Fire-resistance tests -- Elements of building construction -- Glazed elements

ISO 3009:2003 provides a test method for determining and assessing the fire resistance performance of both insulated and uninsulated glazed elements of building construction, when those elements are exposed to heating on one face. It is applicable to glazed separating elements such as screens, walls of glass blocks and other light-transmitting assemblies used in vertical, inclined or horizontal orientations, and to all separating elements containing glazing intended to be assessed in accordance with ISO 834-1, except for doors and shutter assemblies, which are intended to be tested in accordance with ISO 3008. It is directly applicable to planar elements, but also gives guidance on the testing of non-planar elements such as pyramids.

Essais de résistance au feu -- Éléments de construction -- Éléments en verre

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Status
Published
Publication Date
27-Oct-2003
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
14-Aug-2003
Completion Date
28-Oct-2003
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 3009
Second edition
2003-11-01
Fire-resistance tests — Elements of
building construction — Glazed elements
Essais de résistance au feu — Éléments de construction — Éléments
en verre
Reference number
ISO 3009:2003(E)
ISO 2003
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
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© ISO 2003

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ii © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and symbols .......................................................................................................... 2

4 Test equipment...................................................................................................................................... 4

5 Test conditions...................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Test specimen preparation .................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Number of specimens........................................................................................................................... 6

6.3 Size of specimen ................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Test construction .................................................................................................................................. 6

7 Application of instrumentation............................................................................................................ 9

7.1 Furnace thermocouples (plate thermometer) .................................................................................... 9

7.2 Specimen thermocouples .................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Furnace pressure .................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4 Heat flux measurement......................................................................................................................... 9

7.5 Deflection measurement .................................................................................................................... 10

8 Test procedure .................................................................................................................................... 10

8.1 Furnace control ................................................................................................................................... 10

8.2 Measurements and observations ...................................................................................................... 11

9 Performance criteria ........................................................................................................................... 11

10 Validity of the test ............................................................................................................................... 12

11 Expression of results.......................................................................................................................... 12

12 Test report............................................................................................................................................ 12

Annex A (informative) Non-planar elements and test data application ...................................................... 14

Annex B (normative) Test specimens — Testing insulated and uninsulated glazing............................... 18

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 26

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved iii
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 3009 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 92, Fire safety, Subcommittee SC 2, Fire

containment.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 3009:1976), which has been technically revised.

iv © ISO 2003 — All rights reserved
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
Introduction

This International Standard contains specific requirements for fire resistance testing which are unique to

glazed elements used in building construction. The requirements for these glazed elements are intended to be

applied, as appropriate, in conjunction with the detailed and general requirements given in ISO 834-1.

© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 3009:2003(E)
Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building construction —
Glazed elements

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS — The attention of all persons concerned with managing and carrying out

this fire resistance test is drawn to the fact that fire testing can be hazardous and that there is a

possibility that toxic and/or harmful smoke and gases could be evolved during the test. Mechanical

and operational hazards can also arise during the construction of the test elements or structures, their

testing, and disposal of test residues.

An assessment of all potential hazards and risks to health shall be made and safety precautions shall

be identified and provided. Written safety instructions shall be issued. Appropriate training shall be

given to relevant personnel. Laboratory personnel shall ensure that they follow written safety

instructions at all times.
1 Scope

This International Standard provides a test method for determining and assessing the fire resistance

performance of both insulated and uninsulated glazed elements of building construction, when those elements

are exposed to heating on one face. It is applicable to glazed separating elements such as screens, walls of

glass blocks and other light-transmitting assemblies used in vertical, inclined or horizontal orientations, and to

all separating elements containing glazing intended to be assessed in accordance with ISO 834-1 — except

for doors and shutter assemblies, which are intended to be tested in accordance with ISO 3008. It is directly

applicable to planar elements, but also gives guidance on the testing of non-planar elements such as

pyramids.

The application of the test results to other, untested, forms of construction is acceptable only when the

construction complies with the field of direct application given in this International Standard or when it is

subjected to a field of extended application analysis in accordance with ISO/TR 12470.

