Building automation and control systems (BACS) — Part 5: Data communication protocol

The purpose of ISO 16484-5:2017 is to define data communication services and protocols for computer equipment used for monitoring and control of HVAC&R and other building systems and to define, in addition, an abstract, object-oriented representation of information communicated between such equipment, thereby facilitating the application and use of digital control technology in buildings.

Systèmes d'automatisation et de gestion technique du bâtiment — Partie 5: Protocole de communication de données

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
18-Jun-2017
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
01-Sep-2022
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16484-5
Sixth edition
2017-06
Building automation and control
systems (BACS) —
Part 5:
Data communication protocol
Systèmes d’automatisation et de gestion technique du bâtiment —
Partie 5: Protocole de communication de données
Reference number
ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
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copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national

standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally

carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a

technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee.

International organizations, governmental and non‐governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in

the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all

matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. International Standards are drafted in accordance

with the editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 205, Building environment design.

This sixth edition cancels and replaces the fifth edition (ISO 16484‐5:2014), which has been technically

revised. See the detailed list of changes on pages 1 312 to 1 327.

A list of all the parts in the ISO 16484 series, can be found on the ISO website.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
iii
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
CONTENTS
Foreword iii
Introduction
xii
1  PURPOSE 1
2  SCOPE 1
3  DEFINITIONS
3.1  Terms Adopted from International Standards 1
3.2  Terms Defined for this Standard 2
3.3  Abbreviations and Acronyms Used in this Standard 7
4  BACnet PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE 10
4.1  The BACnet Collapsed Architecture 11
4.2  BACnet Network Topology 13
4.3  Security 15
5  THE APPLICATION LAYER 16
5.1  The Application Layer Model 16
5.2  Segmentation of BACnet Messages 20
5.3  Transmission of BACnet APDUs 21
5.4  Application Protocol State Machines 25
5.5  Application Protocol Time Sequence Diagrams 42
5.6  Application Layer Service Conventions 50
6  THE NETWORK LAYER 51
6.1  Network Layer Service Specification 51
6.2  Network Layer PDU Structure 53
6.3  Messages for Multiple Recipients 58
6.4  Network Layer Protocol Messages 59
6.5  Network Layer Procedures 62
6.6  BACnet Routers 64
6.7  Point-To-Point Half-Routers 69
7  DATA LINK/PHYSICAL LAYERS: Ethernet (ISO 8802-3) LAN 73
7.1  The Use of ISO 8802-2 Logical Link Control (LLC) 73
7.2  Parameters Required by the LLC Primitives 73
7.3  Parameters Required by the MAC Primitives 73
7.4  Physical Media 73
8  DATA LINK/PHYSICAL LAYERS: ARCNET (ATA 878.1) LAN 74
8.1  The Use of ISO 8802-2 Logical Link Control (LLC) 74
8.2  Parameters Required by the LLC Primitives 74
8.3  Mapping the LLC Services to the ARCNET MAC Layer 74
8.4  Parameters Required by the MAC Primitives 74
8.5  Physical Media 74
9  DATA LINK/PHYSICAL LAYERS: MASTER-SLAVE/TOKEN PASSING (MS/TP) LAN 76
9.1  Service Specification 76
9.2  Physical Layer 78
9.3  MS/TP Frame Format 89
9.4  Overview of the MS/TP Network 91
9.5  MS/TP Medium Access Control 91
9.6  Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) 110
9.7  Interfacing MS/TP LANs with Other BACnet LANs 111
9.8  Responding BACnet User Processing of Messages from MS/TP 111
9.9  Repeaters 112
9.10  COBS (Consistent Overhead Byte Stuffing) Encoding 113
