Textiles and textile products -- Smart (Intelligent) textiles— Definitions, categorisation, applications and standardization needs

This document provides definitions in the field of "smart" textiles and textile products as well as a categorization of different types of smart textiles. It describes briefly the current stage of development of these products and their application potential and gives indications on preferential standardization needs.

Textiles et produits textiles -- Textiles intelligents -- Définitions, catégorisation, applications et besoins de normalisation

Le présent document fournit des définitions dans le domaine des textiles et produits textiles «intelligents», ainsi qu'une catégorisation des différents types de textiles intelligents. Il décrit bričvement l'état actuel de développement de ces produits et leur application potentielle et fournit des indications sur les besoins de normalisation préférentiels.

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Published
Publication Date
23-Nov-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6000 - International Standard under publication
Start Date
24-Nov-2020
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 23383
First edition
2020-11
Textiles and textile products — Smart
(Intelligent) textiles— Definitions,
categorisation, applications and
standardization needs
Textiles et produits textiles — Textiles intelligents — Définitions,
catégorisation, applications et besoins de normalisation
Reference number
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Functional and smart textile products .......................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Functional textile products .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.2 Electrically conductive textile products ....................................................................................................... 2

4.1.3 Thermally conductive textile products ......................................................................................................... 3

4.1.4 Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products .................................................................................. 3

4.1.5 Optically conductive textile products ............................................................................................................ 3

4.1.6 Fluorescent textile products .................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.7 Phosphorescent textile products ....................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.8 Textile products releasing substances .......................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Smart (intelligent) textile products ...................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.2 Chromic textile products ........................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.3 Phase change textile products .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.4 Textile products with active ingredients inside the microcapsules ..................................... 6

4.2.5 Shape change (shape memory) textile products .................................................................................. 6

4.2.6 Super-absorbing polymers and gels ............................................................................................................... 6

4.2.7 Auxetic textile products ............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2.8 Dilating and shear-thickening textile products ..................................................................................... 7

4.2.9 Piezoelectric textile products ............................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.10 Electroluminescent textile products ............................................................................................................... 7

4.2.11 Thermo-electric textile products ....................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.12 Photovoltaic textile products ................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.13 Electrolytic textile products ................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.14 Capacitive textile products ...................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Smart textile systems ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Categories .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.2 Systems without energy or communication function (NoE-NoCom) ..............................11

5.1.3 Systems with energy function, but without communication function

(E-NoCom)..........................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1.4 Systems with communication function but without energy function (noE-Com) 11

5.1.5 With energy and communication function (E-Com) ......................................................................12

5.2 Examples of “Smart textile systems” and their functional analysis ........................................................12

5.2.1 Medical application: monitoring of health situation .....................................................................12

5.2.2 Occupational safety application: work wear and protective clothing ............................13

5.2.3 Leisure and fashion application .......................................................................................................................14

5.2.4 Garment based on thermal control by phase change materials (PCM) .........................14

5.2.5 Heated garment, car seats, etc. for comfort or protection ........................................................14

5.2.6 Irradiation system for medical therapeutics ........................................................................................15

5.2.7 Geotextiles applications ..........................................................................................................................................16

6 Considerations for standardization ..............................................................................................................................................16

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.2 Verification of claimed performances ..............................................................................................................................17

6.3 Innocuousness ......................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.4 Durability of properties ................................................................................................................................................................18

6.5 Product information ........................................................................................................................................................................18

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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)

6.6 Environmental aspects ..................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7 Examples of possible standardization of smart (intelligent) textile products and

systems .......................................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7.1 Smart (intelligent) textile products — Phase change materials (PCM) ........................19

6.7.2 Smart textile systems — Heating textile with temperature control .................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38, Textiles, in collaboration with the

European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 248, Textiles and textile

products, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna

Agreement).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Introduction

Terms like “smart textile” and “intelligent textile” mean different things to different people. However,

there is a common agreement that these are textiles or textile products that possess additional intrinsic

and functional properties not normally associated with traditional textiles.

Although adjectives such as “smart” or “intelligent” are mainly intended for marketing purposes, more

technically correct definitions will not prevent the use of this terminology by textile manufacturers or

by the general public. Nor will the unintended inclusion of “non-smart” products make products any

less safe or fit for purpose.

The standardization of smart textiles or smart textile products or systems is not straightforward

because it involves an overlap between the standardization of the “traditional” textile product, e.g.

a fire fighter's jacket, and the standardization of the additional intrinsic functional properties of the

“smart product”. This overlap can manifest itself in a number of areas, possibly including:

— Expertise: the knowledge and experience of standardization for the textile properties and for the

additional properties (temperature sensing, variable thermal insulation properties) can come from

different unrelated standardization groups. To take the above example, there should be input from

standardization groups working in the areas of textiles, medical devices and electric or electronic

devices.

— Testing: there is a need to test the additional functional properties to specific textile test standards

and vice versa. Again, with the same example, the electronic elements should be assessed for their

resistance to cleaning and the textile elements need to be tested for electrical safety.

— Unexpected and/or unintended synergies: these might result from the combination of technologies

in smart textiles and need be recognized and addressed by standardization, wherever possible. For

example, the presence of conductive fibres to incorporate a personal stereo into a smart raincoat might

increase the risk of the wearer suffering a lightning-strike in a thunderstorm. This is despite the fact

that neither rainwear nor personal stereos, when separate, need to be assessed against this risk.

— Legislation: Certain textile product groups, e.g. protective clothing, geotextiles or textile floor

coverings, are in addition subject to specific national and/ or regional legislation. It can be necessary

to simultaneously address the requirements of legislation covering more than one product category.

For example, a “classic” fire fighter's suit needs comply with the requirements for personal protective

equipment, whereas a “smart” fire fighter's suit with built-in electronic and ICT features should also

comply with the applicable provisions for electronic equipment and ICT. Conformity assessment

will therefore need to follow the conformity assessment schemes for all applicable legal provisions.

The purpose of this document is to identify the considerations that need to be addressed when writing

standards for smart textiles or applying existing standards to them. This information can be of use to:

— end-users, in determining whether a product has indeed been fully assessed;

— conformity assessment bodies, as a guide towards assessing products according to the appropriate

standards;

— specification writers, as a guide to writing new specific standards for smart textiles;

— manufacturers of smart textiles, to advise them on appropriate product testing and on suitable

ways to substantiate product claims;

— market surveillance authorities, to help in the assessment of product claims, product safety and

fitness for purpose.

