Space systems — Programme management and quality — Vocabulary

ISO 10795:2011 provides definitions of all common terms used in the area of space systems and operations. ISO 10795:2011does not contain terms specific to an individual International Standard in the area of space systems and operations, which are defined in that particular International Standard.

Systèmes spatiaux — Management de programme et qualité — Vocabulaire

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Space systems — Programme
management and quality — Vocabulary
Systèmes spatiaux — Management de programme et qualité —

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ISO 10795:2011(E)

ISO 2011

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ISO 10795:2011(E)


©  ISO 2011
The reproduction of the terms and definitions contained in this International Standard is permitted in teaching manuals, instruction
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
Contents Page
Foreword . iv
Introduction . v
Scope . 1
1  Terms and definitions . 1
2  Abbreviated terms . 33
Bibliography . 37

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ISO 10795:2011(E)
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies
(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been
established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and
non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards
adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an
International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
ISO 10795 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 20, Aircraft and space vehicles, Subcommittee
SC 14, Space systems and operations.

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ISO 10795:2011(E)
It is intended that this International Standard be applied for the management, engineering, and product
assurance in space projects and applications. The definitions in this International Standard specify what is
accomplished, rather than how the necessary work is organized and carried out. This allows the application of
existing organizational structures and methods where they are effective, and for the structures and methods to
evolve as necessary without rewriting the standards. The formulation of this International Standard takes into
account the existing International Standard prepared by ISO/TC 176.

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Space systems — Programme management and quality —