10  DATA LINK/PHYSICAL LAYERS: POINT-TO-POINT (PTP) 117
10.1  Overview 117
10.2  Service Specification 117
10.3  Point-to-Point Frame Format 121
10.4  PTP Medium Access Control Protocol 124
11  DATA LINK/PHYSICAL LAYERS: LonTalk (ISO/IEC 14908.1) LAN 145
11.1  The Use of ISO 8802-2 Logical Link Control (LLC) 145
11.2  Parameters Required by the LLC Primitives 145
11.3  Mapping the LLC Services to the LonTalk Application Layer 145
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
11.4  Parameters Required by the Application Layer Primitives 145
11.5  Physical Media 146
12  MODELING CONTROL DEVICES AS A COLLECTION OF OBJECTS 147
12.1  Object Characteristics and Requirements 147
12.2  Analog Input Object Type 152
12.3  Analog Output Object Type 158
12.4  Analog Value Object Type 164
12.5  Averaging Object Type 170
12.6  Binary Input Object Type 174
12.7  Binary Output Object Type 180
12.8  Binary Value Object Type 188
12.9  Calendar Object Type 195
12.10  Command Object Type 197
12.11  Device Object Type 203
12.12  Event Enrollment Object Type 214
12.13  File Object Type 222
12.14  Group Object Type 225
12.15  Life Safety Point Object Type 227
12.16  Life Safety Zone Object Type 234
12.17  Loop Object Type 240
12.18  Multi-state Input Object Type 248
12.19  Multi-state Output Object Type 253
12.20  Multi-state Value Object Type 259
12.21  Notification Class Object Type 265
12.22  Program Object Type 270
12.23  Pulse Converter Object Type 276
12.24  Schedule Object Type 283
12.25  Trend Log Object Type 289
12.26  Access Door Object Type 298
12.27  Event Log Object Type 306
12.28  Load Control Object Type 313
12.29  Structured View Object Type 322
12.30  Trend Log Multiple Object Type 327
12.31  Access Point Object Type 336
12.32  Access Zone Object Type 352
12.33  Access User Object Type 360
12.34  Access Rights Object Type 363
12.35  Access Credential Object Type 369
12.36  Credential Data Input Object Type 378
12.37  CharacterString Value Object Type 384
12.38  DateTime Value Object Type 390
12.39  Large Analog Value Object Type 395
12.40  BitString Value Object Type 402
12.41  OctetString Value Object Type 408
12.42  Time Value Object Type 412
12.43  Integer Value Object Type 417
12.44  Positive Integer Value Object Type 424
12.45  Date Value Object Type 431
12.46  DateTime Pattern Value Object Type 436
12.47  Time Pattern Value Object Type 441
12.48  Date Pattern Value Object Type 446
12.49  Network Security Object Type 451
12.50  Global Group Object Type 454
12.51  Notification Forwarder Object Type 461
12.52  Alert Enrollment Object Type 468
12.53  Channel Object Type 471
12.54  Lighting Output Object Type 480
12.55  Binary Lighting Output Object Type 493
12.56  Network Port Object Type 502
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
12.57  Timer Object Type 525
12.58  Elevator Group Object Type 537
12.59  Lift Object Type 540
12.60  Escalator Object Type 551
12.61  Accumulator Object Type 558
13  ALARM AND EVENT SERVICES 567
13.1  Change of Value Reporting 568
13.2  Event Reporting 572
13.3  Event Algorithms 583
13.4  Fault Algorithms 612
13.5  AcknowledgeAlarm Service 619
13.6  ConfirmedCOVNotification Service 621
13.7  UnconfirmedCOVNotification Service 623
13.8  ConfirmedEventNotification Service 624
13.9  UnconfirmedEventNotification Service 626
13.10  GetAlarmSummary Service 628
13.11  GetEnrollmentSummary Service 630
13.12  GetEventInformation Service 633
13.13  LifeSafetyOperation Service 635
13.14  SubscribeCOV Service 637
13.15  SubscribeCOVProperty Service 639
13.16  SubscribeCOVPropertyMultiple Service 642
13.17  ConfirmedCOVNotificationMultiple Service 647
13.18  UnconfirmedCOVNotificationMultiple Service 650
14  FILE ACCESS SERVICES 652
14.1  AtomicReadFile Service 653
14.2  AtomicWriteFile Service 656
15  OBJECT ACCESS SERVICES 658
15.1  AddListElement Service 658
15.2  RemoveListElement Service 660
15.3  CreateObject Service 662
15.4  DeleteObject Service 664
15.5  ReadProperty Service 665
15.6  Deleted Clause 667
15.7  ReadPropertyMultiple Service 668
15.8  ReadRange Service 671
15.9  WriteProperty Service 678
15.10  WritePropertyMultiple Service 680