The factual information in this document is available elsewhere in a more comprehensive form and each

individual item will inevitably be common knowledge to at least one group of readers. The aim of this

document is to guide readers through those areas, with which they are not familiar, and to direct them

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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)

towards further, more specialized reading. In accordance with ISO rules, this document is intended to

be reviewed regularly to keep it in line with technical and market evolutions.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Textiles and textile products — Smart (Intelligent)
textiles— Definitions, categorisation, applications and
standardization needs
1 Scope

This document provides definitions in the field of “smart” textiles and textile products as well

as a categorization of different types of smart textiles. It describes briefly the current stage of

development of these products and their application potential and gives indications on preferential

standardization needs.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
textile fibre

unit of matter characterised by its flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to maximum transverse

dimension, which render it suitable for textile applications
[SOURCE: Regulation EU 1007/2011, Article 3, 1. (b), (i)]
3.2
textile product

product made of textile fibres (3.1), yarns and/ or fabrics and intended to be used, as such or in

conjunction with other textile or non-textile elements
3.3
functional textile product

textile product to which a specific function is added by means of material, composition, construction

and/or finishing (applying additives, etc.)
3.4
smart textile product
intelligent textile product
interactive textile product

functional textile product (3.3) which interacts reversibly with its environment, or responds or adapts

to changes in the environment

Note 1 to entry: The term “smart textile” can refer to either a “smart textile product” or a “smart textile system”.

Only the context, in which the term is used, determines which one of the two is intended.

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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
3.5
environment
surroundings

circumstances, objects, or conditions, which surround a textile material or textile product or the user of

that material or product
3.6
non-textile element
product which is not composed of textile fibres (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: Non-textile element(s) can include elements used for garment construction, for example slide

fastener(s), press stud(s), button(s), membranes, non-textile patches, prints, coatings, finishes.

Note 2 to entry: Non-textile element(s) can also include elements with functionalities listed in 4.1 and 4.2.

3.7
textile system
assemblage of textile product(s) and non-textile element(s)
3.8
smart textile system

textile-based system which exhibits an intended and exploitable response as a reaction either to

changes in its surroundings/environment or to an external signal/input
4 Functional and smart textile products
4.1 Functional textile products
4.1.1 General

Functional textile products can be components of smart textile systems and hence functional textile

products, which are relevant for these smart textile systems, are discussed here. This is illustrated by

the following examples.
EXAMPLE 1 A textile resistance heater

— Functional textile product: a conductive material forming the basis of a resistance heater in a textile system.

— Smart textile system: a textile resistance heater as (part of) a textile system, connected to an electrical power

supply which can only be switched on and off manually or a resistance heater as part of a textile system,

connected to an electrical power supply with a regulated power output and equipped with a temperature

sensor as to maintain a constant temperature around the heater.
EXAMPLE 2 Optical fibres
— Functional textile product: optical fibres used as part of a textile system

— Smart textile system: optical fibres as (part of) a textile system, connected to a light source which can only

be switched on and off manually or optical fibres as part of a textile system, connected to a light source with

a regulated power output and equipped with a sensor to adjust the illumination level to the amount of light

present due to other light sources in the surroundings of the textile system.
4.1.2 Electrically conductive textile products

Electrically conductive textile product conducts an electrical current or supply an electric field to a

device. Electrical conduction is the movement of electrically charged particles through an electrical

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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)

conductor, called an electric current. The charge transport can result as a response to an electric field

or as a result of a concentration gradient in carrier density, i.e. by diffusion.

NOTE A material is considered to have a "good electrical conductivity" if it has a specific conductivity

2 4

(resistivity) of > 10 S/m (<10 Ω·cm). A material is considered to have "ohmic behaviour" if its resistance

follows Ohms law, a fundamental law of electricity, stating that the voltage at the terminals of an ideal resistor

is proportional to the current in the resistor . The materials with the highest specific conductivity are metals.

Some polymers and ceramics can also show ohmic behaviour, e.g. intrinsically conductive polymers (e.g. doped

polyaniline) or indium tin oxide (ITO).
4.1.3 Thermally conductive textile products

Thermally conductive textile products conduct heat. The transfer of thermal energy in a substance is

due to a temperature gradient, i.e. from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature,

acting to equalize temperature differences.

Metals have thermal conductivities above approximately 20 W/(m·K) and are considered to be very

good thermal conductors. Their thermal conductivity increases with their electrical conductivity.

There are also non-metallic elements and compounds that are (very) good thermal conductors (e.g.

carbon and boron nitride).

Applications in smart textile systems can be as a heat sink, e.g. for cooling electronic components.

4.1.4 Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products

Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products radiate heat, i.e. they emit electromagnetic radiation in

the infrared range of 750 nm to 100 µm from their surface due to their temperature.

Thermal radiation (emission) can be utilized in the form of a resistance heater, where the resistance of

a conductor is used to heat the conductor to a sufficiently high temperature to generate heat radiation

or as a heat exchanger, e.g. a pipe with hot air or hot water flowing through it.

Applications in smart textile products are as thermal heaters, as described in 4.1.1.

4.1.5 Optically conductive textile products

Optically conductive textile products transport (visible) light, i.e. electromagnetic radiation in the

range of 400 nm to 750 nm.

Optical fibres from glass or plastic keep the light in their core by total internal reflection, i.e. the fibre

acts as a waveguide. Optical fibres are widely used in fibre-optic communications, which permits

transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of

communications. Fibres are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less

loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference.

