value

Note 1 to entry: See also energy forest trees (3.78), energy grass (3.80).
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.77
energy density
ratio of net energy content and bulk volume (3.125)

Note 1 to entry: The energy density is calculated using the net calorific value (3.136) determined and the bulk

density (3.40).
3.78
energy forest trees

woody biomass (3.227) grown specifically for its fuel (3.99) value in medium to long rotation forestry

3.79
energy grain
grain used for energy purpose
3.80
energy grass
herbaceous energy crop (3.76)
EXAMPLE Sugarcane, Miscanthus, Reed canary grass.
3.81
energy wood
fuelwood

wood fuel (3.223) where the original composition of the wood is maintained and which has only been

threated mechanically
3.82
explosibility

propensity by gaseous, liquid or solid material to ignite and violently transform to high pressure gas

while emitting sound and light, and typically followed by fire
3.83
explosion
violent event emitting sound, and light typically followed by fire

Note 1 to entry: An initial explosion, often referred to as primary explosion, can dislodge dust (3.73) deposited

on beams, floor, machinery etc. and ignite this material resulting in a secondary explosion, usually a few seconds

after the first explosion.

Note 2 to entry: Thermal energy is transferred from the first to the second explosion through deflagration (3.59).

[SOURCE: EN 16256-1:2012, 2.9, modified — Notes to entry added.]
3.84
extraneous ash

ash (3.13) from contaminants entering the material at harvest, logging, treatment, transport, storage,

etc.
3.85
extraneous material
foreign matter
non-biomass (3.32) material, which has entered the fuel (3.99)

Note 1 to entry: See also impurity (3.117) and heavy extraneous material (3.109).

EXAMPLE Plastic, metal or stone.
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ISO 16559:2022(E)
3.8
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 16559
Deuxième édition
2022-01
Biocombustibles solides —
Vocabulaire
Solid biofuels — Vocabulary
Numéro de référence
ISO 16559:2022(F)
© ISO 2022
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2022

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publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique,

y compris la photocopie, ou la diffusion sur l’internet ou sur un intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Une autorisation peut

être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

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© ISO 2022 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d'application ...................................................................................................................................................................................1

2 Références normatives ..................................................................................................................................................................................1

3 Termes et définitions ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annexe A (informative) Schéma de hiérarchie des échantillons ........................................................................................28

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................30

iii
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a

été rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir

www.iso.org/directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www.iso.org/avant-propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 238, Biocombustibles solides, en

collaboration avec le comité technique CEN/TC 335, Biocombustibles solides, du Comité européen de

normalisation (CEN) conformément à l'Accord de coopération technique entre l'ISO et le CEN (Accord

de Vienne).

Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition (ISO 16559:2014), qui a fait l'objet d'une

révision technique.
Les principales modifications sont les suivantes:
— l'Article 3 a été mis à jour;
— le titre du présent document a été modifié;
— l'Annexe A a été ajoutée.

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www.iso.org/fr/members.html.
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
Introduction

Quelques-uns des termes inclus dans le présent document ne sont utilisés que dans certains pays.

Dans le présent document, les termes «biomasse vierge», «sous-produit» et «produit dérivé» sont utilisés

pour décrire les coproduits de la sylviculture, de l'arboriculture, de l'agriculture, de l'horticulture et de

l'aquaculture ainsi que les industries associées à la biomasse vierge. Les termes et les définitions ont

été harmonisés autant que possible avec le vocabulaire employé à la fois dans le domaine de la gestion

et dans le cadre des activités de réglementation.

Le présent document ne contient que des termes utilisés pour la description des biocombustibles solides

dans les limites du domaine d'application de l'ISO/TC 238, voir Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Intégration de l'ISO/TC 238 au champ d'application
biomasse-biocombustible-bioénergie

Les biocombustibles solides sont produits à partir de différentes sources. Les termes et les définitions

sont classés selon une structure logique fondée sur le fait que les biocombustibles solides sont produits

à partir de différentes sources et qu'ils permettent de produire de la bioénergie:

— l'origine et la source des biocombustibles solides dans la chaîne d'approvisionnement générale;

— les différentes formes commercialisées et les différents types de biocombustibles issus du processus

de préparation;

— les propriétés les plus importantes des biocombustibles solides et les termes d'échantillonnage et

d'essai, ainsi que la classification et la spécification;

— la description des biocombustibles solides ainsi que leur manipulation et traitement, indiquée selon

la même structure que les sources de la biomasse;
— la bioénergie résultant de la conversion du biocombustible solide.

Il convient de définir et de décrire les termes appropriés d'échantillonnage et d'essai ainsi que la

classification et la spécification des propriétés dans la catégorie nature/origine, type et propriétés

des biocombustibles solides. Dans de nombreux cas, l'intégration de termes définis dans le présent

document est fondée sur le système de classification détaillé des biocombustibles solides donné dans

l'ISO 17225-1.
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 16559:2022(F)
Biocombustibles solides — Vocabulaire
1 Domaine d'application

Le présent document établit un vocabulaire pour les biocombustibles solides. Le présent document ne

couvre que les matières premières et les matières issues de processus provenant de:

— la sylviculture et l'arboriculture;
— l'agriculture et l'horticulture; et
— l'aquaculture.

NOTE 1 Les niveaux de composés organiques halogénés ou de métaux lourds inclus dans les matériaux

traités chimiquement ne peuvent pas dépasser les valeurs des matériaux vierges (voir également l'Annexe B de

l'ISO 17225-1:2021) ou les valeurs types du pays d'origine.

NOTE 2 Les matières premières et les matières transformées comprennent la biomasse ligneuse, herbacée,

fruitière et aquatique ainsi que des déchets biodégradables provenant des secteurs cités ci-dessus.