15.11  WriteGroup Service 683
16  REMOTE DEVICE MANAGEMENT SERVICES 685
16.1  DeviceCommunicationControl Service 685
16.2  ConfirmedPrivateTransfer Service 687
16.3  UnconfirmedPrivateTransfer Service 689
16.4  ReinitializeDevice Service 690
16.5  ConfirmedTextMessage Service 692
16.6  UnconfirmedTextMessage Service 694
16.7  TimeSynchronization Service 695
16.8  UTCTimeSynchronization Service 696
16.9  Who-Has and I-Have Services 697
16.10  Who-Is and I-Am Services 699
17  VIRTUAL TERMINAL SERVICES 701
17.1  Virtual Terminal Model 701
17.2  VT-Open Service 705
17.3  VT-Close Service 707
17.4  VT-Data Service 708
17.5  Default Terminal Characteristics 710
18  ERROR, REJECT, and ABORT CODES 714
18.1  Error Class - DEVICE 714
18.2  Error Class - OBJECT 714
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
18.3  Error Class - PROPERTY 715
18.4  Error Class - RESOURCES 716
18.5  Error Class - SECURITY 716
18.6  Error Class - SERVICES 718
18.7  Error Class - COMMUNICATION 719
18.8  Error Class - VT 721
18.9  Reject Reason 721
18.10  Abort Reason 722
18.11  Confirmed Service Common Errors 723
19  BACnet PROCEDURES 724
19.1  Backup and Restore 724
19.2  Command Prioritization 727
19.3  Device Restart Procedure 731
19.4  Determining Maximum Conveyable APDU 732
19.5  Value Source Mechanism 733
20  ENCODING BACnet PROTOCOL DATA UNITS 736
20.1  Encoding the Fixed Part of BACnet APDUs 736
20.2  Encoding the Variable Part of BACnet APDUs 746
21  FORMAL DESCRIPTION OF APPLICATION PROTOCOL DATA UNITS 760
22  CONFORMANCE AND INTEROPERABILITY 845
22.1  Conformance to BACnet 845
22.2  BACnet Interoperability 846
23  EXTENDING BACnet TO ACCOMMODATE VENDOR PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 848
23.1  Extending Enumeration Values 848
23.2  Using the PrivateTransfer Services to Invoke Non-Standardized Services 849
23.3  Adding Proprietary Properties to a Standardized Object 849
23.4  Adding Proprietary Object Types to BACnet 849
23.5  Restrictions on Extending BACnet 850
24  NETWORK SECURITY 851
24.1  Overview 851
24.2  Security Wrapper 855
24.3  Security Messages 859
24.4  Securing an APDU 875
24.5  Securing an NPDU 877
24.6  Securing BVLL Messages 877
24.7  Securing Messages 881
24.8  Network Security Network Trust Levels 884
24.9  Network Security Policies 884
24.10  Network Security 885
24.11  End-to-End Security 886
24.12  Wrapping and Unwrapping Secure Messages 886
24.13  Authenticating Messages 888
24.14  User Authentication 891
24.15  Time Synchronization Requirements 891
24.16  Integrating the Security Layer into the BACnet Stack 893
24.17  BACnet Security In A NAT Environment 900
24.18  BACnet Security Proxy 900
24.19  Deploying Secure Device on Non-Security Aware Networks 900
24.20  Deploying Secure Single Network Installations 900
24.21  Security Keys 900
24.22  Key Server 902
25  REFERENCES 906
ANNEX A - PROTOCOL IMPLEMENTATION CONFORMANCE STATEMENT (NORMATIVE) 910
ANNEX B - GUIDE TO SPECIFYING BACnet DEVICES (INFORMATIVE) 913
ANNEX C - Removed 914
ANNEX D - Removed 915
ANNEX E - EXAMPLES OF BACnet APPLICATION SERVICES (INFORMATIVE) 916
E.1 Alarm and Event Services 916
E.2 File Access Services 920
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
E.3 Object Access Services 921
E.4 Remote Device Management Services 927
ANNEX F - EXAMPLES OF APDU ENCODING (INFORMATIVE) 932
F.1 Example Encodings for Alarm and Event Services 932
F.2 Example Encodings for File Access Services 942
F.3 Example Encodings for Object Access Services 944
F.4 Example Encodings for Remote Device Management Services 953
F.5 Example Encodings for Virtual Terminal Services 957
ANNEX G - CALCULATION OF CRC (INFORMATIVE) 960
G.1 Calculation of the Header CRC 960
G.2 Calculation of the Data CRC 965
G.3 Calculation of the Encoded CRC-32K 969
ANNEX H - COMBINING BACnet NETWORKS WITH NON-BACnet NETWORKS (NORMATIVE) 973
H.1 BACnet Gateways 973
H.2 Requirements and Best Practices for BACnet Gateway Implementations 973
H.3 Using BACnet with the DARPA Internet Protocols 975
H.4 Using BACnet with the IPX Protocol 976
H.5 Using BACnet with EIB/KNX 978

