This document describes a method, using capacitance measuring equipment, for determining the unevenness of linear density along the length of textile strands. The method is applicable to tops, slivers, rovings, spun yarns and continuous filament yarns, made from either natural or man-made fibres, in the range of 4 tex (g/km) to 80 ktex (kg/km) for staple-fibre strands and 1 tex(g/km) to 600 tex (g/km) for continuous-filament yarns. It is not applicable to fancy yarns or to strands composed fully or partly of conductive materials such as metals; the latter requires an optical sensor (see A.4), and to raw silk filaments which are tested according to a specific standard. The method describes the preparation of a variance-length curve, as well as the determination of periodicities of linear density. It also covers the counting of imperfections in the yarn, namely of neps and of thick and thin places.

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This document specifies a gravimetric method and a vibroscope method for the determination of the linear density of textile fibres applicable respectively to: a) bundles of fibres; b) individual fibres. Useful data can be obtained on man-made fibres and, with less precision, on natural fibres. This document only applies to fibres which can be kept straight and, in the case of bundles, parallel, during test preparation. It is properly applicable when the fibres are readily freed of crimp. The methods in this document are not applicable to tapered fibres. The vibroscope method is not always applicable to hollow and flat (ribbon-like) fibres.

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This document specifies the method and conditions of test for the determination of the breaking force and elongation at break of individual fibres in the conditioned or wet state. The determination of these fibre properties, when carried out on different kinds of testing equipment, will not generally give identical results. To avoid such differences, this document is restricted to the use of constant-rate-of-extension testing machine. It is applicable to all fibres, including crimped fibres, provided that the length of fibre available enables the gauge length specified in this document. NOTE For natural fibres (especially wool and cotton), the breaking test most commonly performed is that of bundles of fibres (see ISO 3060 and IWTO 32‑82).

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This document specifies a method of test for determining the percentage of medullated wool fibres by means of the projection microscope. The method is applicable to woollen and worsted products, at all stages, from raw materials to yarn.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of fibre length distribution parameters (principally mean length, expressed as Hauteur or Barbe, and the coefficient of variation of the measurement) on slivers and rovings made from combed wool or combed synthetic fibres. As the fibres of different chemical structure have different di-electric values, the method is not directly applicable to slivers made up of a blend of wool/synthetic fibres.

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This document specifies three permeametric methods for the determination of the fineness of flax fibres. — Constant flow method, with two compressions, using a test piece of parallel fibres (see Clause 5); — Simplified constant flow method, with one compression, using a test piece of fibres distributed "at random" (see Clause 6); — Constant pressure method, with one compression, using a test piece of fibres distributed "at random" (see Clause 7). This document is applicable to the various forms possible for flax fibres, i.e. long strands, broken strands, all kinds of tow and at all stages of manufacture of these substances.

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This document specifies the test method for determining the size of silk yarns in all types of package forms. It is applicable to various kinds of silk yarns. It is not applicable to spun silk yarns.

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This document specifies criteria, with relevant test methods, to be applied in describing single spun grey cotton yarns. These yarns are widely used in international trade.

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This document specifies a method for determining the dye uptake of cationic dyeable modified polyester fibres by using cationic dye. It is applicable to cationic dyeable modified polyester fibres, including staple fibres and filament yarns. It is not applicable to polyester partially oriented yarns.

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ISO 20754:2018 specifies methods for the determination of shape factors in the cross-section of man-made fibres.

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ISO 1144:2016 gives the principles and recommended units of the Tex System for the expression of linear density and includes conversion tables for calculating the tex values of numbers or counts in other systems together with a statement of the procedure for the implementation of the Tex System in trade and industry. The Tex System is applicable to all kinds of textile fibres, intermediate products (for example tops, slivers and rovings), yarns and similar structures.

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ISO 137:2015 specifies the procedure and the measurement conditions for the determination of the wool fibre diameter using a projection microscope. The method is suitable for wool fibres in any form and also for other fibres of reasonably circular cross-section. (In the case of dyed, bleached or finished fibres, the diameter might be different from that of fibres not subjected to such treatments. The estimates of fibre diameter obtained at the various stages of processing one lot of wool will not necessarily be the same.)