Les matériaux provenant de différents processus de recyclage de produits en fin de vie ne relèvent

pas du domaine d'application du présent document, mais les termes qui s'y rapportent sont inclus à

titre d'information. Les biocombustibles liquides (ISO/TC 28/SC 7), le gaz naturel (ISO/TC 193) et les

combustibles solides de récupération (ISO/TC 300) ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application du présent

document.
2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
absorption

phénomène par lequel les atomes, ions ou molécules d'un gaz, liquide ou solide dissous pénètrent dans

un liquide ou un solide (l'absorbant) ou s'y dissolvent

Note 1 à l'article: L'adsorption (3.3) est un processus de surface, alors que l'absorption met en jeu l'intégralité du

volume (3.214) du matériau.
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
3.2
additif

matière qui a été introduite intentionnellement dans la matière première (3.86) du combustible afin

d'améliorer la qualité (3.160) du combustible (3.99) (par exemple, les propriétés de combustion ou de

résistance), de réduire les émissions et de contribuer à la rentabilité de la production

Note 1 à l'article: Des traces, par exemple, de graisse ou d'autres lubrifiants qui sont introduits pendant la

production du combustible (3.99) dans le cadre d'opérations de broyage types ne sont pas considérées comme des

additifs.
[SOURCE: ISO 17225-2:2021, 3.1]
3.3
adsorption

phénomène par lequel les atomes, ions ou molécules d'un gaz, liquide ou solide dissous adhèrent à une

surface permettant au processus de générer un film d'adsorbat à la surface de l'adsorbant

3.4
agrocombustible

biocombustibles (3.27) obtenus à partir de cultures énergétiques (3.76) et/ou de produits dérivés

agricoles (sous-produits agricoles)
[SOURCE: FAO unified bioenergy terminology (UBET)]
3.5
séché à l'air

dans un état dans lequel le biocombustible solide (3.185) a atteint un état d'équilibre avec la teneur en

humidité (3.132) en étant séché à l'air
3.6
angle d'écoulement

angle de descente le plus raide dans un silo ou une trémie lorsqu'un matériau granulaire en face de

pente est sur le point de glisser

Note 1 à l'article: L'angle d'écoulement est mesuré en degrés de pente par rapport au plan horizontal.

Note 2 à l'article: L'angle d'écoulement est généralement supérieur de quelques degrés à l'angle de talus (3.7).

3.7
angle de talus
angle critique de talus

angle de descente le plus raide d'un tas lorsqu'un matériau granulaire en face de pente est sur le point

de glisser

Note 1 à l'article: L'angle de talus est mesuré en degrés de pente par rapport au plan horizontal.

Note 2 à l'article: L'angle de talus est généralement inférieur de quelques degrés à l'angle d'écoulement (3.6).

3.8
biomasse animale
biomasse (3.32) produite par le bétail

Note 1 à l'article: La biomasse animale n'est pas un biocombustible solide (3.185). Ce terme est inclus uniquement

à titre d'information.
3.9
produits dérivés de l'élevage
sous-produits de l'élevage
produits dérivés agricoles (ou sous-produits agricoles) provenant du bétail

Note 1 à l'article: Ils comprennent notamment les excréments solides des animaux.

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ISO 16559:2022(F)
3.10
biomasse aquatique
biomasse (3.32) provenant de plantes hydrophytiques ou d'hydrophytes

Note 1 à l'article: Les hydrophytes sont des plantes vivant dans ou sur des environnements aquatiques.

3.11
tel que déterminé
tel qu'analysé
ad (as determined)

teneur en humidité (3.132) de référence du matériau lors de l'analyse/la détermination

Note 1 à l'article: «ad» est utilisé comme indice, par exemple: M est l'équivalent de la teneur en humidité (3.132)

lors de la détermination.
3.12
à réception
lors de la livraison
base de calcul pour la matière lors de la livraison
Note 1 à l'article: L'abréviation de «à réception» est «ar».
3.13
cendre
teneur en cendre
taux de cendres

masse de sous-produits inorganiques obtenue après combustion complète d'un combustible (3.99) dans

des conditions spécifiées, généralement exprimée en pourcentage de la masse de matière sèche (3.71)

contenue dans le combustible (3.99)
Note 1 à l'article: Voir également comportement des cendres en fusion (3.17).

Note 2 à l'article: Selon l'efficacité de la combustion, la cendre peut contenir des combustibles.

Note 3 à l'article: En cas de combustion complète, la cendre ne contient que des éléments inorganiques et non

combustibles.
3.14
température de déformation des cendres
température de déformation
DT (deformation temperature)
température à laquelle les premiers signes de fusion se manifestent

Note 1 à l'article: La température de déformation des cendres peut se traduire par un arrondissement des bords, un

lissage des surfaces, une expansion du cylindre ou une évolution générale de la forme du cylindre. Si l'éprouvette

commence à gonfler ou à former des bulles sans que les bords soient arrondis, la température est enregistrée en

tant que DT (puisque le gonflement et la formation de bulles ne se produisent que quand une fraction de la cendre

(3.13) est fondue).
Note 2 à l'article: Voir également comportement des cendres en fusion (3.17).

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.2, modifié — Premier terme préférentiel ajouté, Notes 1 et 3 à l'article

supprimées, nouvelle Note 1 à l'article ajoutée.]
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
3.15
température de fluidité de cendre
température de fluidité
FT (flow temperature)

température à laquelle la cendre (3.13) se répand sur la dalle de support en une couche dont la hauteur

est égale à la moitié de celle de l'éprouvette à la température hémisphérique de fusion des cendres (3.16)

Note 1 à l'article: Voir également comportement des cendres en fusion (3.17).
3.16
température hémisphérique de fusion des cendres
température hémisphérique de fusion
HT (hemisphere temperature)

température à laquelle l'éprouvette prend pratiquement une forme hémisphérique, en d'autres termes,

la hauteur est égale à la moitié du diamètre de la base
Note 1 à l'article: Voir également comportement des cendres en fusion (3.17).