H.6 Using BACnet with the Former BACnet/WS Web Services Interface Defined by Annex N 986

H.7 Virtual MAC Addressing 988
ANNEX I - COMMANDABLE PROPERTIES WITH MINIMUM ON AND OFF TIMES (INFORMATIVE) 990
ANNEX J - BACnet/IP (NORMATIVE) 992
J.1 General 992
J.2 BACnet Virtual Link Layer 992
J.3 BACnet/IP Directed Messages 996
J.4 BACnet/IP Broadcast Messages 996
J.5 Addition of Foreign B/IP Devices to an Existing B/IP Network 998
J.6 Routing Between B/IP and non-B/IP BACnet Networks 1000
J.7 Routing Between Two B/IP BACnet Networks 1000
J.8 Use of IP Multicast within BACnet/IP 1006
ANNEX K - BACnet INTEROPERABILITY BUILDING BLOCKS (BIBBs) (NORMATIVE) 1008
K.1 Data Sharing BIBBs 1008
K.2 Alarm and Event Management BIBBs 1022
K.3 Scheduling BIBBs 1033
K.4 Trending BIBBs 1037
K.5 Device and Network Management BIBBs 1040
K.6 Network Security BIBBs 1047

ANNEX L - DESCRIPTIONS AND PROFILES OF STANDARDIZED BACnet DEVICES (NORMATIVE) 1050

L.1 Operator Interface Profiles 1050
L.2 Life Safety Operator Interface Profiles 1052
L.3 Access Control Operator Interface Profiles 1055
L.4 Controller Profiles 1058
L.5 Life Safety Controller Profiles 1061
L.6 Access Control Controller Profiles 1062
L.7 Miscellaneous Profiles 1063
L.8 BACnet General (B-GENERAL) Profile 1066
ANNEX M - GUIDE TO EVENT NOTIFICATION PRIORITY ASSIGNMENTS (INFORMATIVE) 1067
M.1 Life Safety Message Group (0 - 31) 1067
M.2 Property Safety Message Group (32 - 63) 1068
M.3 Supervisory Message Group (64 - 95) 1068
M.4 Trouble Message Group (96 - 127) 1069
M.5 Miscellaneous Higher Priority Message Group (128 - 191) 1069
M.6 Miscellaneous Lower Priority Message Group (192 - 255) 1070
ANNEX N - FORMER BACnet/WS WEB SERVICES INTERFACE (INFORMATIVE) 1071
N.1 Data Model 1071
N.2 Paths 1072
N.3 Normalized Points 1072
N.4 Reference Nodes 1073
N.5 Localization 1073
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
N.6 Security 1073
N.7 Sessions 1074
N.8 Attributes 1074
N.9 Standard Nodes 1079
N.10 Encodings 1080
N.11 Service Options 1081
N.12 Services 1083
N.13 Errors 1100
N.14 Extending BACnet/WS 1101
ANNEX O - BACnet OVER ZigBee AS A DATA LINK LAYER (NORMATIVE) 1102
O.1 General 1102
O.2 ZigBee Overview 1102
O.3 Definitions 1103
O.4 Unicast Addressing 1103
O.5 Broadcast Addressing 1103
O.6 BACnet/ZigBee Data Link Layer (BZLL) 1104
O.7 Maximum Payload Size 1107
O.8 Vendor Specific Commands 1107