This International Standard provides definitions of all common terms used in the area of space systems and
operations. It does not contain terms specific to an individual International Standard in the area of space
systems and operations, which are defined in that particular International Standard.
1 Terms and definitions
1.1 Acceptance
act raw, semi-finished or finished substance (gaseous, liquid, solid) of given characteristics from which
processing into a component (1.43) or part (1.153) is undertaken
process part of the verification process, which demonstrates that the product (1.162) meets specified
acceptance margins
acceptance criteria
minimum requirements that it is necessary for an item to satisfy for formal acceptance
accepted risk
hazard that has not been eliminated and for which the residual risk is deemed low enough to continue
operation and that has been accepted by project/program management on the basis of documented risk
acceptance rationale
acceptance test
test to determine that a system, subsystem, component (1.43), or functional part is capable of meeting
performance requirements prescribed in a purchase specification or other document (1.81) specifying what
constitutes the adequate performance capability for the item (1.121) and to demonstrate that the item is free
from manufacturing defects
undesired event arising from operation of any project (1.167) or specific item (1.121) that results in (a) human
death or injury, (b) loss of, or damage to, project hardware, software (1.205) or facilities that can then affect
the accomplishment of the mission (1.140), (c) loss of, or damage to, public or private property, or (d)
detrimental effects on the environment (1.85)
NOTE Accident and mishap are synonymous.
[EN 13701:2001, 3.2]
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
task negotiated between two and only two persons, one decision maker and one holder, whose result leads to
an expected result as a description of an operation in the formulation of a solution, and is characterized by
objectives in terms of cost, quality and due date
action item
assignment to a designated organization or individual the accomplishment of a defined objective within a
specified time frame
formal notification to users, informing them of a failure (1.91) or nonconformity (1.144) of an item (1.121),
already released for use or not, that can also be present on other items already delivered (e.g. items with
identical design (1.75) concept, material (1.135), component (1.43) or process (1.160)
NOTE An alert can also be raised when a deficiency in a specified requirement (1.190) that can affect the fitness for
purpose in the defined application has been identified.
[EN 13701:2001, 3.4]
verification method utilizing techniques and tools such as math models, compilation similarity assessments,
validation of records, etc., to confirm that verification requirements have been satisfied
any gap between a current situation and an expected one
NOTE 1 An anomaly justifies an investigation that can lead to the discovery of a nonconformance, a defect or a
“non-lieu” [deviation without impact, e.g. product (1.162) peculiarity].
NOTE 2 A deviation may be declared, foreseen or requested.
NOTE 3 An anomaly is often detected in comparison with what seems to be standard or with the expected use.
applicable document
document (1.81) that contains provisions (1.170) which, through reference in the source document,
incorporates additional provisions in the source document
NOTE In this context, a provision is an expression that takes the form of a statement, an instruction, a recommendation
or a requirement.
formal agreement by a designated management official to use or apply an item (1.121) or proceed with a
proposed course of action
NOTE 1 Approvals shall be documented.
NOTE 2 Approval implies that the approving authority has verified that the item (1.121) conforms to its requirements
Adapted from EN 13701:2001, 3.8.
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
as-built configuration
configuration of one product (1.162) item identified by its gaps of conformity with respect to its applicable
NOTE 1 The relevant “as-designed configuration” corresponds to the same “part number”.
NOTE 2 “As-built configuration” includes any impacts from technical events, anomalies, repairs, life potential
consumption that occurred before the product delivery and any potential modifications applied on the product but not
embodied in the relevant design data file.
as-built configuration list
reporting instrument defining the “as-built status” for each serial number of a configuration item subject to
formal acceptance
NOTE 1 The ABCL shall identify the “as-manufactured” and “as-tested” statuses applicable to a part comprising a
configuration item.
NOTE 2 Using the configuration item data list as a reference, any difference between the ABCL and the CIDL shall be
documented in the ABCL with reference to the applicable NCR and RFW.
as-delivered configuration
as-built configuration at the time of delivery
as-designed configuration
current design status at any point of time providing the complete definition of a configuration item
NOTE The starting point of the “as-designed” configuration with regard to the “as-planned” configuration is based on
changes the company has approved internally but has not yet incorporated in the design, and on changes already
implemented but not yet approved in the “as-planned” configuration.
as-ordered configuration
contractual configuration
configuration of a product configuration item, effectively given by its contractual approved changes from the
configuration baseline
NOTE At a given moment, a product (1.162) may have several applicable configurations.
as-planned configuration
planned to be built statement for each configuration item unit being delivered