Fibres are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry

images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibres are used for a variety of other

applications, including sensors and fibre lasers.
4.1.6 Fluorescent textile products

Fluorescence is the molecular absorption of a photon, followed almost instantaneously by the emission

of a less energetic photon. As the emitted photon is of lower energy than the absorbed photon, the

emitted light will be of longer wavelength than the absorbed light, which allows, for example, to turn

UV radiation into visible light.
1) www .electropedia.or g IEV ref 131–15–08.
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)

Fluorescence is used in high visibility clothing for safety purposes. Fluorescent textile products are

available in a variety of colours from red to blue-violet. A variety of organic and inorganic materials

show fluorescence.
4.1.7 Phosphorescent textile products

Phosphorescence is the molecular absorption of a photon, resulting in the formation of an excited state,

followed by the emission of a less energetic photon. Since the emitted photon is of lower energy than

the absorbed photon, the emitted light will be of longer wavelength. The lifetime of the excited state

in phosphorescent materials can be very long, in the order of hours. This means that once activated,

phosphorescent materials will continue to emit light for hours without any external power supply. This

makes them suitable for emergency lighting in the case of power interruptions or for watches, toys,

apparel, giving a "glow in the dark" effect.

Examples of phosphorescent materials are doped (mixed) sulphides (ZnS, (Cd, Zn)S, (Ca, Sr)S) or doped

(mixed) oxides (SrAl O ) but can also be organic molecules.
2 4
4.1.8 Textile products releasing substances

These textile products release substances at a molecular level under the influence of an external

stimulus. The substances used for this purpose are pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, fragrances, etc. They

are bonded to the textile structure by micro-encapsulation or by surface bonding.

[1]

NOTE Some of these textiles are referred to as cosmetotextiles (see CEN/TR 15917 ).

The micro-encapsulation technique makes use of small capsules, in which the substance to be released

is enclosed. When the shell of these capsules is pierced due to an external stimulus, the substance is

released. The different stimuli that can cause piercing of the shell include mechanical force, heat, pH

and contact with water.

The surface bonding technique makes use of substances (loosely) bonded to the surface of the textile

material and released during the use of this material. The nature of the bonding and the surroundings

of the material determines the release rate.
4.2 Smart (intelligent) textile products
4.2.1 General

In this subclause, examples (non-exhaustive) for different smart (intelligent) textile products are

described. The described textile products (see 4.2.2 to 4.2.14) can be used on their own or in combination

with other (non)smart textile products or used in textile systems. The latter are described in Clause 5.

NOTE Some of the smart functionalities can also be achieved by non-textile elements. Therefore, we will be

referring to textile products to clearly make the distinction.

Table 1 provides an overview of the most common stimulus-response pairs and the corresponding

effect materials or structures can exhibit.
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)

Table 1 — Overview of most common stimulus-response effects (adapted from the final report

[2]
of the FP6 project Clevertex )
Stimulus Response
Optical Mechanical Chemical Electrical Thermal
Optical Photochromism Photovoltaic/
photoelectric
effect
Mechanical Piezochromic Dilatant, Controlled Piezo- Friction
thixotropic, release electricity
auxetic,
controlled release
Chemical Chemiluminescence, Shape memory, Controlled Chemical Exo/endotherm
Solvatochromism, super-absorbing release gradient reactions
Halochromisms polymers, causing charge
sol/hydrogel, separation –
controlled release Galvanic cell
Electrical Electrochromism, Inverse piezo- Electrolysis Joule/coulombic
Electroluminescence, electricity, heating
Electro-optic electrostriction,
Peltier effect
electro-osmosis,
shape memory
Thermal Thermochromism, Shape memory, Controlled Seebeck effect, Phase change
Thermo-opacity controlled release release Pyroelectric
Magnetic Shape memory
Magnetrostriction
4.2.2
...

RAPPORT ISO/TR
TECHNIQUE 23383
Première édition
2020-11
Textiles et produits textiles —
Textiles intelligents — Définitions,
catégorisation, applications et besoins
de normalisation
Textiles and textile products — Smart (Intelligent) textiles—
Definitions, categorisation, applications and standardization needs
Numéro de référence
ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)
ISO 2020
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2020

Tous droits réservés. Sauf prescription différente ou nécessité dans le contexte de sa mise en œuvre, aucune partie de cette

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être demandée à l’ISO à l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.

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Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2020 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Produits textiles fonctionnels et intelligents .......................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Produits textiles fonctionnels .................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1.2 Produits textiles électriquement conducteurs ....................................................................................... 2

4.1.3 Produits textiles thermiquement conducteurs ...................................................................................... 3

4.1.4 Produits textiles thermiquement radiatifs (émissifs) ..................................................................... 3

4.1.5 Produits textiles optiquement conducteurs ............................................................................................. 3

4.1.6 Produits textiles fluorescents ............................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.7 Produits textiles phosphorescents ................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.8 Produits textiles libérant des substances ................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Produits textiles intelligents ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

4.2.2 Produits textiles chromiques ................................................................................................................................ 5

4.2.3 Produits textiles à changement de phase ................................................................................................... 5

4.2.4 Produits textiles avec des ingrédients actifs à l’intérieur de microcapsules ............... 6

4.2.5 Produits textiles à changement de forme (mémoire de forme) .............................................. 6

4.2.6 Polymères et gels super-absorbants ............................................................................................................... 6

4.2.7 Produits textiles auxétiques ................................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.8 Produits textiles dilatants et à épaississement par cisaillement ........................................... 7

4.2.9 Produits textiles piézoélectriques .................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.10 Produits textiles électroluminescents ........................................................................................................... 8

4.2.11 Produits textiles thermoélectriques ............................................................................................................... 8

4.2.12 Produits textiles photovoltaïques ..................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.13 Produits textiles électrolytiques .................. ....................................................................................................... 8

4.2.14 Produits textiles capacitifs ...................................................................................................................................... 9

5 Systèmes textiles intelligents .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.1 Catégories .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.1 Généralités ............................................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.1.2 Systèmes sans fonction d’énergie ou de communication (NoE-NoCom) .....................11

5.1.3 Systèmes avec une fonction d’énergie, mais sans fonction de

communication (E-NoCom).................................................................................................................................11

5.1.4 Systèmes avec une fonction de communication, mais sans fonction

d’énergie (NoE-Com).................................................................................................................................................12

5.1.5 Systèmes avec une fonction d’énergie et une fonction de communication

(E-Com) .................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Exemples de «systèmes textiles intelligents» et de leur analyse fonctionnelle ...........................12

5.2.1 Applications médicales: surveillance de l’état de santé ..............................................................12

5.2.2 Applications dans le domaine de la sécurité au travail: tenues de travail et

vêtements de protection ........................................................................................................................................13