ANNEX P - BACnet ENCODING OF STANDARD AUTHENTICATION FACTOR FORMATS (NORMATIVE) 1108

ANNEX Q - XML DATA FORMATS (NORMATIVE) 1113
Q.1 Introduction 1113
Q.2 XML Document Structure 1116
Q.3 Expressing Data 1119
Q.4 Expressing Metadata 1119
Q.5 Expressing Values 1120
Q.6 Binary Encoding and Access Rules 1122
Q.7 Extensibility 1122
Q.8 BACnet URI Scheme 1124
ANNEX R - MAPPING NETWORK LAYER ERRORS (NORMATIVE) 1125
ANNEX S - EXAMPLES OF SECURE BACnet MESSAGES (INFORMATIVE) 1127
S.1 Example of an Initial Key Distribution 1127
S.2 Example of Device Startup 1130
S.3 Examples of Secured Confirmed Requests 1133
S.4 Security Challenge Example 1139
S.5 Secure-BVLL Example 1141
ANNEX T - COBS (CONSISTENT OVERHEAD BYTE STUFFING) FUNCTIONS (INFORMATIVE) 1142
T.1 Preparing a COBS-Encoded MS/TP Frame for Transmission 1142
T.2 Decoding an Extended MS/TP Frame upon Reception 1144
T.3 Example COBS-Encoded Frame - Who-Has Service 1146
ANNEX U - BACnet/IPv6 (NORMATIVE) 1148
U.1 General 1148
U.2 BACnet/IPv6 BACnet Virtual Link Layer 1149
U.3 BACnet/IPv6 Directed Messages 1153
U.4 BACnet/IPv6 Broadcast Messages 1153
U.5 BACnet /IPv6 VMAC Table Management 1157
ANNEX V - MIGRATION FROM SOAP SERVICES (INFORMATIVE) 1158
V.1 Services 1158
V.2 Service Options 1160
ANNEX W - BACnet/WS RESTful WEB SERVICES INTERFACE (NORMATIVE) 1161
W.1 Data Model 1161
W.2 Paths 1161
W.3 Security 1162
W.4 Sessions 1171
W.5 Standard Data Items 1171
W.6 Metadata 1176
W.7 Functions 1176
W.8 Query Parameters 1177
W.9 Representation of Data 1179
W.10 Representation of Metadata 1180
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
W.11 Representation of Logs 1180
W.12 Filtering Items 1186
W.13 Limiting Number of Items 1187
W.14 Selecting Children 1188
W.15 Controlling Content of Data Representations 1188
W.16 Specifying Ranges 1191
W.17 Localized Values 1193
W.18 Accessing Individual Tags and Bits 1194
W.19 Semantics 1194
W.20 Links and Relationships 1194
W.21 Foreign XML and Other Media Types 1194
W.22 Logical Modeling 1195
W.23 Mapped Modeling 1195
W.24 Commandability 1196
W.25 Writability and Visibility 1196
W.26 Working with Optional Data 1197
W.27 Working with Optional Metadata 1198
W.28 Creating Data 1198
W.29 Setting Data 1199
W.30 Deleting Data 1201
W.31 Parentally Inherited Values 1201
W.32 Concurrency Control 1202
W.33 Server Support for Data Definitions 1202
W.34 Server Support for Metadata 1202
W.35 Client Implementation Guidelines 1203
W.36 Subscriptions 1204
W.37 Reading Multiple Resources 1205
W.38 Writing Multiple Resources 1206
W.39 Mapping of BACnet Systems 1207
W.40 Errors 1210
W.41 Examples 1212
ANNEX X - EXTENDED DISCOVERY OF DEVICES, PROFILES, AND VIEWS (NORMATIVE) 1241
X.1 Profiles 1241
X.2 xdd Files 1242
X.3 Example of Definition of Objects, Properties, and Datatypes. 1243
X.4 Views 1245
X.5 PICS Declarations 1250
ANNEX Y - ABSTRACT DATA MODEL (NORMATIVE) 1251
Y.1 Model Components 1251
Y.2 Trees 1253
Y.3 Base Types 1255
Y.4 Common Metadata 1255
Y.5 Named Values 1267
Y.6 Named Bits 1270
Y.7 Primitive Values 1271
Y.8 Range Restrictions 1273
Y.9 Engineering Units 1275
Y.10 Length Restrictions 1276
Y.11 Collections 1277
Y.12 Primitive Data 1279
Y.13 Constructed Data 1282
Y.14 Data of Undefined Type 1285
Y.15 Logical Modeling 1286
Y.16 Links 1286
Y.17 Change Indications 1288
Y.18 Definitions, Types, Instances, and Inheritance 1288
Y.19 Data Revisions 1294
Y.20 BACnet-Specific Base Types 1296
Y.21 BACnet-Specific Metadata 1297
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
ANNEX Z - JSON DATA FORMATS (NORMATIVE) 1301
Z.1 Introduction 1301
Z.2 JSON Document Structure 1304
Z.3 Expressing Data 1307
Z.4 Expressing Metadata 1307
Z.5 Expressing Values 1308
Z.6 Extensibility 1310
HISTORY OF REVISIONS 1312
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
Introduction