NOTE Since ISO/TR 12470 gives only general guidelines, specific extended application analyses are to be

performed only by persons expert in fire-resistant constructions.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 834-1:1999, Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building construction — Part 1: General requirements

ISO 834-8, Fire-resistance tests — Elements of building construction — Part 8: Specific requirements for non-

loadbearing vertical separating elements
ISO 6308, Gypsum plasterboard — Specification
ISO 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
3 Terms, definitions and symbols

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13943, the following terms and

definitions, and the symbols given in ISO 834-1, apply.
3.1
aspect ratio
ratio of the exposed height to the exposed width of the glass
3.2
associated construction

specific construction in which the glazed element is to be installed in practice and which is used to close off

the furnace and provide the levels of restraint and thermal heat transfer to be experienced in normal use

3.3
expansion allowance

difference in dimension between the pane or unit and the opening/aperture in the frame or other method of

attachment into which the panes or units are mounted, available for expansion

NOTE The dimensions are measured in two directions (e.g. vertical and horizontal for a vertical glazed element). See

dimension y –x in Figure 1.
y aperture width
y aperture height
x visible glass width
x visible glass height
Figure 1 — Elevation of glazed pane
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
3.4
fire-resistant gypsum board

gypsum board with increased fire resistance as a result of additives to the formulation as specified in

ISO 6308
3.5
glass

rigid transparent or translucent material installed in elements of construction for the purpose of vision or to

allow the passage of light
3.6
glass edge cover
depth of glass retained by the glazing system

NOTE Half the difference between the pane dimension and the exposed dimension, assuming that the pane is

centrally glazed into the opening. See dimension w in Figure 2.
z glass thickness
w edge cover
V pre-installed (for gaskets and strips)
V post-installed (for gaskets and strips)
u depth
Uncompressed.
Figure 2 — Cross-section through framing/glazing system
3.7
glazed element

element containing transparent or translucent panes or units retained in frames or other methods of

attachment or units mounted or attached together to provide a barrier
3.8
horizontal glazed element

glazed element intended for installations with inclinations of from 0° up to and including 25°

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ISO 3009:2003(E)
3.9
inclination
angle of installation relative to a horizontal plane (between 0° and 90°)
3.10
inclined glazed element

glazed element intended for installation with inclinations of from greater than 25° up to and including 80°

3.11
insulated glazing

fire-resistant glazing that satisfies both the integrity and insulation criteria for the anticipated fire-resistance

period
3.12
mullion

vertical framing member separating and supporting two adjacent panes of glass or panels

3.13
orientation
direction of fire exposure with respect to the face of the specimen

EXAMPLE For inclined specimens, orientation is from underneath when using a floor furnace for conducting the test.

3.14
screen

vertical glazed separating element with multiple panes, which can also incorporate a door assembly

3.15
supporting construction

construction that could be required for the testing of some glazed elements into which the test specimen is

assembled
EXAMPLE The wall into which a screen is fitted.
3.16
transom

horizontal framing member separating and supporting two adjacent panes of glass or panels

3.17
uninsulated glazing

fire-resistant glazing that satisfies the integrity of, and, where required, the radiation criteria for, the anticipated

fire resistance period, but which is not intended to provide insulation
3.18
vertical glazed element

glazed element intended for installation with inclinations of from greater than 80° up to and including 90°

4 Test equipment

The test equipment shall be as specified in ISO 834-1. The furnace used will be related to the orientation of

the test specimen. For vertical specimens, the wall testing furnace is suitable; for horizontal specimens the

floor furnace is applicable; for inclined specimens, either of these may be used depending upon the

anticipated exposure conditions.

A test frame or supporting construction is required for the mounting or erection of the specimen. It shall be

designed so that it possesses sufficient stiffness in relation to the test construction. The rigidity of the test

frame shall be evaluated by applying an expansion force within the frame mid-way between two opposite

members of the frame and measuring the increase in the internal dimensions at these positions. This

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ISO 3009:2003(E)

evaluation shall be conducted in both directions of the frame and the increase of the internal dimension shall

be measured.