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.3, modifié — Premier terme préférentiel ajouté, Note à l'article ajoutée.]

3.17
comportement des cendres en fusion
fusibilité des cendres

série de températures caractéristique auxquelles les cendres (3.13) subissent certains stades physiques

de fusion pendant le chauffage dans des conditions spécifiques

Note 1 à l'article: Le comportement des cendres en fusion est déterminée dans des conditions d'oxydation ou de

réduction.

Note 2 à l'article: Voir également température de déformation des cendres (3.14), température de fluidité de cendre

(3.15), température hémisphérique de fusion des cendres (3.16) et température de contraction initiale des cendres

(3.18).
3.18
température de contraction initiale des cendres
température de contraction initiale
SST (shrinkage starting temperature)

température à laquelle la surface d'une éprouvette descend à moins de 95 % de la surface originale de

l'éprouvette dans des conditions spécifiques en raison du retrait de l'éprouvette

Note 1 à l'article: Voir également comportement des cendres en fusion (3.17).

Note 2 à l'article: Ce retrait peut être dû à la libération de dioxyde de carbone et de composés alcalins volatils. Il

peut aussi être causé par un frittage et peut constituer un premier signe de fusion partielle.

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.1, modifié — Premier terme préférentiel ajouté, Note 1 à l'article ajoutée.]

3.19
poids ensaché
poids du combustible (3.99), sac compris
3.20
biocombustible conditionné en balle
balle

biocombustible solide (3.185) qui a été compressé puis lié afin de conserver sa forme et sa masse

volumique apparente (3.40)

EXEMPLE Balles de paille, balles de culture herbacée à vocation énergétique (3.80), balles de rémanents

forestiers (3.124).
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
3.21
écorce

tissu cellulaire organique formé par des plantes de grande taille (arbres, buissons) à l'extérieur de la

zone de croissance (cambium) servant de protection du corps ligneux
3.22
masse volumique basale

rapport de la masse en base anhydre (3.70) au volume réel (3.187) à réception (3.12)

3.23
biosourcé
issu de la biomasse (3.32)

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.1, modifié — Les Notes à l'article ont été supprimées.]

3.24
teneur biosourcée
fraction d'un combustible (3.99) issu de la biomasse (3.32)

Note 1 à l'article: Généralement exprimée en pourcentage de la masse totale (3.205) du produit.

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.4, modifié — «produit» modifié en «combustible» et Note 2 à l'article

supprimée.]
3.25
produit biosourcé
produit industriel biosourcé
bioproduit
produit entièrement ou partiellement issu de la biomasse (3.32)

Note 1 à l'article: Le produit biosourcé est généralement caractérisé par son taux de carbone (3.202) biosourcé

(3.23) ou par sa teneur biosourcée (3.24).

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.5, modifié — Deux nouveaux termes préférentiels ajoutés; Note 1 à l'article

modifiée et Notes 2 et 3 à l'article supprimées.]
3.26
bioénergie
énergie issue de la biomasse (3.32)
3.27
biocombustible

combustible (3.99) solide, liquide ou gazeux produit directement ou indirectement à partir de la

biomasse (3.32)
3.28
assortiment biocombustible

biocombustible résultant du mélange intentionnel de différents biocombustibles(3.27)

EXEMPLE Mélange de paille ou d'une culture herbacée à vocation énergétique (3.80) avec du bois, de boue

biologique (3.37) sèche avec de l'écorce (3.21).
3.29
briquette biocombustible

biocombustible densifié (3.64) réalisé avec ou sans additifs (3.2) sous une forme géométrique

prédéterminée avec au moins deux dimensions (longueur, largeur, hauteur) de plus de 25 mm, produit

par compression de la biomasse (3.32)
3.30
mélange biocombustible

biocombustible (3.27) résultant du mélange naturel ou non intentionnel de différents biocombustibles

(3.27) et/ou de différents types de biomasse (3.32)
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
3.31
granulé biocombustible

biocombustible densifié (3.64) fabriqué avec ou sans additifs (3.2), habituellement cylindrique, d'une

longueur généralement comprise entre 5 mm et 40 mm, d'un diamètre pouvant atteindre 25 mm et

dont les extrémités ne sont pas planes, produit par compression de la biomasse (3.32)

Note 1 à l'article: La biomasse (3.32) a généralement été broyée avant densification.

Note 2 à l'article: Voir également granulé sans bois densifié (3.140) et granulé de bois (3.224).

3.32
biomasse

matériau d'origine biologique à l'exclusion des matériaux intégrés dans des formations géologiques et/

ou fossilisées

EXEMPLE Cela comprend, sans toutefois s'y limiter, les cultures énergétiques (3.76), cultures agricoles et

arbres, les sous-produits de cultures vivrières, fourragères et de plantes textiles, les sous-produits de plantes

aquatiques, algues, sylviculture et bois, les déchets agricoles, les produits dérivés de la transformation et autres

matières organiques (3.143) non fossilisées.

Note 1 à l'article: Voir également biomasse aquatique (3.10), biomasse fruitière (3.98), biomasse herbacée (3.110) et

biomasse ligneuse (3.227).
3.33
produit dérivé de la biomasse
produit connexe résultant involontairement de la fabrication d'un autre produit
EXEMPLE Sciure (3.176) résultant du sciage de bois de construction.
3.34
sous-produits de transformation de la biomasse

biomasse (3.32) récupérée lors de la récolte ou de la transformation de produits forestiers, agricoles,

aquacoles, en même temps que le produit principal exploité ou fabriqué

EXEMPLE Tourteau d'olives après pressage de l'huile, rémanents forestiers (3.124).