5.2.3 Applications pour les loisirs et la mode ....................................................................................................14

5.2.4 Vêtements fondés sur la régulation thermique par des matériaux à

changement de phase (MCP) ..............................................................................................................................15

5.2.5 Vêtements chauffants, sièges de voiture chauffants, etc. pour le confort ou

la protection ......................................................................................................................................................................15

5.2.6 Système d’irradiation pour les thérapies médicales ......................................................................16

5.2.7 Applications des géotextiles ...............................................................................................................................16

6 Considérations pour la normalisation ........................................................................................................................................17

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ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)

6.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Vérification des performances revendiquées ............................................................................................................18

6.3 Innocuité....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.4 Durabilité des propriétés ............................................................................................................................................................18

6.5 Informations sur les produits .................................................................................................................................................19

6.6 Aspects environnementaux.......................................................................................................................................................20

6.7 Exemples de normalisation possible des produits et systèmes textiles intelligents ...............20

6.7.1 Produits et systèmes textiles intelligents — Matériaux à changement de

phase (MCP) ......................................................................................................................................................................20

6.7.2 Systèmes textiles intelligents — Chauffage des textiles avec régulation de

température ......................................................................................................................................................................21

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

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ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux.

L'ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier, de prendre note des différents

critères d'approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www

.iso .org/ directives).

L'attention est attirée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l'élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l'Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l'ISO (voir www .iso .org/ brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la nature volontaire des normes, la signification des termes et expressions

spécifiques de l'ISO liés à l'évaluation de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l'adhésion

de l'ISO aux principes de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles

techniques au commerce (OTC), voir www .iso .org/ avant -propos.

Le présent document a été élaboré par le comité technique ISO/TC 38, Textiles, en collaboration avec le

comité technique CEN/TC 248, Textiles et produits textiles, du Comité européen de normalisation (CEN)

conformément à l’Accord de coopération technique entre l’ISO et le CEN (Accord de Vienne).

Il convient que l’utilisateur adresse tout retour d’information ou toute question concernant le présent

document à l’organisme national de normalisation de son pays. Une liste exhaustive desdits organismes

se trouve à l’adresse www .iso .org/ fr/ members .html.
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)
Introduction

La notion de «textile intelligent» revêt des significations différentes selon les personnes. Il existe

toutefois un consensus sur le fait qu’il s’agit de textiles ou de produits textiles qui possèdent des

propriétés intrinsèques et fonctionnelles supplémentaires par rapport à celles généralement associées

aux textiles traditionnels.

Bien que l’adjectif «intelligent» soit principalement destiné à des fins de marketing, des définitions

plus correctes techniquement n’empêcheront pas l’emploi de cette terminologie par les fabricants de

textiles ou par le grand public. Et l’inclusion involontaire de produits «non intelligents» n’en fera pas

pour autant des produits moins sûrs ou moins aptes à l’emploi.

La normalisation des textiles, produits textiles ou systèmes textiles intelligents n’est pas simple, car elle

implique un chevauchement entre la normalisation des produits textiles «traditionnels», par exemple

une veste de pompier, et la normalisation des propriétés fonctionnelles intrinsèques supplémentaires

associées aux «produits intelligents». Ce chevauchement peut se manifester dans un certain nombre de

domaines, notamment:

— l’expertise: la connaissance et l’expérience de la normalisation pour les propriétés des textiles et les

propriétés additionnelles (propriétés de détection de température, d’isolation thermique variable)

peuvent provenir de groupes de normalisation différents, sans aucun lien. Pour reprendre l’exemple

ci-dessus, il convient d’obtenir des informations de la part des groupes de normalisation travaillant

dans les domaines du textile, des dispositifs médicaux et des dispositifs électriques ou électroniques.

— les essais: il est nécessaire de soumettre à l’essai les propriétés fonctionnelles additionnelles selon

des normes d’essai textiles spécifiques, et vice versa. Dans l’exemple ci-dessus, il convient d’évaluer

la résistance au nettoyage des éléments électroniques tandis que les éléments textiles nécessitent

des essais portant sur leur sécurité électrique.

— des synergies inattendues et/ou involontaires: celles-ci pourraient résulter de la combinaison de

technologies dans les textiles intelligents et elles doivent être reconnues et traitées par le biais de la

normalisation, à chaque fois que possible. Par exemple, la présence de fibres conductrices dans un

imperméable intelligent pour y intégrer une stéréo personnelle pourrait augmenter le risque que la

personne qui le porte soit foudroyée en cas d’orage. Et ceci en dépit du fait que ni l’imperméable ni

la stéréo personnelle, pris séparément, n’aient besoin d’être évalués vis-à-vis de ce risque.

— la législation: certains groupes de produits textiles, par exemple les vêtements de protection, les

géotextiles ou les revêtements de sol textiles, sont en outre soumis à une législation nationale et/ou

régionale spécifique. Il peut être nécessaire de satisfaire simultanément aux exigences de la législation

portant sur plusieurs catégories de produits. Par exemple, une tenue de pompier «classique» doit

être conforme aux exigences relatives aux équipements de protection individuelle, tandis qu’il

convient qu’une tenue de pompier «intelligente» présentant des caractéristiques électroniques et

TIC intégrées soit également conforme aux dispositions applicables aux équipements électroniques

et aux TIC. L’évaluation de la conformité devra donc suivre les programmes d’évaluation de la

conformité de toutes les dispositions légales applicables.

Le présent document a pour but d’identifier les questions devant être abordées lors de l’élaboration

de normes sur les textiles intelligents ou pour l’application de normes existantes à ces textiles. Ces

informations peuvent être utiles pour:

— l’utilisateur final, pour l’aider à déterminer si un produit a bien été évalué dans son intégralité;

— les organismes d’évaluation de la conformité, en tant que guide pour l’évaluation des produits selon

des normes appropriées;

— les rédacteurs de spécifications, en tant que guide pour rédiger de nouvelles normes spécifiques

pour les textiles intelligents;

— les fabricants de textiles intelligents, afin de les conseiller sur les essais appropriés des produits et

sur les manières appropriées de corroborer les revendications concernant les produits;

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ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)

— les autorités de surveillance des marchés, afin de les aider à évaluer les revendications concernant

les produits, ainsi que la sécurité et l’aptitude à l’emploi des produits.