The increase in the internal dimensions of the test frame shall not exceed 5 mm with an applied force of 25 kN.

For tests on inclined elements, the furnace could need to be altered to allow for the test specimen’s

installation. In these cases, the thermal properties of the furnace extensions shall be equivalent to those of the

furnace. See Figure 3 for an example of inclined sample installation.
Key
1 vertical furnace
2 glazing
3 glazing frame
4 supporting construction
5 furnace lining
6 furnace extension
7 furnace extension support

NOTE The thermal properties of the furnace lining are the same as those of the furnace extension.

Figure 3 — Inclined sample installation from above — Example

Measurements of heat flux from the unexposed surface of a specimen shall be made by an instrument

complying with the following specifications.

 The target of the instrument shall not be shielded by a window or subject to a gas purge, i.e. it shall be

subject to convection as well as radiation.
 Suggested range: (0 to 50) kW/m .
 Accuracy: ± 5 % of maximum in range.
 Time constant (time to reach 64 % of target value): < 10 s.
 View angle: (180 ± 5)°.
© ISO 2003 — All rights reserved 5
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
5 Test conditions

The heating and pressure conditions and furnace atmosphere shall be in accordance with ISO 834-1.

For inclined elements, the furnace shall be operated such that the pressure 100 mm below the top of the

exposed face of the test specimen is (20 ± 3) Pa.
6 Test specimen preparation
6.1 General

6.1.1 The test specimen shall be fully representative of the construction on which information is required

and as intended to be used in practice.

6.1.2 The inclination of the specimen shall be selected according to the field of application. The orientation

of the specimen shall be based on how the glazed element is to be used in practice — i.e. fire exposure from

above or below.
6.2 Number of specimens

6.2.1 For vertical elements, the number of specimens shall follow the general principle of ISO 834-1.

6.2.2 For horizontal or inclined elements, tests shall be conducted with exposure from the underside, unless

for inclined specimens it can be demonstrated that exposure may occur from either side, in which case both

sides shall be tested (where the side of fire exposure is known, only exposure from that side is necessary).

NOTE For inclinations between 0° and 45°, fire exposure from above is not covered by this International Standard.

6.3 Size of specimen

For specimens tested in a vertical furnace, the specimen size shall be full-size when the construction is in

practice less than 3 m high or 3 m wide. For larger elements that can be accommodated in at least a 3 m by

3 m furnace, the minimum specimen size exposed to the heating shall not be less than 3 m × 3 m.

For specimens tested in a horizontal furnace, the exposed dimensions of the test specimen shall be at least

4 m × 3 m, unless the construction it represents is designed to have exposed dimensions of less than

4 m × 3 m, in which case the actual size shall be tested.
6.4 Test construction
6.4.1 General

Where the test specimen is the same size as the opening in the support/restraint frame, the specimen shall be

installed directly into the specimen support/restraint frame. The method of fixing shall be appropriate to the

nature of the materials used to line this specimen support/restraint frame.

Where the element is smaller than the opening in the specimen support/restraint frame, the space between

the specimen and the frame shall be filled with associated or supporting construction.

6.4.2 Associated construction

When the glazed construction to be tested is always installed in a specific — normally proprietary — form of

construction, the specimen shall be installed in a sample of this associated construction with appropriate

fixings.
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
6.4.3 Supporting construction
6.4.3.1 For vertical specimens
6.4.3.1.1 General (see Clause 4 for properties of furnace extensions)

If the size of the test specimen is smaller than the opening in the test frame, it shall be installed in the test

frame as follows, as appropriate.

a) Where the height of the test specimen is smaller than the height of the test frame opening, a supporting

construction shall be used to reduce the opening to the required height. The supporting construction shall

possess sufficient stability for the test specimen and shall be a rigid standard supporting construction

such as the examples given in 6.4.3.1.2 and 6.4.3.1.3.

b) Where the width of the test specimen is smaller, a rigid or flexible standard supporting construction shall

be used on the vertical sides of the opening in accordance either with 6.4.3.1.2 to 6.4.3.1.4 or 6.4.3.1.5.