3.35
propriétaire de ressources en biomasse

personne physique ou entreprise disposant du droit d'exploiter les ressources en biomasse (3.32)

Note 1 à l'article: Le propriétaire de ressources en biomasse peut être un propriétaire foncier ou sylvicole, une

société, etc.
3.36
biométhane

méthane produit à partir de la biomasse (3.32), par exemple biocombustibles solides (3.185)

Note 1 à l'article: Le biométhane n'est pas un biocombustible solide (3.185). Ce terme est inclus uniquement à titre

d'information.
3.37
boue biologique

boue formée dans le bassin d'aération au cours du traitement biologique des eaux résiduaires ou du

processus de transformation biologique et séparée par décantation ou flottation

Note 1 à l'article: La boue biologique doit être traitée pour être transformée en biomasse (3.32) solide.

3.38
liqueur noire

fluide contenant de la lignine (3.121) extraite du bois lors du processus de mise en pâte

Note 1 à l'article: La liqueur noire contient également des produits chimiques de mise en pâte.

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ISO 16559:2022(F)

Note 2 à l'article: La liqueur noire n'est pas un biocombustible solide (3.185). Ce terme est inclus uniquement à titre

d'information.
3.39
pontage
voûtage

tendance des particules (3.147) à former une voûte stable au travers d'une ouverture qui restreint le

déplacement
[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.8, modifié — «pont» a été remplacé par «voûte».]
3.40
masse volumique apparente
BD (bulk density)

masse d'une portion de matière particulaire divisée par le volume (3.214) du contenant occupé par

cette portion dans des conditions spécifiques

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.9 modifié — Abréviation «BD» ajoutée, «combustible solide» remplacé par

«matière particulaire», texte entre parenthèses supprimé.]
3.41
perméabilité de volume
perméabilité en stockage

aptitude d'un gaz tel que l'air à passer à travers les espaces vides de la biomasse (3.32) pendant la

période de stockage
3 2

Note 1 à l'article: La perméabilité est mesurée par le rapport entre la pression (Pa) et le flux de gaz (m /s/m ), et

dépend par exemple de la viscosité et de la masse volumique (3.65) du gaz (y compris la teneur en humidité [3.132]

et la température), de la forme et de l'orientation des particules (3.147) et de la porosité volumique de la biomasse

(3.32).
3.42
fagot biocombustible
fagot

ensemble de biocombustibles solides (3.185) qui ont été liés ensemble dans le sens de la longueur

EXEMPLE Fagots de taillis à courte rotation (3.178), rémanents forestiers (3.124) ou petits arbres.

3.43
pouvoir calorifique
valeur calorifique
quantité d'énergie par unité de masse libérée lors d'une combustion complète

Note 1 à l'article: Q est utilisé comme désignation pour le pouvoir calorifique inférieur (3.136) sur base à réception

(3.12) à pression constante (q ).
p,net,ar

Note 2 à l'article: Voir également pouvoir calorifique supérieur (3.106), densité d'énergie (3.77), pouvoir calorifique

inférieur (3.136).
3.44
cultures céréalières

cultures annuelles dont le principal objectif consiste à utiliser la semence pour la production alimentaire

EXEMPLE Orge, blé, seigle, avoine.

Note 1 à l'article: Certaines cultures céréalières peuvent être utilisées comme biocombustible solide(3.185).

© ISO 2022 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
3.45
matériau de référence certifié
CRM (certified reference material)

matériau de référence (3.164) dont une ou plusieurs valeurs des propriétés sont certifiées par une

procédure techniquement valide accompagnée soit d'un certificat de traçabilité soit de tout autre

document émis par un organisme de certification
3.46
charbon de bois
biocharbon
biocarbone
biocoke
charbon vert

biocombustible solide (3.185) obtenu par carbonisation, distillation ou pyrolyse de la biomasse (3.32)

[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.47
traitement chimique

tout traitement impliquant des produits chimiques autres que l'air, l'eau ou la chaleur

[SOURCE: ISO 17225-1:2021, 3.1, modifié — La Note 1 à l'article a été supprimée.]

3.48
paille hachée
paille coupée en petits morceaux
3.49
broyat

bois découpé avec des outils très tranchants et dans lequel la majeure partie du matériau présente des

longueurs de particule (3.147) entre 50 mm et 150 mm

Note 1 à l'article: Le broyat est de longueur sensiblement supérieure aux plaquettes de bois (3.222) et d'aspect

plus grossier.
3.50
fines grossières de granulés
CPF (coarse pellet fines)

particules (3.147) de taille supérieure ou égale à 3,15 mm et inférieure à 5,6 mm, issues de la rupture de

granulés au cours de leur production ou de leur manipulation

Note 1 à l'article: La fraction de fines grossières de granulés comprend toutes les particules (3.147) qui passent au

travers d'un tamis avec un maillage à trous ronds de 5,6 mm et qui sont retenues par un tamis avec un maillage à

trous ronds de 3,15 mm.
3.51
coke

sous-produit solide de carbone impur obtenu à partir d'une matière première (3.86) riche en carbone

après élimination des matières volatiles par distillation destructive
[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.52
échantillon composite
échantillon composé

échantillon (3.168) constitué de tous les prélèvements élémentaires (3.118) issus d'un lot (3.126) ou d'un

sous-lot (3.193)

Note 1 à l'article: Les prélèvements élémentaires (3.118) peuvent être réduits par division avant d'être ajoutés à

l'échantillon composite.
Note 2 à l'article: Voir également l'Annexe A.
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
3.53
arbre exploité à la culée noire
arbre, y compris les branches et les racines
Note 1 à l'article: Voir également arbre entier (3.218).
3.54
contamination

présence d'éléments indésirables tels que des éléments chimiques, physiques et/ou microbiologiques

dans le produit
[SOURCE: ISO 22716:2007, 2.10]
3.55
coproduit

l'un quelconque de deux produits ou plus issus du même processus élémentaire ou système de produits

[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.10]
3.56
point critique de contrôle
CCP (critical control point)

point de maîtrise de la qualité (3.162) d'un processus ou entre plusieurs processus auquel les propriétés

