Photocarcinogenesis action spectrum (non-melanoma skin cancers)

ISO/CIE 28077:2016 specifies the action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers.

Spectre d'action de la photocarcinogenèse (cancers de la peau hors mélanome)

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Second edition
Photocarcinogenesis action spectrum
(non-melanoma skin cancers)
Spectre d’action de la photocarcinogenèse (cancers de la peau hors
Reference number
ISO/CIE 28077:2016(E)
ISO/CIE 2016

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ISO/CIE 28077:2016(E)

© ISO/CIE 2016, Published in Switzerland
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ii © ISO/CIE 2016 – All rights reserved

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ISO/CIE 28077:2016(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations . 1
3.1 Terms and definitions . 1
3.2 Symbols and abbreviations . 1
4 The action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers .1
5 Tabulated and graphic values . 2
Bibliography . 7
© ISO/CIE 2016 – All rights reserved iii

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ISO/CIE 28077:2016(E)

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ISO/CIE 28077 was prepared by CIE Technical Committee 6-32, Action Spectrum for Photocarcinogenesis,
as CIE S 019. The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 274, Light and lighting.
This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 28077:2006), of which it constitutes a
minor revision.
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ISO/CIE 28077:2016(E)

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is recognized as a major cause of non-melanoma skin cancer in
human beings. Skin cancer occurs most frequently in the most heavily exposed areas and correlates
with degree of outdoor exposure. Describing the relationship of exposure (dose) to risk (skin cancer)
requires the availability of a biological hazard function or action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis. This
document proposes the adoption of an action spectrum (weighting function) derived from experimental
laboratory data and modified to estimate the non-melanoma tumour response in human skin. The
experimental data are sufficient for estimating effectiveness down to about 250 nm, but experimental
data are not sufficient for specifying effectiveness above 400 nm.
© ISO/CIE 2016 – All rights reserved v

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Photocarcinogenesis action spectrum (non-melanoma skin
1 Scope
This document specifies the action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in CIE S 017/E:2011 and the following
terms and definitions, symbols and abbreviations apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
— IEC Electropedia: available at
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at
3.1 Terms and definitions
ultraviolet radiation
radiation for which the wavelengths are shorter than those for visible radiation
Note 1 to entry: The range between 100 nm and 400 nm is commonly subdivided into: UV-A: 315 nm to 400 nm;
UV-B: 280 nm to 315 nm; UV-C: 100 nm to 280 nm.
[SOURCE: CIE S 017/E:2011, Term 17-1367, modified —Notes 2 and 3 have been omitted.]
3.2 Symbols and abbreviations
SCUP Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia (an action spectrum proposed in Reference [1])
SCUP-m designates the original SCUP action spectrum, based entirely on mouse data
SCUP-h designates a proposed action spectrum estimated by correcting for differences in UV
transmissions between human and murine epidermis
UV-A1 wavelength range from 340 nm to 400 nm
UV-A2 wavelength range from 315 nm to 340 nm
4 The action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers
The effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation in causing photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers
has been studied for many years . The action spectrum defined in this document was first published
by the CIE as the product of research by CIE Technical Committee 6-32, as CIE 138/2. The document
stated the following recognized limitations to this action spectrum:
© ISO/CIE 2016 – All rights reserved 1

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ISO/CIE 28077:2016(E)

“The UV-A1 part (340 nm–400 nm) of the SCUP action spectra has large margins of uncertainty
(from 10 %–20 % at 340 nm to an order of magnitude at 390 nm); the minimum at 350 nm and
especially the secondary maximum at 380 nm are not well defined. Recent biochemical data do,
however, indicate that action spectra for some types of DNA damage from reactive oxygen species,
such as released by UV-A, show a minimum around 350 nm.
Exploiting this as yet ill-defined fine structure in the UV-A1 region of the SCUP-h action spectrum
(e.g. for optimizing commercial tanning lamps) would be unjustified. Because the Committee report
should provide a standard for risk assessment in regulatory applications, its recommendation
eliminates the uncertainty associated with the fine structure of the SCUP-h action spectrum.
Committee consensus involved flattening the plateau at the 340 nm level. Mathematically, this

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