Information technology — Sensor networks — Services and interfaces supporting collaborative information processing in intelligent sensor networks

ISO/IEC 20005:2013 specifies services and interfaces supporting collaborative information processing (CIP) in intelligent sensor networks which includes: CIP functionalities and CIP functional model, common services supporting CIP, common service interfaces to CIP.

Technologies de l'information — Réseaux de capteurs — Services et interfaces prenant en charge le traitement d'information collaboratif dans les réseaux de capteurs intelligents

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Information technology — Sensor
networks — Services and interfaces
supporting collaborative information
processing in intelligent sensor
Technologies de l’information — Réseaux de capteurs — Services et
interfaces prenant en charge le traitement d’information collaboratif
dans les réseaux de capteurs intelligents
Reference number
ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)
ISO/IEC 2013

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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)

© ISO/IEC 2013
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior
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the requester.
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Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
Published in Switzerland
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)

Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction .v
1 Scope . 1
2 Normative references . 1
3 Terms and definitions . 1
4 Abbreviations. 2
5 General description . 3
5.1 Overview . 3
5.2 Requirements of intelligent sensor networks . 4
5.3 Overview of collaborative information processing . 4
5.4 Functional model of collaborative information processing . 5
5.5 Overview of services supporting CIP . 6
6 Core services and interfaces specifications . 8
6.1 Overview . 8
6.2 Event service . 8
6.3 Logical grouping service .11
6.4 Data grouping service .17
6.5 Data registration service .19
6.6 Information description service .21
6.7 Node-to-node inter-activation service .25
6.8 Parameter adaptation service .26
7 Enhanced services and interfaces specifications .28
7.1 Overview .28
7.2 QoS management service .28
7.3 CIP-driven scheduling service .32
7.4 Adaptive sensing service .37
Annex A (informative) Core services and interfaces examples .40
Annex B (informative) Enhanced services and interfaces examples .42
Bibliography .44
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ISO/IEC 20005:2013(E)