étudiées peuvent être évaluées le plus aisément et qui offrent également un potentiel des plus

importants en termes d'amélioration de la qualité (3.160)
3.57
culées et chutes de tronçonnage

petits morceaux de biomasse ligneuse (3.227) produits lorsque l'extrémité des grumes ou des plots est

tronçonnée, avec ou sans écorce (3.21)
3.58
plaquettes

plaquettes de bois (3.222) obtenues comme produit dérivé de l'industrie de transformation du bois, avec

ou sans écorce (3.21)
3.59
déflagration

événement violent consistant en une combustion subsonique qui se propage au moyen de matériau

chaud et en train de brûler (généralement de la poussière [3.73]), qui chauffe la couche suivante de

matériau froid et l'enflamme suivant un enchaînement consécutif

Note 1 à l'article: Ce processus peut être caractérisé comme un incendie explosif, durant lequel une partie du

matériau brûlant se dépose sur les surfaces se trouvant sur sa trajectoire, entraînant des blessures et dégâts

importants.

[SOURCE: EN 13857-1:2003,2.13, modifié — Pour ce qui concerne les biocombustibles solides.]

3.60
indice de déflagration

mesure en bar mètre par seconde et produit du taux de pression et propagation d'une explosion (3.83)

comme établi par des normes d'essai
3.61
contrat de livraison

contrat régissant le commerce de combustible (3.99), spécifiant par exemple l'origine et la source, la

qualité (3.160) et la quantité de combustible (3.99), ainsi que les conditions de livraison

© ISO 2022 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16559:2022(F)
3.62
lot livré

quantité de biocombustible solide (3.185) livrée à laquelle les exigences qualité (3.160) essentielles sont

associées

Note 1 à l'article: Le lot livré peut être individuel, en d'autres termes, une quantité convenue de biocombustible

solide (3.185) (par exemple, un paquet, un chargement par bateau ou par camion), ou il peut s'agir d'une livraison

suivie avec plusieurs livraisons remises à l'utilisateur final (3.75) durant une période de temps convenue

(traditionnellement une livraison quotidienne ou hebdomadaire).

Note 2 à l'article: En livraison suivie, le lot livré est la quantité de biocombustible solide (3.185) livrée durant une

période de temps spécifiée, par exemple 24 h, s
...

FINAL
INTERNATIONAL ISO/FDIS
DRAFT
STANDARD 16559
ISO/TC 238
Solid biofuels — Vocabulary
Secretariat: SIS
Voting begins on: Biocombustibles solides — Vocabulaire
2021­09­03
Voting terminates on:
2021­10­29
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO
SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION
OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPOR TING
DOCUMENTATION.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Reference number
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL, TECHNO­
ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
LOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND USER PURPOSES,
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS MAY ON
OCCASION HAVE TO BE CONSIDERED IN THE
LIGHT OF THEIR POTENTIAL TO BECOME STAN­
DARDS TO WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
NATIONAL REGULATIONS. ISO 2021
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH­1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Annex A (informative) Scheme of sample hierarchy .........................................................................................................................27

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................29

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non­governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels, in collaboration with

the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 335, Solid biofuels, in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16559:2014), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— Clause 3 has been updated;
— the title of this document has been changed;
— Annex A has been added.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
Introduction

Some of the terms included in this document are only used in particular countries.

In this document, terms for virgin biomass, residue, and by-product are used to describe co-products

from forestry, arboriculture, agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture as well as related virgin biomass

industries. The terms and definitions are harmonized as far as possible with the current language used

in management as well as in regulatory activities.

This document only contains terms used to describe solid biofuels within the scope of ISO/TC 238, see

Figure 1.
Figure 1 — ISO/TC 238 within the biomass-biofuel-bioenergy field

Solid biofuels are produced from different sources. Terms and definitions are categorized in a logical

structure based on the fact that solid biofuels are produced from different sources and that solid

biofuels are used to produce bioenergy:
— origin and source of solid biofuels in the overall supply chain;

— the different traded forms as well as the different forms of biofuels produced within the preparation

processes;

— the most relevant solid biofuel properties and terms of sampling and testing as well as classification

and specification;

— the description of the solid biofuels itself as well as their handling and processing given in the same

structure as the biomass sources;
— bioenergy as the result of solid biofuel conversion.

Appropriate terms for sampling and testing as well as classification and specification of properties

should be defined and described together with the category source/origin, type and properties of

solid biofuels. The inclusion of terms defined in this document is, in many cases, based on the detailed

classification system of solid biofuels given in ISO 17225-1.
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FINAL DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
Solid biofuels — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document establishes a vocabulary for solid biofuels. This document only includes raw and

processed material originating from
— forestry and arboriculture,
— agriculture and horticulture, and
— aquaculture.

NOTE 1 Chemically treated material cannot include halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels

higher than those in typical virgin material values (see also ISO 17225-1:2021, Annex B) or higher than typical

values of the country of origin.

NOTE 2 Raw and processed material includes woody, herbaceous, fruit and aquatic biomass and biodegradable

waste originating from above sectors.

Materials originating from different recycling processes of end-of-life-products are outside the scope

of this document but relevant terms are included for information. Liquid biofuels (ISO/TC 28/SC 7),

natural gas (ISO/TC 193) and solid recovered fuels (ISO/TC 300) are outside the scope of this document.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
absorption

phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid permeates or is

dissolved by a liquid or solid (the absorbent)

Note 1 to entry: Adsorption (3.3) is a surface­based process while absorption involves the whole volume (3.214) of

the material.
3.2
additive

material which has been intentionally introduced into the fuel feedstock (3.86) to improve quality (3.160)

of fuel (3.99) (e.gcombustion or durability properties), to reduce emissions or to make production more

efficient

Note 1 to entry: Trace amounts of, e.g. grease or other lubricants that are introduced into the fuel (3.99)

processing stream as part of typical mill operations are not considered as additives.