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ISO 17608:2015 specifies a method to determine the resistance of bare elastane yarns to chlorinated aqueous environments, such as swimming pools, through testing of the breaking force retention. Different alternative test conditions are specified. Three different concentrations and two different exposure hours are considered. ISO 17608:2015 is applicable to bare elastane yarns only. Result achieved from yarns cannot be used to predict the fabric performance.

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ISO 18596:2015 specifies a test method for a staple length of dehaired cashmere by a hand-arranging method. ISO 18596:2015 is also applicable to dehaired camel, dehaired yak, etc.

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ISO 2061:2015 specifies a method for the determination of the direction of twist in yarns, the amount of twist, in terms of turns per unit length, and the change in length on untwisting, by the direct counting method. This International Standard is applicable to a) single yarns (spun and filament), b) plied yarns, and c) cabled yarns. Separate procedures are given for each type of yarn. The method is designed primarily for yarns in packages, but, with special precautions, the procedures can be used for yarns taken from fabrics. It is not suitable for the determination of twist in a monofilament. NOTE See also ISO 1890, which was prepared especially for the needs of glass textile technology, and ISO 7211‑4. ISO 2061:2015 covers the determination of twist in plied and cabled yarns as follows: a) in plied yarns: the final twist of the plied yarns and the original twist of the single yarn before plying; b) in cabled yarns: ? the final cabling twist of the yarn; ? the original twist of the plied yarn after plying, but prior to the last stage of processing; ? the twist of the single yarn before plying. If desired, the twist of single and plied yarn components, as they lie in the final structure, can be determined by the special procedure given in 10.5.7. ISO 2061:2015 is not applicable, except by agreement, to yarns which stretch more than 0,5 % when the tension increases from 0,5 cN to 1,0 cN per unit linear density of the yarn expressed in tex. Such yarns can be tested under special conditions of tension which are accepted by all parties interested in the test results. ISO 2061:2015 is not suitable for products of open-end spinning and intermingled (interlaced) multifilament yarns. ISO 2061:2015 is not applicable to yarns which are too large to permit their being placed in the clamps of the testing apparatus without crushing or distortion severe enough to affect the test results.

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ISO 18067:2015 specifies methods for the determination of dry-hot air shrinkage (after treatment) of synthetic filament yarns, skein method and single-end method. The skein method provides two forms of measurement which are of manual and automatic types. The single-end method gives the result by manual measurement. In case of dispute, manual measurement procedure is to be used. If these methods are not applicable, the corresponding test methods may be agreed between interested parties. ISO 18067:2015 is applicable to synthetic filament yarns of linear density less than 3 000 dtex. ISO 18067:2015 is not applicable to partially oriented yarns.

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ISO 18066:2015 specifies a test method for the determination of the boiling water shrinkage of non-textured and textured multifilament yarns (made of polyester, polyamide, polypropylene, cellulose fibre, etc.) Only automatic method is specified in this International Standard. This International Standard is applicable to manmade filament yarns of linear density less than 3 000 dtex. This International Standard is not applicable to partially oriented yarns.

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ISO 1136:2015 specifies a method for the determination of the mean diameter of wool fibres, using an apparatus which passes a current of air through a bundle of fibres. This International Standard is applicable to clean, unmedullated wool fibres dispersed in a uniform, open state. It provides a method particularly suitable for combed slivers. The dichloromethane extractable matter content of the specimen must not exceed 1,0 %. It is applicable to oil-combed slivers after cleaning with an organic solvent. The method described in this International Standard is less accurate for lambswool and for wool which is appreciably medullated (see Annex D) and heavily dyed wool.

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ISO 3074:2014 specifies a method for determining the dichloromethane-soluble matter in combed wool sliver. Its use can be extended to wool in other forms. It should be recognized that extraction with dichloromethane under the prescribed conditions does not completely remove all the fatty material present in a sample of wool. A further amount, possibly material of similar character, will usually be extracted by the use of solvents that cause greater swelling of the wool fibres. The method is applicable only to 100 % wool products. It can give misleading results if applied to products in which fibres other than wool are present.

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ISO 18068:2014 specifies a test method to determine the total sugar content in cotton fibres. Spectrophotometry is used as a quantitative determination method, and 3,5-dihydroxytoluene-sulfuric acid solution is used as a colour developer. ISO 18068:2014 is applicable to cotton fibres.

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ISO 10306:2014 specifies a method for the evaluation of the maturity of loose randomized cotton fibres by measuring the resistance to air flow of a plug of cotton fibres under two prescribed conditions. The method is applicable to cotton taken at random from bales. Laps and slivers or other sources of lint cotton may be tested, however results may differ if fibres are taken from bales.