Les informations factuelles contenues dans le présent document sont disponibles dans d’autres

documents sous une forme plus complète et chaque élément individuel sera inévitablement bien

connu d’au moins un groupe de lecteurs. Le but du présent document est de guider les lecteurs dans

les domaines qui ne leur sont pas familiers et de les orienter vers d’autres ouvrages plus spécialisés.

Conformément aux règles de l’ISO, il est prévu de réviser le présent document de manière régulière

pour tenir compte des évolutions techniques et du marché.
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RAPPORT TECHNIQUE ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)
Textiles et produits textiles — Textiles intelligents —
Définitions, catégorisation, applications et besoins de
normalisation
1 Domaine d’application

Le présent document fournit des définitions dans le domaine des textiles et produits textiles

«intelligents», ainsi qu’une catégorisation des différents types de textiles intelligents. Il décrit

brièvement l’état actuel de développement de ces produits et leur application potentielle et fournit des

indications sur les besoins de normalisation préférentiels.
2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:

— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse https:// www .iso .org/ obp

— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
fibre textile

élément caractérisé par sa flexibilité, sa finesse et sa grande longueur par rapport à la dimension

transversale maximale, qui le rendent apte à des applications textiles
[SOURCE: Règlement UE 1007/2011, Article 3, point 1. (b), (i)]
3.2
produit textile

produit constitué de fibres textiles (3.1), de fils et/ou d’étoffes et destiné à être utilisé seul ou avec

d’autres éléments textiles ou non textiles
3.3
produit textile fonctionnel

produit textile auquel une fonction spécifique est ajoutée par le biais du matériau, de sa composition, de

sa construction et/ou de sa finition (en appliquant des additifs, etc.)
3.4
produit textile intelligent
produit textile interactif

produit textile fonctionnel (3.3) qui interagit de manière réversible avec son environnement, ou qui

répond ou qui s’adapte à des changements survenant dans l’environnement

Note 1 à l'article: Le terme «textile intelligent» peut faire référence soit à un «produit textile intelligent», soit à un

«système textile intelligent». Seul le contexte dans lequel le terme est employé détermine à laquelle de ces deux

notions il est fait référence.
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)
3.5
environnement
voisinage

circonstances, objets ou conditions qui entourent une matière textile ou un produit textile ou

l’utilisateur de cette matière ou de ce produit
3.6
élément non textile
produit qui n’est pas composé de fibres textiles (3.1)

Note 1 à l'article: Les éléments non textiles peuvent inclure des éléments utilisés pour la réalisation du vêtement,

par exemple fermeture(s) à glissière, bouton(s) à pression, bouton(s), membranes, empiècements non textiles,

imprimés, revêtements, finitions.

Note 2 à l'article: Les éléments non textiles peuvent aussi inclure des éléments ayant les fonctionnalités

énumérées en 4.1 et 4.2.
3.7
système textile
assemblage de produit(s) textile(s) et d’élément(s) non textiles(s)
3.8
système textile intelligent

système à base de textiles qui présente une réponse prévue et exploitable en réaction soit à des

changements de son voisinage/environnement, soit à un signal/une entrée externe
4 Produits textiles fonctionnels et intelligents
4.1 Produits textiles fonctionnels
4.1.1 Généralités

Les produits textiles fonctionnels peuvent être des composants de systèmes textiles intelligents. C’est

la raison pour laquelle les produits textiles fonctionnels qui sont pertinents pour ces systèmes textiles

intelligents sont abordés ici. Les exemples suivants illustrent ce propos.
EXEMPLE 1 Un dispositif textile de chauffage par résistance

— produit textile fonctionnel: une matière conductrice constituant la base d’un dispositif de chauffage par

résistance dans un système textile;

— système textile intelligent: un dispositif textile de chauffage par résistance constituant un (faisant partie

d’un) système textile, raccordé à une alimentation électrique qui ne peut être branchée et débranchée que

manuellement, ou un dispositif de chauffage par résistance faisant partie d’un système textile, raccordé à

une alimentation électrique d’une puissance régulée en sortie et muni d’un capteur de température pour

maintenir une température constante autour du dispositif;
EXEMPLE 2 Fibres optiques

— produit textile fonctionnel: des fibres optiques utilisées dans un système textile;

— système textile intelligent: des fibres optiques constituant un (faisant partie d’un) système textile, raccordées

à une source lumineuse qui ne peut être branchée et débranchée que manuellement, ou des fibres optiques

faisant partie d’un système textile, raccordées à une source lumineuse d’une puissance régulée en sortie et

munies d’un capteur pour ajuster le niveau d’éclairage à la quantité de lumière présente en raison d’autres

sources lumineuses dans le voisinage du système textile.
4.1.2 Produits textiles électriquement conducteurs

Les produits textiles électriquement conducteurs alimentent un dispositif en courant électrique ou lui

fournissent un champ électrique. La conduction électrique est le mouvement des particules chargées

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ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)

électriquement dans un conducteur électrique, appelé courant électrique. Le transfert de charge peut

résulter d’une réponse à un champ électrique ou d’un gradient de concentration dans la densité de

porteurs de charge, c’est-à-dire par diffusion.

NOTE Un matériau est considéré comme ayant une «bonne conductivité électrique» s’il possède une

2 4

conductivité spécifique (résistivité) > 10 S/m (<10 Ω·cm). Un matériau est considéré comme ayant un

«comportement ohmique» si sa résistance suit la loi d’Ohm, une loi fondamentale en électricité qui stipule que

la tension aux bornes d’une résistance idéale est proportionnelle à l’intensité dans la résistance . Les matériaux

possédant la conductivité spécifique la plus élevée sont les métaux. Certains polymères et céramiques peuvent

également présenter un comportement ohmique, par exemple les polymères intrinsèquement conducteurs (tels

que la polyaniline dopée) ou l’oxyde d’indium-étain (ITO).
4.1.3 Produits textiles thermiquement conducteurs

Les produits textiles thermiquement conducteurs conduisent la chaleur. Le transfert d’énergie

thermique dans une substance est dû à un gradient de température, c’est-à-dire d’une région à

température plus élevée vers une région à température plus basse, qui tend à égaliser les écarts de

température.