NOTE The as-planned configuration is composed of the current configuration baseline and any changes that the
company has approved internally but has not yet embodied in the current configuration baseline.
as-qualified configuration
as-built configuration that was certified to have satisfactorily passed specified qualification tests
combination of parts (1.153), components (1.43) and units that form a functional entity
NOTE An assembly can be disassembled and retain its capabilities after reassembly.
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
systematic process of collecting and analysing data to determine the current status of a product (1.162), a
process (1.160), a system (1.221), a person or an organization (1.150)
systematic, independent and documented process (1.160) for obtaining audit evidence (1.26) and evaluating
it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria (1.25) are fulfilled
NOTE Internal audits, sometimes called first-party audits, are conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization (1.150)
itself for internal purposes and can form the basis of the organization's self-declaration of conformity (1.55). External
audits include what are generally termed “second-” or “third-party audits”. Second-party audits are conducted by parties
having an interest in the organization, such as customers (1.71), or by other persons on their behalf. Third-party audits
are conducted by external independent organizations. Such organizations provide certification or registration of
conformity (1.55) with requirements (1.190) such as those of ISO 1401:1994. When quality (1.176) and environmental
management systems (1.134) are audited together, this is termed “combined audit”. When two or more auditing
organizations cooperate to audit a single auditee jointly, this is termed “joint audit”.
Adapted from ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.1.
audit client
organization (1.150) or person requesting an audit (1.22)
NOTE The audit client may be the auditee or any other organization (1.150) that has the regulatory or contractual right
to request an audit.
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.7]
audit conclusion
outcome of an audit (1.22) provided by the audit team after consideration of the audit objectives and all audit
findings (1.27)
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.6]
audit criteria
set of policies, procedures (1.159), or requirements (1.190) used as a reference
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.3]
audit evidence
records (1.184), statements of fact or other information which is relevant to the audit criteria (1.25) and
NOTE Audit evidence can be qualitative or quantitative.
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.4]
audit findings
results of the evaluation of the collected audit evidence (1.26) against audit criteria (1.25)
NOTE Audit findings can indicate either conformity (1.55) or nonconformity (1.144) with audit criteria, or opportunities
for improvement.
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.5]
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
availability of an item
ability to be in a state to perform as required, under given conditions, at a given instant, or over a given time
NOTE 1 The “given conditions” include the provision of necessary external resources.
NOTE 2 This ability depends on the combined aspects of the reliability and maintainability of the item (1.121), and the
maintenance support performance or recoverability of the item (1.121).
NOTE 3 Availability may be quantified using appropriate measures.
set of information that describes exhaustively a situation at a given instant of time or over a given time interval
[EN 13701:2001, 3.13]
NOTE It is generally used as a reference for comparison with an analysis of subsequent evolutions of the information.
business agreement
legally binding agreement, for the supply of goods or services, between two or more actors in the customer-
supplier chain
NOTE Business agreements are recorded in a variety of forms, such as
— contracts (1.60),
— memoranda of understanding,
— inter-governmental agreements,
— inter-agency agreements,
— partnerships,
— bartering agreements,
— purchase orders.
all the operations for the purpose of determining the values of the errors (1.87) and, if necessary, other
metrological properties of a measuring instrument
NOTE The metrological use of the term “calibration” is often extended to include operations such as adjustments, scale
graduation, etc. This use is deprecated.
[IEC Multilingual Dictionary: 2001 edition]
capable of causing death or major system destruction
certificate of compliance
signed formal declaration that states that all actions relating to safety and interface verification that the user is
required to complete prior to turnover have been accomplished
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
certification procedure
written assurance by a third party that a product (1.162), process (1.160) or service conforms to specified
requirements (1.190)
official numerically issued alterations to a document (1.81) or any portion thereof, usually brought about by
changed conditions or more complete information
NOTE 1 Such a correction is not extensive enough to require retying and reprinting of the entire document (1.81) and
usually consists of an instruction to replace a few pages with those of a later issue. Documents of 10 or fewer pages are
revised, not changed.
NOTE 2 “Class 1” (“major” for deviation) are changes that impact the contractual/technical agreement reached
between the project (1.167) and its customer. It is necessary that such changes be submitted to the customer for review
and approval before implementation.
NOTE 3 “Class 2” (“minor” for deviation) are changes that do not impact the customer contract (1.60) and that are
necessary for the project (1.167) and its supply chain to meet the technical/contractual requirements and provisions. Such