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ISO 15625:2014 specifies a test method for defects and evenness of raw silk by capacitive and optical electronic testers. It is applicable to raw silk with the yarn size between 13,3 dtex and 76,7 dtex or 12 denier and 69 denier, whether in skein or on cone, soaked or unsoaked.

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ISO 2403:2014 specifies a method of determining the micronaire value of loose disorientated cotton fibres taken from bales, laps and slivers, or other sources of lint cotton.

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This International Standard describes a method for evaluating the degree of cotton-fibre stickiness arising from honeydew contamination through detection of sugar by the colour reaction of a specific treated paper.

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ISO 2062:2009 specifies methods for the determination of the breaking force and elongation at break of textile yarns taken from packages. Four methods are given: A: manual; specimens are taken directly from conditioned packages; B: automatic; specimens are taken directly from conditioned packages; C: manual; relaxed test skeins are used after conditioning; D: manual; specimens are used after wetting. Method C is used in cases of dispute regarding elongation at break of the yarn. ISO 2062:2009 specifies methods using constant rate of specimen extension (CRE) tensile testers. Testing on the now obsolete constant rate of travel (CRT) and constant rate of loading (CRL) instruments is covered, for information, in Annex A, in recognition of the fact that these instruments are still in use and can be used by agreement. ISO 2062:2009 applies to all types of yarns, except glass, elastomeric, aramid, high molecular polyethylene (HMPE), ultra high molecular polyethylene (UHMPE), ceramic and carbon yarns and polyolefin tape. ISO 2062:2009 is applicable to yarns from packages but can be applied to yarns extracted from fabrics, subject to agreement between the interested parties. ISO 2062:2009 is intended for the single-end (single-strand) testing of yarns.

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ISO 23733:2007 specifies a test method for the determination of the linear density of chenille yarns.

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ISO 16549:2004 describes a method, using capacitance measuring equipment, for determining the unevenness of linear density along the length of textile strands. The method is applicable to tops, slivers, rovings, spun yarns and continuous filament yarns, made from either natural or man-made fibres, in the range of 4 tex (g/km) to 80 ktex (kg/km) for staple-fibre strands and 1 tex (g/km) to 600 tex (g/km) for continuous-filament yarns. It is not applicable to fancy yarns or to strands composed fully or partly of conductive materials such as metals; the latter require an optical sensor. ISO 16549:2004 describes the preparation of a variance-length curve, as well as the determination of periodicities of linear density, and covers also the counting of imperfections in the yarn, namely of neps and of thick and thin places.

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ISO 17202 specifies a method for the determination of the direction of twist in single yarns and the amount of twist, in terms of turns per unit length, by the indirect untwist/retwist method. It is applicable to single spun yarns. The method is designed primarily for yarns in packages, but by the application of special precautions the procedures can be used for yarns taken from fabrics.

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Describes method and conditions of test for the determination of the breaking force and elongation at break of individual fibres in the conditioned or wet state. The test is restricted to the use of constant-rate-of-extension testing apparatus. Applicable to all types of fibres.

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Specifies a gravimetric method and a vibroscope method for the determination of the linear density of textile fibres applicable to bundles of fibres and individual fibres. The procedures can be applied only to fibres which can be kept straight and, in case of bundles, parallel, during test preparation. These methods are properly applicable when the fibres are readily free of crimp. They are not applicable to tapered fibres.

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Cancels and replaces the first edition (1972). Specifies a method for the determination of the linear density of all types of yarn in package form. Includes seven optional procedures based on different methods of conditioning and preparation. This method is applicable to single yarns; folded yarns; cabled yarns. Not applicable to yarns which stretch more than 0,5 % when the tension, in centinewtons, per unit linear density of yarn, in tex, increases from 0,5 to 1,0. Not applicable to yarns having a linear density greater than 2 000 tex.

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Establishes 14 terms and definitions for characteristics of textured filament yarns.

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Specifies methods for the determination of the commercial mass of homogeneous consignments of those textile fibres and yarns composed of a single generic species. Not applicable to beamed yarns, to coated yarns, to fibres and yarns put up for retail sale or to fibre blends. - Replaces the first edition (ISO 6841-1:1987), the only change of which consists of drying temperature stated for silk.