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical
Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are
members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical
committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of technical
activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international
organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the
work. In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee,
International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International
Standards adopted by the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting.
Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies
casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
ISO/IEC 20005 was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology.
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Sensor networks have been widely deployed in different application domains including environment
monitoring, transportation, manufacturing, chemical process, healthcare, home and buildings, and
many other domains. Wired/wireless sensor networks can be regarded as an extension of the Internet
interfacing the physical world. Intelligent sensor networks are increasingly attractive in a wide range
of applications to meet challenges from intrinsic environment complexity, large orders of magnitude
network scaling and dynamic application requirements. Intelligent sensor networks are developed to
provide new system capabilities such as environment self-adaptability, dynamic task supporting and
autonomous system maintenance. Collaborative information processing (CIP), which closely integrates
information processing algorithms with collaboration mechanisms, is an essential technology enabling
the intelligent sensor networks to enhance efficiency and to improve quality and reliability of information
processing and its outputs in real application scenarios. This standard specifies services and interfaces
supporting CIP in the intelligent sensor networks.
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Information technology — Sensor networks — Services
and interfaces supporting collaborative information
processing in intelligent sensor networks
1 Scope
This international standard specifies services and interfaces supporting collaborative information
processing (CIP) in intelligent sensor networks which includes:
— CIP functionalities and CIP functional model
— Common services supporting CIP
— Common service interfaces to CIP
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated
references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced
document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO/IEC 7498-1:1994, Information technology — Open Systems Interconnection — Basic Reference Model:
The Basic Model
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
device that provides a physical output in response to a input signal in a predetermined way
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
collaborative information processing
form of information processing in which multiple sensor network elements collaborate, in order to
enhance efficiency and improve the quality and reliability of the output
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
data registration
process of transforming different sets of data into one coordinate system
data grouping
process of identifying a time interval common among different data sources and grouping data obtained
in the time interval
anything that happens or is contemplated as happening at an instant or over an interval of time
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sensor network
system of spatially distributed sensor nodes interacting with each other and, depending on applications,
possibly with other infrastructure in order to acquire, process, transfer, and provide information extracted
from its environment with a primary function of information gathering and possible control capability
Note 1 to entry: Distinguishing features of a sensor network can include: wide area coverage, use of radio networks,
flexibility of purpose, self-organization, openness and providing data for multiple applications.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
sensor network application
use case of sensor networks, which provide a set of functions to users to meet defined requirements
EXAMPLE Monitoring forests to detect natural fires; monitoring seismic activity; monitoring pollution levels
in environment.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
sensor network service
set of functionalities offered by individual sensor network elements or the sensor network
EXAMPLE generating an alarm signal if the measurement made at a sensor exceeds drops out of certain
prescribed range; providing average sensor measurements over a given geographic area.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
sensor node
sensor network element that includes at least one sensor and optionally actuators with communication
capabilities and associated data processing capabilities
Note 1 to entry: It may include additional application capabilities.
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 29182-2]
service set or service subset
group or subgroup of services organized to provide common mechanisms or facilities to meet certain
requirements from users or applications
4 Abbreviations
For the purposes of this document, the following abbreviations apply.
CDE Capability Declaration Entity
CIP Collaborative Information Processing
CRSE Communication Requirement Specification Entity
CS Core Service
CSPE Collaborative Strategy Planning Entity
ES Enhanced Service
FAR False Alarming Rate
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FCR Functional Capability Requirement
GSR Generalized System Requirement
OSI/RM Open Systems Interconnection/Reference Model [ISO 7498-2:1989]
QoS Quality of Service
SAP Service Access Point
5 General description
5.1 Overview
A system composed of a sensor network or sensor networks attempts to fully integrate sensing,
data/information transmission and processing and information provision processes to satisfy the
system’s application requirements for end users. Figure 1 shows a functional overview of sensor
networks system from the layered architectural view.
Information Information Information
Application Layer
Publishing Indexing Processing
High Level
Protocol Layer
(OSI Layer 7)
Service Layer Time
Localization Security .
Other optional network communication Layer
Low Level
Network Layer
Protocol Layer Basic Functions Layer
Data Link layer
(OSI Layer 1-6)
Physical Layer
Figure 1 — Layer overview of sensor network system architecture
The Basic Functions Layer implements basic functionalities fulfilled by the lower layers in the Open
Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI/RM in ISO/IEC 7498-1), including the physical layer,
the data link layer, the network layer, and other optional network communication layers. Above the
basic functions layer, there are the Application Layer and the Service Layer. The application layer