[SOURCE: ISO 17225-2:2021, 3.1]
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.3
adsorption

phenomenon whereby atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid adheres to a

surface whereby the process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface of the adsorbent

3.4
agrofuel

biofuel (3.27) obtained from energy crops (3.76) and/or agricultural by-products (agricultural residues)

[SOURCE: FAO unified bioenergy terminology (UBET)]
3.5
air-dried

in a condition, in which the solid biofuel (3.185) has been brought to equilibrium moisture content

(3.132) by drying in air
3.6
angle of drain

steepest angle of descent within a silo or a hopper when granular material on the slope face is on the

verge of sliding

Note 1 to entry: The angle of drain is measured in degrees of slope relative to the horizontal plane.

Note 2 to entry: The angle of drain is typically a few degrees higher than the angle of repose (3.7).

3.7
angle of repose
critical angle of repose

steepest angle of descent of a stock pile when granular material on the slope face is on the verge of

sliding

Note 1 to entry: The angle of response is measured in degrees of the slope of material relative to the horizontal

plane.

Note 2 to entry: The angle of repose is typically a few degrees lower than the angle of drain (3.6).

3.8
animal biomass
biomass (3.32) obtained from livestock

Note 1 to entry: Animal biomass is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only.

3.9
animal by-products
animal residues

agricultural by-products (or agricultural residues) obtained from livestock operations

Note 1 to entry: It includes among others solid excreta of animals.
3.10
aquatic biomass
biomass (3.32) from hydrophytic plants or hydrophytes

Note 1 to entry: Hydrophytes are plants that have adapted to living in or on aquatic environments.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.11
as determined
as analysed

reference moisture content (3.132) of the material at the moment of analysis/determination

Note 1 to entry: “ad” is used as a subscript, e.g. M is equivalent to moisture content (3.132) at the time of

determination.
3.12
as received
as delivered
calculation basis for a material in the delivery state
Note 1 to entry: The abbreviation of as received is "ar".
3.13
ash
ash content
total ash

mass of inorganic residue remaining after complete combustion of a fuel (3.99) under specified

conditions, typically expressed as a percentage of the mass of dry matter (3.71) in fuel (3.99)

Note 1 to entry: See also ash melting behaviour (3.17) and ash fusibility.

Note 2 to entry: Depending on the combustion efficiency, the ash can contain combustibles.

Note 3 to entry: If a complete combustion is realised, ash contains only inorganic, non-combustible components.

3.14
ash deformation temperature
deformation temperature
temperature at which first signs of melting occur

Note 1 to entry: Ash deformation temperature can be seen as rounding of the edges, smoothing of surfaces,

expansion of the cylinder or general changing of the cylinder shape. If the test piece starts to swell or bubble

without the edges being rounded, the temperature is registered as DT (since swelling and bubbling only occur

when a fraction of the ash (3.13) is melted).

[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.2, modified — First preferred term added, Notes 1 and Note 3 to entry

deleted, Note 2 to entry changed to Note 1 to entry.]
3.15
ash flow temperature
flow temperature

temperature at which the ash (3.13) is spread out over the supporting tile in a layer, the height of which

is half of the height of the test piece at the ash hemisphere temperature (3.16)
3.16
ash hemisphere temperature
hemisphere temperature

temperature at which the test piece forms approximately a hemisphere, i.e. when the height is half of

the base diameter
[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.3, modified — First preferred term added.]
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.17
ash melting behaviour
ash fusibility

characteristic set of temperatures at which the ash (3.13) undergoes certain physical stages of melting

during heating under specific conditions

Note 1 to entry: Ash fusibility is determined under either oxidising or reducing conditions.

Note 2 to entry: See also ash deformation temperature (3.14), ash flow temperature (3.15), ash hemisphere

temperature (3.16) and ash shrinkage starting temperature (3.18).
3.18
ash shrinkage starting temperature
shrinkage starting temperature
SST

temperature at which the area of a test piece falls below 95 % of the original test piece area under

specific conditions due to shrinking of a test piece

Note 1 to entry: Shrinkage can be due to liberation of carbon dioxide and volatile alkali compounds. It can also be

due to sintering and may be a first sign of partial melting.
[SOURCE: ISO 21404:2020, 3.1, modified — First preferred term added.]
3.19
bag weight
weight of the fuel (3.99) including the bag
3.20
baled biofuel
bale

solid biofuel (3.185) which has been compressed and bound to keep its shape and bulk density (3.40)

EXAMPLE Straw bales, bales of energy grass (3.80), bales of logging residues (3.124).

3.21
bark

organic cellular tissue which is formed by taller plants (trees, bushes) on the outside of the growth zone

(cambium) as a shell for the wooden body
3.22
basic density

ratio of the mass on dry basis (3.70) and the solid volume (3.187) as received (3.12)

3.23
bio-based
derived from biomass (3.32)
[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.1 modified — Notes to entry deleted.]
3.24
bio-based content
fraction of a fuel (3.99) that is derived from biomass (3.32)

Note 1 to entry: Typically expressed as a percentage of the total mass (3.205) of the product.

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.4, modified — "product" changed to "fuel" and Note 2 to entry deleted.]

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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.25
bio-based product
bio-based industrial product
bioproduct
product wholly or partly derived from biomass (3.32)

Note 1 to entry: The bio-based product is typically characterized by the bio-based (3.23) carbon content (3.202) or

the bio-based content (3.24).

[SOURCE: EN 16575:2013, 2.5, modified — Two new preferred terms added; Note 1 to entry modified

and Notes 2 and 3 to entry deleted.]
3.26
bioenergy
energy derived from biomass (3.32)
3.27
biofuel

solid, liquid or gaseous fuel (3.99) produced directly or indirectly from biomass (3.32)

3.28
biofuel blend
biofuel resulting from intentionally mixing of different biofuels (3.27)

EXAMPLE Straw or energy grass (3.80) with wood, dried biosludge (3.37) with bark (3.21).