changes can be implemented after CCB approval.
change request
document (1.81) containing a call for an adjustment of a system
NOTE 1 It is of great importance in the change management process.
NOTE 2 A change request is declarative (i.e. it states what it is necessary to accomplish) but leaves out how the
change should be carried out.
distinguishing feature
NOTE 1 A characteristic can be inherent or assigned.
NOTE 2 A characteristic can be qualitative or quantitative.
NOTE 3 There are various classes of characteristic, such as the following:
— physical (e.g. mechanical, electrical, chemical or biological characteristics);
— sensory (e.g. related to smell, touch, taste, sight, hearing);
— behavioural (e.g. courtesy, honesty, veracity);
— temporal [e.g. punctuality, reliability (1.187), availability (1.28)];
— ergonomic [e.g. physiological characteristic, or related to human safety (1.198)];
— functional (e.g. maximum speed of an aircraft).
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.5.1]
clean room
clean area controlled according to specified levels
NOTE Levels specified include humidity, temperature, particulates number versus size and volume and chemical
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
common-cause failure
within a system multiple failures (1.91) related to a single cause or causal event
NOTE 1 It is generally accepted that the failures (1.91) occur simultaneously or within a short time of each other.
NOTE 2 Common-cause failures can also be common-mode failures.
NOTE 3 Common-cause failures reduce the effect of system redundancy.
common-mode failure
within a system multiple failures (1.91) that occur in the same way
NOTE 1 Common-mode failures can have different causes.
NOTE 2 Common-mode failures can also be common-cause failures (1.91).
common-mode fault
fault (1.94) of multiple items (1.121) that exhibit the same fault mode
[EN 13701:2001, 3.21]
demonstrated ability to apply knowledge and skills
NOTE 1 Technical competence is defined by the know-how, such as working practices, special skills (“tours de main”),
mastery of technology, etc.
NOTE 2 Cognitive competence is knowledge, such as specific fundamental knowledge, scientific “capital”, expertise in a
domain, history, etc.
NOTE 3 Methodological competence is defined by the working methods, such as problem solving, manner of decision.
NOTE 4 Experimental competence is the experience related to relations with different interlocutors (e.g. customer
relations), to participation, to events, to “personal” actions, etc.
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.9.14]
set of materials, assembled according to defined and controlled processes, which cannot be disassembled
without destroying its capability and which performs a simple function (1.102) that can be evaluated against
expected performance requirements
NOTE 1 The term “part” is preferred when referring to purely mechanical devices.
NOTE 2 The term “component” is preferred for EEE devices.
permission to use or release a product (1.162) that does not conform to specified requirements (1.190)
NOTE 1 The concession can impose limitations on the use of the concessed product: a concession is generally limited
to the delivery of a product (1.162) that has nonconforming characteristics within specified limits for an agreed period of
time or quantity of that product (1.162).
NOTE 2 The “deviation” is an anterior decision whereas the “waiver” is a posterior decision with respect to production
NOTE 3 A concession is part of the product (1.162) as-built configuration and does not affect the configuration
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
NOTE 4 The inability to meet the required product (1.162) characteristics is documented through the concession after
the manufacturing phase.
interrelated functional and physical characteristics of a product (1.162) (hardware/software) defined in
configuration documents subject to configuration management
configuration baseline
approved status of requirements and design of a product (1.162) at project key milestone that serves as
reference for activities throughout the life cycle (1.128) of the product (1.162)
Adapted from ISO 10007:2003, 3.4.
configuration control
coordinated activities for controlling modifications to a configuration baseline (1.46)
NOTE Request for deviations are also considered modifications to a baseline.
configuration document
document (1.81) that defines the requirements (1.190) for function (1.102), design (1.75), build,
production, and verification (1.229) for a configuration item (1.50)
NOTE For space standards (1.215), configuration documents can include documents relating to operation and
disposal of the configuration item.
configuration identification
coordinated activities to establish rules for configuration item (1.50) selection, configuration baseline
(1.46) content definition, and product (1.162) and document (1.81) identifiers definition
configuration item
aggregation of hardware, software (1.205), processed materials (1.135), services or any of its discrete
portions, that is designated for configuration management (1.52) and treated as a single entity in the
configuration management process (1.160)
NOTE A configuration item can contain other configuration item(s).
configuration item data list
document (1.81) generated from the central configuration database giving the current design status of a
configuration item at a given point of time in sufficient detail and/or providing its complete definition
NOTE A CIDL includes the list of applicable changes not yet incorporated into the baseline documentation and
configuration management
activity for establishing and maintaining consistent records of the status of and changes to the performance
parameters of a product (1.162) and its functional and physical attributes compared to product (1.162)