6.4.3.1.2 High-density rigid construction

EXAMPLE Blockwork, masonry or homogenous concrete wall with an overall density of (1 200 ± 400) kg/m and a

thickness of (200 ± 50) mm.
6.4.3.1.3 Low-density rigid construction

EXAMPLE Aerated concrete block wall with an overall density of (650 ± 200) kg/m and a thickness W 70 mm.

6.4.3.1.4 Mortar

For blockwork (incorporating aerated concrete) or masonry wall supporting constructions such as the

examples given in 6.4.3.1.2 and 6.4.3.1.3, the individual masonry units shall be bonded together with a sand,

cement and water mortar in the ratio of four parts sand to one part cement.
6.4.3.1.5 Flexible construction

Lightweight gypsum board-faced steel stud partition with components and construction as follows.

a) Components

1) Head/floor track — rolled steel U-track 0,5 mm to 1,5 mm thick, 67 mm to 77 mm deep.

2) Studs — rolled steel C-studs 0,5 mm to 1,5 mm thick, 65 mm to 75 mm deep.

3) Linings — paper-faced, fire-resistant gypsum board, with the number and thickness of layers to be

fixed to each side of the framework:

i) for intended fire resistance of test specimen up to and including 30 min — one layer each 15 mm

thick or two layers each 9,5 mm thick;

ii) for intended fire resistance of test specimen of between 30 min and 60 min — two layers each

12,5 mm thick;

iii) for intended fire resistance of test specimen of between 60 min and 90 min — three layers each

12,5 mm thick;

iv) for intended fire resistance of test specimen of between 90 min and 120 min — three layers

each 12,5 mm thick (reinforced).
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
4) Fixings — self-drilling/self-tapping drywall screws:
 15 mm to 25 mm long for the first layer of 9,5 mm thick board;
 25 mm to 36 mm long for the second layer of 9,5 mm thick board;
 20 mm to 30 mm long for first layer of 15 mm thick board;
 31 mm to 41 mm long for second layer of 12,5 mm thick board;
 45 mm to 55 mm long for third layer of 12,5 mm thick board.
5) Joining compound — gypsum plaster.
6) Insulation — none.
b) Construction
1) Fixing centres — head/floor track to test frame u 600 mm.

2) Stud centres — between 400 mm and 625 mm (depending on the size and position of the opening

for the test specimen). These centres do not apply within the 200 mm separation between each

specimen and between the specimens and the edge of the furnace.

3) Stud fixing — friction only. Expansion allowance for studs — 10 mm max. This is not a design

allowance for expansion.

4) Fixing centres — gypsum board to framework, 300 mm around the periphery and in the field in all

layers.

5) Location of vertical joints — to be staggered between layers of gypsum board, in multi-layer

constructions.

6) Location of horizontal joints — to be coincident for one layer systems at a nominal height of

2 400 mm. If applicable, to be staggered between layers of gypsum board, in multi-layer

constructions with the inner layer at a nominal height of 600 mm and the outer layer at a nominal

height of 2 400 mm.

NOTE If the gypsum boards used in the flexible standard supporting construction are not full height (i.e. 3 m),

then a horizontal joint will be needed at the locations stated above. The horizontal joint will need to be backed to

prevent premature failure. A suitable method for this is to place a 100 mm wide fixing strap made from steel

0,5 mm thick behind the outer layer of board at the location of the joint. Drywall screws fixed through the outer

layer of board at 300 mm centres are used to locate the fixing strap. For all systems, the fixing strap is only

required behind the outer layer of board.

7) Filling of joints — outer layer only to be filled with gypsum plaster jointing compound

6.4.3.2 Horizontal or inclined specimens

Horizontal and inclined specimens will in most cases be installed in a type of supporting construction,

proprietary in nature. Accordingly, the provisions of 6.4.2 apply.
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ISO 3009:2003(E)
7 Application of instrumentation
7.1 Furnace thermocouples (plate thermometer)

7.1.1 Plate thermometers shall be provided for measuring the temperature of the furnace and shall be

uniformly distributed to give a reliable indication of the temperature across the exposed face of the test

specimen. These plate thermometers shall be constructed and located in accordance with ISO 834-1, with the

sensing face parallel to the test specimen and facing away from the specimen.