3.29
biofuel briquette

densified biofuel (3.64) made with or without additives (3.2) in pre­determined geometric form with at

least two dimensions (length, width, height) of more than 25 mm, produced by compressing biomass

(3.32)
3.30
biofuel mixture

biofuel (3.27) resulting from natural or unintentional mixing of different biofuels (3.27) and/or different

types of biomass (3.32)
3.31
biofuel pellet

densified biofuel (3.64) made with or without additives (3.2) usually with a cylindrical form, random

length typically 5 mm to 40 mm and diameter up to 25 mm and broken ends, produced by compressing

biomass (3.32)

Note 1 to entry: Usually the biomass (3.32) has been milled before densification.

Note 2 to entry: See also non-woody pellet (3.140) and wood pellet (3.224).
3.32
biomass

material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized

EXAMPLE Including but not limited to energy crops (3.76), agricultural crops and trees, food, feed and fibre

crop residues, aquatic plants, algae, forestry and wood residues, agricultural wastes, processing by-products and

other non­fossil organic matters (3.143).

Note 1 to entry: See also aquatic biomass (3.10), fruit biomass (3.98), herbaceous biomass (3.110) and woody

biomass (3.227).
3.33
biomass by-product

secondary product which is made incidentally during the production of something else

EXAMPLE Sawdust (3.176) when sawing timber.
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.34
biomass residue

biomass (3.32) from well-defined side-streams from forestry, agriculture, aquaculture and related

industrial operations
EXAMPLE Olive press cake after pressing of oil, logging residues (3.124).
3.35
biomass resource owner
body or enterprise with the right to exploit the biomass (3.32) resources

Note 1 to entry: The biomass resource owner can be a land or forest owner, a company, etc.

3.36
biomethane
methane produced from biomass (3.32), e.g. solid biofuels (3.185)

Note 1 to entry: Biomethane is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only.

3.37
biosludge

sludge formed in the aeration basin during biological waste water treatment or biological treatment

process and separated by sedimentation or flotation

Note 1 to entry: Biosludge must be treated for the transformation into solid biomass (3.32).

3.38
black liquor
fluid containing lignin (3.121) removed from the wood in the pulping process
Note 1 to entry: Black liquor also contains pulping chemicals.

Note 2 to entry: Black liquor is not a solid biofuel (3.185). The term is included for information only.

3.39
bridging
arching

tendency of particles (3.147) to form a stable arch across an opening which restricts flow

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.8, modified — "bridge" replaced by "arch".]
3.40
bulk density

mass of a portion of a particulate matter divided by the volume (3.214) of the container which is filled

by that portion under specific conditions

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.9, modified — abbreviation “BD” added, "solid fuel" replaced by "particulate

matter", text in parentheses deleted.]
3.41
bulk permeability
permeability in storage

ability of gas such as air to pass through the void spaces in biomass (3.32) during storage

3 2

Note 1 to entry: Permeability is measured in pressure (Pa) vs. flow of gas (m /s/m ) and depends for example

on the viscosity and density (3.65) of the gas (including moisture content (3.132) and temperature), shape, and

orientation of particles (3.147) and the bulk porosity of biomass (3.32).
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.42
bundled biofuel
bundle

solid biofuels (3.185) which have been bound together and where there is a lengthwise orientation of

the material

EXAMPLE Bundles of short rotation coppice (3.178), logging residues (3.124) or small trees.

3.43
calorific value
heating value
energy amount per unit mass released on complete combustion

Note 1 to entry: Q is used as designation for the net calorific value (3.136) as received (3.12) basis at constant

pressure (q ).
p,net,ar

Note 2 to entry: See also gross calorific value (3.106), energy density (3.77), net calorific value (3.136).

3.44
cereal crops
annual crops grown with the main purpose of using the seed for food production
EXAMPLE Barley, wheat, rye, oat.
Note 1 to entry: Some cereal crops can be used as a solid biofuel (3.185).
3.45
certified reference material
CRM

reference material of which one or more property values are certified by a technically valid procedure,

accompanied by or traceable to a certificate or other documentation which is issued by a certifying

body
3.46
charcoal
biochar
biocarbon
biocoke
biocoal

solid biofuel (3.185) derived from carbonization, distillation or pyrolysis of biomass (3.32)

[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.47
chemical treatment
any treatment with chemicals other than air, water or heat
[SOURCE: ISO 17225-1:2021, 3.1, modified — Note 1 to entry deleted.]
3.48
chopped straw
straw which has been cut into small pieces
3.49
chunkwood

wood cut with sharp cutting devices where most of the material have typical particle (3.147) lengths of

50 mm to 150 mm

Note 1 to entry: Chunkwood is substantially longer and coarser than wood chips (3.222).

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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.50
coarse pellet fines
CPF

particles (3.147) with a size ranging from ≥3,15 mm to <5,6 mm resulting from breakage of pellets

during production or handling

Note 1 to entry: The fraction of coarse pellet fines contains all particles (3.147) which pass through a sieve with

an aperture size of 5,6 mm round hole sieve and which are retained on a sieve with an aperture size of 3,15 mm

round hole sieve.
3.51
coke

solid residue of impure carbon obtained from carbon rich feedstock (3.86) after removal of volatile

material by destructive distillation
[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.52
combined sample
composite sample

sample (3.168) consisting of all the increments (3.118) taken from a lot (3.126) or a sub-lot (3.193)

Note 1 to entry: The increments (3.118) may be reduced by division before being added to the combined sample.