design and operational requirements
NOTE Configuration management is applied throughout the entire life cycle (1.128) of the product (1.162) (i.e.
development, production, deployment, operation and disposal).
Adapted from ISO 10007:2003, 3.6.
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
configuration status accounting
formalized recording and reporting of product (1.162) characteristics and configuration information, the status
of applicable changes and the status of their implementation
Adapted from ISO 10007:2003, 3.7.
configuration verification
coordinated activities to determine the conformity of the configuration item (1.50) to its configuration
document(s) (1.48)
conformance (deprecated)
fulfilment of a requirement (1.190)
NOTE This definition is consistent with ISO/IEC Guide 2 but differs from it in phrasing to fit into the ISO 9000 concepts.
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.1]
characteristic, result or design feature that is made compulsory or has been prohibited for some reason
NOTE 1 Constraints are generally restrictions on the choice of solutions in a system (1.221).
NOTE 2 Two kinds of constraints are considered: those that concern solutions and those that concern the use of the
EXAMPLE Constraints can come from environmental and operational conditions, law, standards (1.215), market
demand, investments and means availability, or the organization's policy.
Adapted from EN 1325-1:1997, 3.1.7.
introduction of any undesirable molecular or particulate matter (including microbiological matter) into an item
(1.121) or into the environment of interest
contingency procedure
pre-planned procedure (1.159) for execution in response to a departure from specified behavior
[EN 13701:2001, 3.31]
continual improvement
recurring activity to increase the ability to fulfil requirements (1.190)
NOTE The process (1.160) of establishing objectives and finding opportunities for improvement is a continual process
through the use of audit findings (1.27) and audit conclusions (1.24), analysis of data, management reviews or other
means and generally leads to corrective action (1.63) or preventive action (1.158).
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.2.13]
legally enforceable business agreement for the supply of goods or services
NOTE A contract is a special case of a business agreement in which payment is associated with the contract
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
supplier (1.219) in a contractual situation
action to eliminate a detected nonconformity (1.144)
NOTE A correction can be made in conjunction with a corrective action (1.63).
EXAMPLE Rework (1.193) or regrade.
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.6]
corrective action
action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity (1.144) or other undesirable situation
NOTE 1 There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity.
NOTE 2 Corrective action is taken to prevent recurrence whereas preventive action (1.158) is taken to prevent
NOTE 3 There is a distinction between correction (1.62) and corrective action.
[ISO 9000:2005, 3.6.5]
cost breakdown structure
hierarchical structure that depicts elements of cost
capable of causing severe injury, severe illness, or major property damage
critical characteristics
any physical attribute of an article or material that, if defective, can cause loss of life or equipment, or make
the article or material non-functional
critical design review
review performed prior to fabrication of prototype and after completion of the critical design
NOTE In the review, drawing specifications and test result of the engineering model are evaluated to confirm that the
result of the critical design satisfies the requirements of the contracts (1.60) and technical specifications to allow
proceeding with prototype production phase.
critical hazard
any hazard that can cause a nondisabling injury, severe occupational illness, loss of an emergency system, or
that requires the use of emergency procedures, or involves major damage to one of the following: the launch
or servicing vehicle, manned base, an on-orbit life-sustaining function, a ground facility, or any critical support
critical item
item that can pose a potential threat to the schedule, cost, performance and quality of a project (1.167) or
programme that is controlled by a specific action plan in order to mitigate emanating risks and to prevent
undesirable consequences
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ISO 10795:2011(E)
NOTE Examples of critical items are:
— an item not qualified or validated for the application in question (or that has previously caused problems that remain
— an item difficult to demonstrate design performance;
— an item highly sensitive to the conditions under which it is produced or used (e.g. contamination, radiation);
— an item having the potential to degrade the quality of the product (1.162) significantly, and hence the ability of the
end-product to accomplish defined mission objectives;
— an item for which major difficulties or uncertainties are expected in the procurement, manufacturing, assembly,
inspection, test, handling, storage and transportation that can have the potential to lead to a major degradation in the
quality of the product (1.162).
critical path
series of activities that determine the earliest completion of the project (1.167)
NOTE As a consequence, delay of any one task belonging to the critical path extends the project (1.167) duration.
organization (1.150), legal entity or person that receives a product (1.162) as part of a business agreement
EXAMPLE Consumer, client, end-user, retailer, beneficiary and purchaser (1.171).
NOTE 1 A customer can be internal or external to the organization (1.150).
NOTE 2 The “customer”, as a physical

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