7.1.2 There shall be at least one plate thermometer for every 1,5 m of the exposed surface area of the test

construction. They shall be oriented so that Side “A” faces the back wall of the furnace.

7.2 Specimen thermocouples

7.2.1 For unexposed surface temperature measurement, thermocouples constructed in accordance with

ISO 834-1 shall be attached to the unexposed face at positions specified in that International Standard and in

ISO 834-8.

7.2.2 For insulated construction, thermocouples shall be placed on glazing and, if included, mullions and

transoms. Thermocouples shall not be placed closer than 100 mm to any discrete area not being evaluated for

insulation.

NOTE For the placing of thermocouples on specimens of both insulated and uninsulated glazing, illustrated by

examples, see Annex B.
7.3 Furnace pressure

Provision shall be made for measuring and controlling the furnace pressure in accordance with ISO 834-1. For

inclined glazed elements, see Clause 5.
7.4 Heat flux measurement
7.4.1 General

This clause specifies a method of measuring heat flux. The hazard presented by radiation is evaluated in the

test by measuring total heat flux. However, as the convected heat transfer is negligible, the measurement is

reported as heat flux in this document. The measurement of heat flux is considered in a plane parallel to, and

at a distance of 1,0 m from, the unexposed face of the test specimen, and includes — the concept of both an

average value, measured opposite the centre of the specimen, and a maximum value which will be greater

than or equal to the average value if the specimen is not a uniform radiator. Guidance is also provided on the

determination of the maximum value.

There is no requirement for measuring the heat flux from a surface with a temperature below 300 °C. This is

because the radiation emitted from such a surface is low — typically 6 kW/m — even with an emissivity of 1,0.

7.4.2 Apparatus
See Clause 4.
7.4.3 Procedure
7.4.3.1 Positioning
7.4.3.1.1 General

Position each heat flux meter 1,0 m from the unexposed surface of the test specimen.

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ISO 3009:2003(E)

At the start of the test, the target of each heat flux meter shall be parallel (± 5°) to the plane of the unexposed

surface of the test specimen and shall be pointing towards the unexposed surface of the test specimen.

There shall be no significant radiating surfaces other than the specimen within the field of view. The flux meter

shall not be shielded or masked such that the field of view is restricted.
7.4.3.1.2 Specific locations
Measurements shall be taken at the following locations.

a) Opposite the geometric centre of the specimen: referred to as the average heat flux level.

b) At the point at which the maximum heat flux can be expected. Often this follows logically or can be

calculated from the geometry of the specimen. If the specimen is symmetrical about its centre and a

uniform radiator, this will coincide with position a).

If the specimen has areas of differing insulation and/or transmission, it may be difficult to predict the point of

maximum intensity with any degree of certainty. In these cases the following procedure shall be used.

Identify all areas where it is anticipated that the temperature will exceed 300 °C having an area in excess of

0,1 m . Measure the heat flux opposite the notational centre of each area.

Two or more identical adjacent parts of the specimen having the same height or width, separated by less than

0,1 m, may be treated jointly together as a single radiation surface.

If the area or sub-areas of the specimen expected to remain below 300 °C are less than 10 % of the total area

or sub-area under consideration, then that area or sub-area may be treated as a single radiating surface. This

allows for breaks such as glazing bars. See Figure 4 for an example of measuring heat flux on an inclined

glazed element.
7.4.4 Measurement

Measurements taken at each location according to 7.4.3.1.2 shall be recorded throughout the test at intervals

not exceeding 1 min.
7.5 Deflection measurement

While deflection of the specimen is not a classification criteria, wherever possible it shall be measured to

provide a full movement history of the test specimen for extending the application of test results. See

...

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