Les métaux possèdent des conductivités thermiques d’environ 20 W/(m·K) et plus et sont considérés

comme de très bons conducteurs thermiques. Leur conductivité thermique augmente avec leur

conductivité électrique. Il existe également des éléments et composés non métalliques qui sont de (très)

bons conducteurs thermiques (par exemple le carbone et le nitrure de bore).

Les applications dans les systèmes textiles intelligents peuvent inclure les puits de chaleur, par exemple

pour refroidir les composants électroniques.
4.1.4 Produits textiles thermiquement radiatifs (émissifs)

Les produits textiles thermiquement radiatifs (émissifs) irradient de la chaleur, c’est-à-dire qu’ils

émettent un rayonnement électromagnétique dans l’infrarouge, de 750 nm à 100 µm, à partir de leur

surface en raison de leur température.

Le rayonnement thermique (émission) peut être utilisé sous la forme d’un dispositif de chauffage

par résistance, où la résistance d’un conducteur sert à chauffer le conducteur à une température

suffisamment élevée pour générer un rayonnement thermique, ou sous forme d’échangeur thermique,

par exemple un tuyau dans lequel circule de l’air chaud ou de l’eau chaude.

Les applications dans les produits textiles intelligents sont les dispositifs de chauffage thermiques,

comme décrit en 4.1.1.
4.1.5 Produits textiles optiquement conducteurs

Les produits textiles optiquement conducteurs transportent la lumière (visible), c’est-à-dire le

rayonnement électromagnétique dans la plage de 400 nm à 750 nm.

Les fibres optiques en verre ou en plastique conservent la lumière dans leur âme par réflexion totale

interne, c’est-à-dire que la fibre sert de guide d’ondes. Les fibres optiques sont largement utilisées dans

les communications par fibres optiques, qui permettent une transmission sur de plus longues distances

et à des largeurs de bande (débits) supérieures par rapport aux autres formes de communication. Les

fibres sont employées à la place des fils métalliques, car les signaux les traversent avec moins de pertes

et elles sont également insensibles aux interférences électromagnétiques.

Les fibres sont également utilisées pour l’éclairage et sont enroulées en faisceaux de manière à pouvoir

transporter des images, et ainsi permettre une visualisation dans des espaces confinés. Des fibres de

conception spéciale sont utilisées pour une grande variété d’autres applications, notamment pour les

capteurs et les lasers à fibres.
1) www .electropedia .org IEV réf 131–15–08.
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(F)
4.1.6 Produits textiles fluorescents

La fluorescence est l’absorption moléculaire d’un photon, suivie presque instantanément de l’émission

d’un photon moins énergétique. Étant donné que le photon émis est de plus faible énergie que le photon

absorbé, la lumière émise sera d’une longueur d’onde supérieure à la lumière absorbée, ce qui permet

par exemple de transformer le rayonnement UV en lumière visible.

La fluorescence est utilisée dans les vêtements luminescents pour des raisons de sécurité. Les produits

textiles fluorescents sont disponibles dans une grande variété de coloris allant du rouge au bleu-violet.

De nombreux matériaux organiques et inorganiques sont fluorescents.
4.1.7 Produits textiles phosphorescents

La phosphorescence est l’absorption moléculaire d’un photon, conduisant à la formation d’un état

excité, suivie de l’émission d’un photon moins énergétique. Étant donné que le photon émis est de

plus faible énergie que le photon absorbé, la lumière émise sera
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 23383
First edition
Textiles and textile products — Smart
(Intelligent) textiles— Definitions,
categorisation, applications and
standardization needs
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Functional and smart textile products .......................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Functional textile products .......................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1.2 Electrically conductive textile product ......................................................................................................... 2

4.1.3 Thermally conductive textile products ......................................................................................................... 3

4.1.4 Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products .................................................................................. 3

4.1.5 Optically conductive textile products ............................................................................................................ 3

4.1.6 Fluorescent textile products .................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1.7 Phosphorescent textile products ....................................................................................................................... 4

4.1.8 Textile products releasing substances .......................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Smart (intelligent) textile products ...................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2.2 Chromic textile products ........................................................................................................................................... 5

4.2.3 Phase change textile products .............................................................................................................................. 5

4.2.4 Textile products with active ingredients inside the microcapsules ..................................... 6

4.2.5 Shape change (shape memory) textile products .................................................................................. 6

4.2.6 Super-absorbing polymers and gels ............................................................................................................... 6

4.2.7 Auxetic textile products ............................................................................................................................................. 7

4.2.8 Dilating and shear-thickening textile products ..................................................................................... 7

4.2.9 Piezoelectric textile products ............................................................................................................................... 7

4.2.10 Electroluminescent textile products ............................................................................................................... 7

4.2.11 Thermo-electric textile products ....................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.12 Photovoltaic textile products ................................................................................................................................ 8

4.2.13 Electrolytic textile products ................................................................................................................................... 8

4.2.14 Capacitive textile products ...................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Smart textile systems ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Categories .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1.2 Systems without energy or communication function (NoE-NoCom) ..............................11

5.1.3 Systems with energy function, but without communication function

(E-NoCom)..........................................................................................................................................................................11

5.1.4 Systems with communication function but without energy function (noE-Com) 11

5.1.5 With energy and communication function (E-Com) ......................................................................12

5.2 Examples of “Smart textile systems” and their functional analysis ........................................................12

5.2.1 Medical application: monitoring of health situation .....................................................................12

5.2.2 Occupational safety application: work wear and protective clothing ............................13

5.2.3 Leisure and fashion application .......................................................................................................................14

5.2.4 Garment based on thermal control by phase change materials (PCM) .........................14

5.2.5 Heated garment, car seats, etc. for comfort or protection ........................................................14

5.2.6 Irradiation system for medical therapeutics ........................................................................................15

5.2.7 Geotextiles applications ..........................................................................................................................................16

6 Considerations for standardization ..............................................................................................................................................16

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.2 Verification of claimed performances ..............................................................................................................................17

6.3 Innocuousness ......................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.4 Durability of properties ................................................................................................................................................................18

6.5 Product information ........................................................................................................................................................................18

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6.6 Environmental aspects ..................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7 Examples of possible standardization of smart (intelligent) textile products and

systems .......................................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.7.1 Smart (intelligent) textile products — Phase change materials (PCM) ........................19

6.7.2 Smart textile systems — Heating textile with temperature control .................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 38, Textiles.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Introduction

Terms like “smart textile” and “intelligent textile” mean different things to different people. However,

there is a common agreement that these are textiles or textile products that possess additional intrinsic

and functional properties not normally associated with traditional textiles.