BACnet, the ASHRAE building automation and control networking protocol, has been designed specifically to meet the

communication needs of building automation and control systems for applications such as heating, ventilating, and air-

conditioning control, lighting control, access control, and fire detection systems. The BACnet protocol provides mechanisms

by which computerized equipment of arbitrary function may exchange information, regardless of the particular building

service it performs. As a result, the BACnet protocol may be used by head-end computers, general-purpose direct digital

controllers, and application specific or unitary controllers with equal effect.

The motivation for this Standard was the widespread desire of building owners and operators for "interoperability," the

ability to integrate equipment from different vendors into a coherent automation and control system - and to do so

competitively. To accomplish this, the Standard Project Committee (SPC) solicited and received input from dozens of

interested firms and individuals; reviewed all relevant national and international data communications standards, whether

de facto or the result of committee activity; and spent countless hours in debate and discussion of the pros and cons of each

element of the protocol.

What has emerged from the committee deliberations is a network protocol model with these principal characteristics:

(a) All network devices (except MS/TP slaves) are peers, but certain peers may have greater privileges and responsibilities

than others.

(b) Each network device is modeled as a collection of network-accessible, named entities called "objects." Each object is

characterized by a set of attributes or "properties." While this Standard prescribes the most widely applicable object types

and their properties, implementors are free to create additional object types if desired. Because the object model can be

easily extended, it provides a way for BACnet to evolve in a backward compatible manner as the technology and building

needs change.

(c) Communication is accomplished by reading and writing the properties of particular objects and by the mutually

acceptable execution of other protocol "services." While this Standard prescribes a comprehensive set of services,

mechanisms are also provided for implementors to create additional services if desired.

(d) Because of this Standard's adherence to the ISO concept of a "layered" communication architecture, the same messages

may be exchanged using various network access methods and physical media. This means that BACnet networks may be

configured to meet a range of speed and throughput requirements with commensurately varying cost. Multiple BACnet

networks can be interconnected within the same system forming an internetwork of arbitrarily large size. This flexibility also

provides a way for BACnet to embrace new networking technologies as they are developed.

BACnet was designed to gracefully improve and evolve as both computer technology and demands of building automation

systems change. Upon its original publication in 1995, a Standing Standards Project Committee was formed to deliberate

enhancements to the protocol under ASHRAE rules for "continuous maintenance." Much has happened since the BACnet

standard was first promulgated. BACnet has been translated into Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, and embraced across the

globe. BACnet devices have been designed, built and deployed on all seven continents. Suggestions for enhancements and

improvements have been continually received, deliberated, and, ultimately, subjected to the same consensus process that

produced the original standard. This publication is the result of those deliberations and brings together all of the

corrections, refinements, and improvements that have been adopted.