Note 2 to entry: See also Annex A.
3.53
complete tree
tree, including branches and root system
Note 1 to entry: See also whole tree (3.218).
3.54
contamination

occurrence of any undesirable matter such as chemical, physical and/or microbiological matter in the

product
[SOURCE: ISO 22716:2007, 2.10]
3.55
co-product
any of two or more products coming from the same unit process or product system
[SOURCE: ISO 14040:2006, 3.10]
3.56
critical control point
CCP

quality control (3.162) point within or between processes at which relevant properties can be most

readily assessed and which offer the greatest potential for quality (3.160) improvement

3.57
cross-cut ends

short pieces of woody biomass (3.227) which occur when the ends of logs or sawn timber are cross cut

off, with or without bark (3.21)
3.58
cutter chips

wood chips (3.222) made as a by-product of the wood processing industry, with or without bark (3.21)

8 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.59
deflagration

violent event describing subsonic combustion propagating by means of hot burning material [usually

dust (3.73)] heating the next layer of cold material and igniting it in consecutive sequence

Note 1 to entry: The process can be characterized as an exploding fire whereby the burning material partly

deposits on surfaces in its path and causing significant damage and injuries.
[SOURCE: EN 13857-1:2003, 2.13, modified — With regard to solid biofuels.]
3.60
deflagration index

measure in bar meter per second and is a product of the pressure rate and propagation of an explosion

(3.83) as established by testing standards
3.61
delivery agreement

contract for fuel (3.99) trade, which specifies, e.g. origin and source, quality (3.160) and quantity of the

fuel (3.99), as well as delivery terms
3.62
delivery lot

amount of a solid biofuel (3.185) delivery to which the essential quality (3.160) requirements are related

Note 1 to entry: The delivery lot can be an individual delivery lot, which is an agreed quantity of solid biofuel

(3.185) (e.g. a package, shipload or truck load), or continuous delivery, where several loads are delivered to the

end-user (3.75) during an agreed period of time (usually daily or weekly delivery).

Note 2 to entry: In continuous delivery, the delivery lot is the amount of solid biofuel (3.185) delivered during a

specified period of time, e.g. 24 h, unless otherwise agreed by supplier (3.195) and end-user (3.75). If the delivery

lot in continuous delivery is more than 1,500 to 2,000 m in 24 h, it should be divided into two or more individual

lots (3.126).
3.63
demolition wood

used wood (3.212) arising from demolition of buildings or civil engineering installations

3.64
densified biofuel
compressed biofuel

solid biofuel (3.185) made by mechanically compressing biomass (3.32) or thermally treated biomass

(3.200) to mould the solid biofuel (3.185) into a specific size and shape such as cubes, pressed logs,

biofuel pellets (3.31) or biofuel briquettes (3.29)
Note 1 to entry: See also biofuel briquette (3.29) and biofuel pellet (3.31).
3.65
density
ratio of mass to volume (3.214) or ratio of energy content to volume (3.214)

Note 1 to entry: It shall always be stated whether the density refers to the density of individual particles (3.147) or

to the bulk density (3.40) of the material and whether the mass of water in the material is included.

Note 2 to entry: See also bulk density (3.40), particle density (3.148) and energy density (3.77).

3.66
desorption
phenomenon whereby a substance is released from or through a surface

Note 1 to entry: The process is the opposite of absorption (3.1) and adsorption (3.3).

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 9
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.67
detonation

violent event generated by sudden expansion of gas in to a supersonic shock wave (molecular speed

higher than the speed of sound) not followed by fire
3.68
devolatilization

process (usually pyrolysis or gasification) whereby volatile matter (3.213) is removed from carbon rich

feedstock (3.86) [e.g. biomass (3.32)]
[SOURCE: ANSI/ASABE S593]
3.69
dry ash free
dry ash free basis
daf

calculation basis in which the solid biofuel (3.185) is considered free from moisture (3.132) and inorganic

matter (3.119)
3.70
dry
dry basis

calculation basis in which the solid biofuel (3.185) is considered free from moisture (3.132)

3.71
dry matter
material remaining after removal of moisture (3.132) under specific conditions
3.72
dry matter content
portion of dry matter (3.71) in the total material on mass basis

Note 1 to entry: Expressed as a percentage of the total mass (3.205) of the solid biofuel (3.185).

3.73
dust

fragmented material of small size passing a 500 µm sieve caused by a non-intentional process

Note 1 to entry: It is opposed to fuel powder (3.101) which is intentionally manufactured to size.

3.74
edgings

parts of woody biomass (3.227) which occur when trimming sawn timber and which show a remainder

of the original rounded surface of the tree, with or without bark (3.21)
3.75
end-user
consumer (private person, enterprise, utility etc.) using biofuel (3.27)
3.76
energy crops

woody or herbaceous crops grown and harvested specifically for their fuel (3.99) value

Note 1 to entry: See also energy forest trees (3.78), energy grass (3.80).
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ISO/FDIS 16559:2021(E)
3.77
energy density
ratio of net energy content and bulk volume (3.125)

Note 1 to entry: The energy density is calculated using the net calorific value (3.136) determined and the bulk

density (3.40).
3.78
energy forest trees

woody biomass (3.227) grown specifically for its fuel (3.99) value in medium to long rotation forestry

3.79
energy grain
grain used for energy purpose
3.80
energy grass
herbaceous energy crop (3.76)
EXAMPLE Sugarcane, Miscanthus, Reed canary grass.
3.81
energy wood
fuelwood

wood fuel (3.223) where the original composition of the wood is maintained and which has only been

threated mechanically
3.82
explosibility

propensity by gaseous, liquid or solid material to ignite and violently transform to high pressure gas

while emitting sound and light, and typically followed by fire
3.83
explosion
violent event emitting sound and light immediately followed by fire

Note 1 to entry: An initial explosion, often referred to as primary explosion, can dislodge dust (3.73) deposited

on beams, floor, machinery etc. and ignite this material resulting in a secondary explosion, usually a few seconds

after the first explosion.

Note 2 to entry: Thermal energy is transferred from the first to the second explosion throug

...

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