Although adjectives such as “smart” or “intelligent” are mainly intended for marketing purposes, more

technically correct definitions will not prevent the use of this terminology by textile manufacturers or

by the general public. Nor will the unintended inclusion of “non-smart” products make products any

less safe or fit for purpose.

The standardization of smart textiles or smart textile products or systems is not straightforward

because it involves an overlap between the standardization of the “traditional” textile product, e.g.

a fire fighter's jacket, and the standardization of the additional intrinsic functional properties of the

“smart product”. This overlap can manifest itself in a number of areas, possibly including:

— Expertise: the knowledge and experience of standardization for the textile properties and for the

additional properties (temperature sensing, variable thermal insulation properties) can come from

different unrelated standardization groups. To take the above example, there should be input from

standardization groups working in the areas of textiles, medical devices and electric or electronic

devices.

— Testing: there is a need to test the additional functional properties to specific textile test standards

and vice versa. Again, with the same example, the electronic elements should be assessed for their

resistance to cleaning and the textile elements need to be tested for electrical safety.

— Unexpected and/or unintended synergies: these might result from the combination of technologies

in smart textiles and need be recognized and addressed by standardization, wherever possible. For

example, the presence of conductive fibres to incorporate a personal stereo into a smart raincoat might

increase the risk of the wearer suffering a lightning-strike in a thunderstorm. This is despite the fact

that neither rainwear nor personal stereos, when separate, need to be assessed against this risk.

— Legislation: Certain textile product groups, e.g. protective clothing, geotextiles or textile floor

coverings, are in addition subject to specific national and/ or regional legislation. It can be necessary

to simultaneously address the requirements of legislation covering more than one product category.

For example, a “classic” fire fighter's suit needs comply with the requirements for personal protective

equipment, whereas a “smart” fire fighter's suit with built-in electronic and ICT features should also

comply with the applicable provisions for electronic equipment and ICT. Conformity assessment

will therefore need to follow the conformity assessment schemes for all applicable legal provisions.

The purpose of this document is to identify the considerations that need to be addressed when writing

standards for smart textiles or applying existing standards to them. This information can be of use to:

— end-users, in determining whether a product has indeed been fully assessed;

— conformity assessment bodies, as a guide towards assessing products according to the appropriate

standards;

— specification writers, as a guide to writing new specific standards for smart textiles;

— manufacturers of smart textiles, to advise them on appropriate product testing and on suitable

ways to substantiate product claims;

— market surveillance authorities, to help in the assessment of product claims, product safety and

fitness for purpose.

The factual information in this document is available elsewhere in a more comprehensive form and each

individual item will inevitably be common knowledge to at least one group of readers. The aim of this

document is to guide readers through those areas, with which they are not familiar, and to direct them

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towards further, more specialized reading. In accordance with ISO rules, this document is intended to

be reviewed regularly to keep it in line with technical and market evolutions.
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 23383:2020(E)
Textiles and textile products — Smart (Intelligent)
textiles— Definitions, categorisation, applications and
standardization needs
1 Scope

This document provides definitions in the field of “smart” textiles and textile products as well

as a categorization of different types of smart textiles. It describes briefly the current stage of

development of these products and their application potential and gives indications on preferential

standardization needs.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
textile fibre

unit of matter characterised by its flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to maximum transverse

dimension, which render it suitable for textile applications
[SOURCE: Regulation EU 1007/2011, Article 3, 1. (b), (i)]
3.2
textile product

product made of textile fibres (3.1), yarns and/ or fabrics and intended to be used, as such or in

conjunction with other textile or non-textile elements
3.3
functional textile product

textile product to which a specific function is added by means of material, composition, construction

and/or finishing (applying additives, etc.)
3.4
smart textile product
intelligent textile product
interactive textile product

functional textile product (3.3) which interacts reversibly with its environment, or responds or adapts

to changes in the environment

Note 1 to entry: The term “smart textile” can refer to either a “smart textile product” or a “smart textile system”.

Only the context, in which the term is used, determines which one of the two is intended.

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3.5
environment
surroundings

circumstances, objects, or conditions, which surround a textile product or textile product or the user of

that material or product
3.6
non-textile element
product which is not composed of textile fibres (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: Non-textile element(s) can include elements used for garment construction, for example slide

fastener(s), press stud(s), button(s), membranes, non-textile patches, prints, coatings, finishes.

Note 2 to entry: Non-textile element(s) can also include elements with functionalities listed in 4.1 and 4.2.

3.7
textile system
assemblage of textile product(s) and non-textile element(s)
3.8
smart textile system

textile-based system which exhibits an intended and exploitable response as a reaction either to

changes in its surroundings/environment or to an external signal/input
4 Functional and smart textile products
4.1 Functional textile products
4.1.1 General

Functional textile products can be components of smart textile systems and hence functional textile

products, which are relevant for these smart textile systems, are discussed here. This is illustrated by

the following examples.
EXAMPLE 1 A textile resistance heater

— Functional textile product: a conductive material forming the basis of a resistance heater in a textile system.

— Smart textile system: a textile resistance heater as (part of) a textile system, connected to an electrical power

supply which can only be switched on and off manually or a resistance heater as part of a textile system,

connected to an electrical power supply with a regulated power output and equipped with a temperature

sensor as to maintain a constant temperature around the heater.
EXAMPLE 2 Optical fibres
— Functional textile product: optical fibres used as part of a textile system

— Smart textile system: optical fibres as (part of) a textile system, connected to a light source which can only

be switched on and off manually or optical fibres as part of a textile system, connected to a light source with

a regulated power output and equipped with a sensor to adjust the illumination level to the amount of light

present due to other light sources in the surroundings of the textile system.
4.1.2 Electrically conductive textile product

Electrically conductive textile product conducts an electrical current or supply an electric field to a

device. Electrical conduction is the movement of electrically charged particles through an electrical

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conductor, called an electric current. The charge transport can result as a response to an electric field

or as a result of a concentration gradient in carrier density, i.e. by diffusion.