provides services to individual applications and/or users and implements functions such as information
publishing, information indexing and information processing, etc. Between the application layer
and the basic functions layer, the service layer provides generic common services to entities in the
application layer. Typical generic common services in the service layer include localization service, time
synchronization service, security service, and other services.
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5.2 Requirements of intelligent sensor networks
Besides the generalized system requirements (GSR) and generalized functional capability requirements
(FCR) of sensor networks, there are additional unique requirements that the intelligent sensor networks
have to meet the challenges from intrinsic environment complexity, large orders of magnitude network
scaling and dynamic application requirements.
— Environmental self-adaptability: An intelligent sensor network shall adapt to obtain required
system performances if the physical environment of the sensor network’s monitoring area changes.
For example, an intelligent sensor network based anti-intrusion system should guarantee consistent
system performances such as detection and false alarming rate (FAR) when the environment in
which the sensor network is deployed changes.
— Dynamic task supporting: An intelligent sensor network shall support dynamic tasking including
dynamic task assignment, dynamic task ordering by prioritization, dynamic service provisioning
for information users/consumers, and dynamic quality of service (QoS) adjustment.
— Autonomous system maintenance: An intelligent sensor network shall autonomously maintain
system functionalities in case of network scaling, node mobility, new node entrances, node exits,
and node failures.
5.3 Overview of collaborative information processing
The key differences between traditional telecommunication infrastructures and information service
systems based on sensor networks are that (1) sensor networks systems collect raw sensory data from
physical world; and (2) from these data, extract application-specific information in order to obtain
feature level data, decision level information, and knowledge about the physical world.
Integrated with metadata such as sensory information description, sensor identification, and
sensory information location, CIP handles efficient resource management to provide the dynamic
tasking to fulfil the requests demanded by information service consumers. Though different sensor
network applications normally require application-specific services, the collaborative processing is
an indispensable requirement for senor network based information service to handle constraints in
power (e.g. batteries), computing resources, storage, and communication bandwidth. The collaborative
processing also has to deal with technical challenges such as task dynamics, measurement uncertainty,
node mobility, and environmental adaptation ability.
The aims of CIP in sensor networks are to improve system efficiency, enhance quality of service, and
guarantee system performance. It provides efficient mechanisms such as majority-voting fusion, decision
template fusion and statistical methods for handling incomplete and/or inaccurate information. It also
provides protocols to meet challenges from intrinsic environment complexity, large orders of magnitude
network scaling and dynamic application requirements.
CIP can be viewed from three distinct viewpoints. Figure 2 shows a three-dimensional conceptual
model of CIP.
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Figure 2 — Conceptual model of collaborative information processing
The first viewpoint is CIP Processing Level viewpoint. In this viewpoint, CIP can be implemented on
different processing levels, which includes data, feature and decision processing levels. The second
viewpoint is CIP Involved Entity viewpoint. Involved Entities in CIP could be sensor modalities,
processing modules, nodes, clusters, and even subnets. CIP can thirdly be viewed from Task Component
viewpoint. The task components in this viewpoint depend on the specific application scenarios of
sensor networks. In anti-intrusion application system, the task components can be target detection,
localization, classification, and tracking for security services. In healthcare system, task components
may include blood pressure/temperature measurement, respiration inspection, and gait analysis.
Figure 2 shows that tracking is one of the main CIP task components in Application 1. Decision-level and
feature-level processing are applied, and both sensor modalities and processing modules are involved
for CIP in the application. Specific selections and combinations using components from these three
viewpoints correspond to different application task implementations, or personalized services using
sensor networks.
5.4 Functional model of collaborative information processing
Figure 3 shows a functional model of collaborative information processing from a functional entities
point of views. In this model, CIP can be characterized by three distinct entities, which are named as
capability declaration entity (CDE), collaborative strategy planning entity (CSPE) and communication
requirement specification entity (CRSE).
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Figure 3 — Functional model of collaborative information processing
Capability Declaration Entity (CDE) declares capabilities of sensor nodes in a sensor network. Capabilities
include not only individual node information such as sensing modality and its configuration, sensing
range, remaining life on power, location, remaining storage capacity, and communication bandwidth,
etc., but also certain characteristic information of sensory data collected by individual sensor node.
One of the representative characteristics on sensory data are signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) value. Other
characteristics include signal strength, estimated distance between a target (or targets) and sensor
nodes, and state parameter prediction, etc. In other words, one sensor node should be qualified by the
Capability Evaluation model to be a CIP participant before any actual CIP procedure is triggered. CDE
requires a preliminary capability evaluation process which uses information of local measurement and
node property.
Collaborative Strategy Planning Entity (CSPE) is probably the most important entity in CIP. CSPE uses
available information provided by CDE and decides how collaborative information processing will be
implemented. With certain cost functions or utility measures, CSPE tries to find a resource-efficient
solution to collaborative strategy planning problem while the best information processing performance
can also concurrently be achieved. Two computing paradigms can be used in the implementation of
resulting solution from CSPE – One is centralized computing paradigm; the other is distributed computing
paradigm. In distributed computing paradigm, there are several local computing/fusion centres. In
centralized computing paradigm, only one central computing/fusion centre exists. The paradigm used