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Applicable to spun single and folded yarns of any fibre or mixture of fibres manufactured by any spinning systems. Not recommended for testing filament yarns, glass yarns, more complex structures such as cabled yarns or cords. Not applicable to those yarns having a diameter so great as to prevent the winding of the skein in two even layers. - Replaces the first edition (ISO 6939:1982) and constitutes its minor revision.

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Laboratory samples are taken from the containers in the consignment samples obtained as specified in ISO 6741-1 and placed in stoppered, air-tight vessels for subsequent processing. Sampling procedures for different forms of fibres and yarns are described.

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The test specimen obtained as specified in ISO 6741-1, following the procedures given in ISO 6741-2, is cleaned by the method recommended for the particular fibre in ISO 6741-4. Different cleaning procedures are described in detail.

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Defines the principal terms used to described the various forms into which textile fibres can be assembled, up to and including cabled yarns. Only contains terms of general application. Terms and/or definitions which are specific to particular fibres (such as hemp, silk, textile glass, metal fibre, carbon fibre, etc) are excluded.

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Names the various types of textured filament yarn and defines them in relation to the processes by which they are produced.

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As measurements of the degree of wall thickening of the fibres is too laborious for most practical purposes, this method of determination of maturity of cotton fibres is an indirect test. It consists of an appraisal, based on judgment and experience, and is suitable for routine research purposes.

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Specifies three methods for determination - method A: on a straightened fibre on a graduated rule, under a light tension applied with the aid of forceps and grease; - method B: measurement, using an opisometer, of the length of the image of fibre enlarged by projection on a screen; - method C: by use of a semi-mechanical device. - Intended to replace two existing International Standard, ISO 270 and ISO 1822.

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This method is applicable to fibres taken from raw or partially processed cotton, but not to fibres taken from blends of cotton with other fibres, or to fibres recovered from cotton yarns or fabrics. The main terms are defined.

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Applicable to wool in the form of worsted drawing slivers and rovings. Definitions of fibre lengths in relation to hauteur and barbe are given. The calculation of the coefficient of variation of both these terms is described. An annex deals with the Schlumberger apparatus for usage to determination the fibre lengths.

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The solubility of wool in alkali provides a useful index of the extent of change in its chemical properties brought about by certain agencies. Immersion of the wool in sodium hydroxide solution under specified conditions of time, temperature and volume. Determination of the loss in mass as the difference in the mass of the dry sample before and after treatment.

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The method is applicable to undyed wool in any form, for example loose fibre, sliver, yarn or fabric. It is also applicable to dyed wool when the amount of dye extracted during the test does not interfere with the determination of the end-point of the titration. The determined value is expressed as a percentage by mass.

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Applicable for textile materials in all forms. No single technique of sampling can be devised that will serve in all circumstances. General terms and their definitions are given. A lot of different sampling methods are described (e.g. for bast fibres, cotton fibres, man-made staple fibres, and wool fibres). The determination of the number of individuals to be tested in dependence on the variability of the material and the accuracy required is given in the annex.

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The method is applicable to undyed wool in any form, for example loose fibre, sliver, yarn or fabric. It is also applicable to dyed wool when the amount of dye extracted during the test does not interfere with the determination of the end-point of titration. The determined value is expressed as a percentage by mass.

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Applicable to all-wool textiles in any form, namely loose fibre, roving, yarn or cloth. Dyes when present may interfere with the colorimetric measurement. The method is not applicable to oxidized or reduced wool. It is primarily applicable to determination of cystine and cysteine in washed wool, tops, yarns or cloths that have not been reduced or oxidized.

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Cysteic acid is one of the oxidation products of the amino acids cystine and cysteine. The cysteic acid content of raw wool is normally very low. It increases with photochemical degradation (weathering). Finishing processes such as bleaching or chlorination always result in an increase in cysteic acid. The severity of any kind of oxidation may be determined directly by quantitative determination of cysteic acid. Applicable to all-wool textiles in any form before and after dyeing - for example, loose wool, sliver, slubbing, yarn or fabric.

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The method is applicable to fibres being tested either at a nominal gauge length of zero or at a finite gauge length. It is especially intended to be used with tensile strength test instruments which have been designed for specific use on flat bundles of cotton fibres. It may be used with other tensile strength test instruments if equipped to accomodate the fibre clamps.

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