NOTE A material is considered to have a "good electrical conductivity" if it has a specific conductivity

2 4

(resistivity) of > 10 S/m (<10 Ω·cm). A material is considered to have "ohmic behaviour" if its resistance

follows Ohms law, a fundamental law of electricity, stating that the voltage at the terminals of an ideal resistor

is proportional to the current in the resistor . The materials with the highest specific conductivity are metals.

Some polymers and ceramics can also show ohmic behaviour, e.g. intrinsically conductive polymers (e.g. doped

polyaniline) or indium tin oxide (ITO).
4.1.3 Thermally conductive textile products

Thermally conductive textile products conduct heat. The transfer of thermal energy in a substance is

due to a temperature gradient, i.e. from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature,

acting to equalize temperature differences.

Metals have thermal conductivities above approximately 20 W/(m·K) and are considered to be very

good thermal conductors. Their thermal conductivity increases with their electrical conductivity.

There are also non-metallic elements and compounds that are (very) good thermal conductors (e.g.

carbon and boron nitride).

Applications in smart textile systems can be as a heat sink, e.g. for cooling electronic components.

4.1.4 Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products

Thermally radiative (emissive) textile products radiate heat, i.e. they emit electromagnetic radiation in

the infrared range of 750 nm to 100 µm from their surface due to their temperature.

Thermal radiation (emission) can be utilized in the form of a resistance heater, where the resistance of

a conductor is used to heat the conductor to a sufficiently high temperature to generate heat radiation

or as a heat exchanger, e.g. a pipe with hot air or hot water flowing through it.

Applications in smart textile products are as thermal heaters, as described in 4.1.1.

4.1.5 Optically conductive textile products

Optically conductive textile products transport (visible) light, i.e. electromagnetic radiation in the

range of 400 nm to 750 nm.

Optical fibres from glass or plastic keep the light in their core by total internal reflection, i.e. the fibre

acts as a waveguide. Optical fibres are widely used in fibre-optic communications, which permits

transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of

communications. Fibres are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less

loss, and they are also immune to electromagnetic interference.

Fibres are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so they can be used to carry

images, thus allowing viewing in tight spaces. Specially designed fibres are used for a variety of other

applications, including sensors and fibre lasers.
4.1.6 Fluorescent textile products

Fluorescence is the molecular absorption of a photon, followed almost instantaneously by the emission

of a less energetic photon. As the emitted photon is of lower energy than the absorbed photon, the

emitted light will be of longer wavelength than the absorbed light, which allows, for example, to turn

UV radiation into visible light.
1) www .electropedia .org IEV ref 131–15–08.
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Fluorescence is used in high visibility clothing for safety purposes. Fluorescent textile products are

available in a variety of colours from red to blue-violet. A variety of organic and inorganic materials

show fluorescence.
4.1.7 Phosphorescent textile products

Phosphorescence is the molecular absorption of a photon, resulting in the formation of an excited state,

followed by the emission of a less energetic photon. Since the emitted photon is of lower energy than

the absorbed photon, the emitted light will be of longer wavelength. The lifetime of the excited state

in phosphorescent materials can be very long, in the order of hours. This means that once activated,

phosphorescent materials will continue to emit light for hours without any external power supply. This

makes them suitable for emergency lighting in the case of power interruptions or for watches, toys,

apparel, giving a "glow in the dark" effect.

Examples of phosphorescent materials are doped (mixed) sulphides (ZnS, (Cd, Zn)S, (Ca, Sr)S) or doped

(mixed) oxides (SrAl O ) but can also be organic molecules.
2 4
4.1.8 Textile products releasing substances

These textile products release substances at a molecular level under the influence of an external

stimulus. The substances used for this purpose are pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, fragrances, etc. They

are bonded to the textile structure by micro-encapsulation or by surface bonding.

[1]

NOTE Some of these textiles are referred to as cosmetotextiles (see CEN/TR 15917 ).

The micro-encapsulation technique makes use of small capsules, in which the substance to be released

is enclosed. When the shell of these capsules is pierced due to an external stimulus, the substance is

released. The different stimuli that can cause piercing of the shell include mechanical force, heat, pH

and contact with water.

The surface bonding technique makes use of substances (loosely) bonded to the surface of the textile

products and released during the use of this material. The nature of the bonding and the surroundings

of the material determines the release rate.
4.2 Smart (intelligent) textile products
4.2.1 General

In this subclause, examples (non-exhaustive) for different smart (intelligent) textile products are

described. The described textile products (see 4.2.2 to 4.2.14) can be used on their own or in combination

with other (non)smart textile products or used in textile systems. The latter are described in Clause 5.

NOTE Some of the smart functionalities can also be achieved by non-textile elements. Therefore, we will be

referring to textile products to clearly make the distinction.

Table 1 provides an overview of the most common stimulus-response pairs and the corresponding

effect materials or structures can exhibit.
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Table 1 — Overview of most common stimulus-response effects (adapted from the final report

[2]
of the FP6 project Clevertex )
Stimulus Response
Optical Mechanical Chemical Electrical Thermal
Optical Photochromism Photovoltaic/
photoelectric
effect
Mechanical Piezochromic Dilatant, Controlled Piezo- Friction
Thixotropic, release electricity
Auxetic
Controlled release
Chemical Chemiluminescence, Shape memory, Controlled Chemical Exo/endotherm
Solvatochromism, Super-absorbing release gradient reactions
Halochromisms polymers, causing charge
Sol/hydrogel separation –
controlled release Galvanic cell
Electrical Electrochromism, Inverse piezo- Electrolysis Joule/coulombic
Electroluminescence, electricity, heating
Electro-optic electrostriction
Peltier effect
Electro-osmosis
shape memory
Thermal Thermochromism, Shape memory Controlled Seebeck effect, Phase change
Thermo-opacity controlled release release Pyroelectric
Magnetic Shape memory
Magnetrostriction
4.2.2 Chromic textile products

Chromic material is the general term referring to materials whose absorption, transmission and/or

reflection of light changes due to an external stimulus. The result is a different colo

...

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