is decided by the CSPE entity. Both the spatial and temporal correlation among different local centres,
which may be dynamic, is also indicated by the CSPE entity.
Communication Requirement Specification Entity (CRSE) acts as interface between information service
provider and Communication and Information Exchange. CRSE defines parameters and protocols to
clearly describe requirements on communication and information exchange. For example requirements
such as end-to-end delay, time jitter, bit error, and other QoS parameters should be specified.
5.5 Overview of services supporting CIP
Generic common services in the service layer could be divided into different subsets according to the types
of service consumer entities in the application layer. This standard specifies a subset of generic common
services which interface with the CIP entities in the application layer and support implementation of the
corresponding CIP entity functionalities.
Services supporting CIP can be conceptually divided into two classes: core services (CS) and enhanced
services (ES), as shown in Figure 4. Core services include fundamental and essential services which can
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be provided directly and individually to the CIP entities. Enhanced services are implemented through
combining services, for example, integrating two or more core services or other generic common
services provided in the service layer.
CIP Entities
Service Access Points (SAPs)
ES1 ES2 . ES N
Service Generic
Layer common
CS1 CS2 . CS N
Figure 4 — Overview of services supporting CIP
5.5.1 Core services supporting CIP
The core services (CS) supporting CIP includes:
— Event service: This service implements functionalities concerning the process of event subscription,
registration, cancellation and un-subscription. Event may be generated due to environmental
changes, new physical signal occurrence, and network status dynamics.
— Logical grouping service: This service implements functionalities concerning the establishment
and management processes of logical group for the implementation of CIP in the application
layer. The logical group is a logical set of sensor network entities involved in specific information
processing tasks such as target detection, localization, recognition and target tracking. Logical
grouping service provides mechanism for establishing collaborative relationship among the entities
in intelligent sensor networks.
— Data grouping service: Data are generated by various sensors in different time intervals and
scales. This service identifies or specifies a time interval common to all sensors participating in CIP,
and groups all sensor data obtained during that time interval for processing. Data grouping service
uses a time synchronization service to support CIP.
— Data registration service: Data generated from sensors in distributed sensor nodes may be
described in different spatial reference coordinate systems. Data registration is a necessary
process in order to transform or integrate different sets of data into one coordinate system. Based
on reference coordinate system description, this service provides functionalities to keep the spatial
reference coordinate system consistency among participators in CIP.
— Information description service: This service provides mechanisms to establish ways or methods
to describe information in intelligent sensor network. Information can be the input parameters to
CIP processes, and it can also be the results from CIP processes.
— Node-to-node inter-activation service: This service provides mechanisms not only to initiate
the execution of tasks in one sensor node commended by another sensor node, but also to trigger
modules from one sensor node from another sensor node. Dynamic tasking can be supported by this
core service.
— Parameter adaptation service: This service provides mechanisms to adapt or reconfigure
parameters for CIP. Parameter adaptation service is one of the essential services to guarantee system
performance in case of dynamic changes in deploying environment and application requirements.
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5.5.2 Enhanced services supporting CIP
The enhanced services (ES) supporting CIP includes:
— QoS management service: This service provides mechanisms to define and update QoS profiles, and
to apply QoS profiles. In intelligent sensor networks, QoS shall be considered from both information
processing perspective and communication processing perspective. The QoS management service
uses the logical grouping service and the parameter adaptation service.
— CIP-driven scheduling service: This service provides functions to control and schedule node
states upon the request of the CIP entities instead of node management entities in intelligent sensor
networks. This service can help to implement application-oriented networking and on-demand
task scheduling. CIP-driven scheduling service use the event service, the logical grouping service,
the parameter adaptation service and the node-to-node inter-activation service, and other generic
common services including neighbour finding service.
— Adaptive sensing service: This service provides mechanisms to adaptively apply sensing rules
according to different event occurrence and different contexts in intelligent sensor networks.
Adaptive sensing service can provide autonomous system maintenance and system adaptability
in intelligent sensor network. Adaptive sensing service uses the event service, the information
description service, and other generic common services including sensor configuration service.
6 Core services and interfaces specifications
6.1 Overview
This clause specifies core services (CS) supporting CIP in intelligent sensor networks. Service primitives
and parameters of primitives are defined for each core service. Table 1 shows the names of service
access points (SAPs) through which specific service is provided.
Table 1 — Core services and the names of SAPs
Service name SAP name
Event service EVENT-SAP
Logical grouping service LG-SAP
Data grouping service DG-SAP
Data registration service REG-SAP
Information description service INFO-SAP
Node-to-node inter-activation service N2NACT-SAP
Parameter adaptation service PAR-SAP
6.2 Event service
Event service is provided through EVENT-SAP. The EVENT-SAP is the logical interface between the
event service entity in the service layer and the CIP entity in the application layer. This logical interface
incorporates a set of primitives and their definitions. These primitives and definitions are described
conceptually here, but through this, the process of the parameters exchanged between the service layer
and the application layer can be understood. Table 2 lists the primitives supported by the EVENT-SAP.
Table 3 outlines the primitive parameters.
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Table 2 — EVENT-SAP primitive summary
Name Request Indication Response Confirm
EVENT-SUB 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3

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