Among the features that have been added to BACnet are: increased capabilities to interconnect systems across wide area

networks using Internet Protocols, new objects and services to support fire detection, other life safety applications, lighting,

physical access control, and elevator monitoring, capabilities to backup and restore devices, standard ways to collect trend

data, new tools to make specifying BACnet systems easier, a mechanism for making interoperable extensions to the standard

visible, and many others. The successful addition of these features demonstrates that the concept of a protocol deliberately

crafted to permit extension of its capabilities over time as technology and needs change is viable and sound.

All communication protocols are, in the end, a collection of arbitrary solutions to the problems of information exchange and

all are subject to change as time and technology advance. BACnet is no exception. Still, it is the hope of those who have

contributed their time, energies, and talents to this work that BACnet will help to fulfill, in the area of building automation

and control, the promise of the information age for the public good!
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
1. PURPOSE
1 PURPOSE

The purpose of this standard is to define data communication services and protocols for computer equipment used for

monitoring and control of HVAC&R and other building systems and to define, in addition, an abstract, object-oriented

representation of information communicated between such equipment, thereby facilitating the application and use of digital

control technology in buildings.
2 SCOPE

2.1 This protocol provides a comprehensive set of messages for conveying encoded binary, analog, and alphanumeric

data between devices including, but not limited to:
(a) hardware binary input and output values,
(b) hardware analog input and output values,
(c) software binary and analog values,
(d) text string values,
(e) schedule information,
(f) alarm and event information,
(g) files, and
(h) control logic.

2.2 This protocol models each building automation and control computer as a collection of data structures called

"objects," the properties of which represent various aspects of the hardware, software, and operation of the device.

These objects provide a means of identifying and accessing information without requiring knowledge of the

details of the device's internal design or configuration.
3 DEFINITIONS
3.1 Terms Adopted from International Standards

The following terms used in this standard are defined by international standards or draft standards for open system

interconnection (OSI). The definitions are repeated here and a reference to the appropriate standard is provided. Clause 25

contains the titles of all national and international standards referenced in this clause and elsewhere in this standard. Words

or phrases in italics refer to terms defined elsewhere in this clause.

abstract syntax: the specification of application layer data or application-protocol-control-information by using notation

rules which are independent of the encoding technique used to represent them (ISO 8822).

application: a set of a USER's information processing requirements (ISO 8649).

application-entity: the aspects of an application-process pertinent to OSI (ISO 7498).

application-process: an element within a real open system which performs the information processing for a particular

application (ISO 7498).

application-protocol-control-information: information exchanged between application-entities, using presentation

services, to coordinate their joint operation (ISO 9545).

application-protocol-data-unit: a unit of data specified in an application protocol and consisting of application-protocol-

control-information and possibly application-user-data (ISO 9545).

application-service-element: that part of an application-entity which provides an OSI environment capability, using

underlying services when appropriate (ISO 7498).

concrete syntax: those aspects of the rules used in the formal specification of data which embody a specific representation

of that data (ISO 7498).

confirm (primitive): a representation of an interaction in which a service-provider indicates, at a particular service-access-

point, completion of some procedure previously invoked, at that service-access-point, by an interaction represented by a

request primitive (ISO TR 8509).
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16484-5:2017(E)
3. DEFINITIONS

indication (primitive): a representation of an interaction in which a service-provider either

(a) indicates that it has, on its own initiative, invoked some procedure; or

(b) indicates that a procedure has been invoked by the service-user at the peer service-access-point (ISO TR 8509).

peer-entities: entities within the same layer (ISO 7498).

real open system: a real system which complies with the requirements of OSI standards in its communication with other

real systems (ISO 7498).

real system: a set of one or more computers, the associated software, peripherals, terminals, human operators, physical

processes, informati
...

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