Marine environment impact assessment (MEIA) -- Specification for marine sediments in seabed areas -- Survey of interstitial biota

This document provides requirements and recommendations for conducting marine surveys of interstitial biota in marine sediments. It includes the specification of technical methods for the investigation of marine sediments, foraminifera, ostracoda, radiolaria, diatoms, coccoliths, sedimentary sporopollen, benthic viruses, benthic microbes (including bacteria, archaea and fungi), benthic microalgae, benthic protozoa and metazoan meiobenthos. This document is applicable to marine surveys in diverse benthic habitats at any seabed, such as benthic sediments of coastal zones, shallow seas, or deep-sea waters.

Évaluation de l'impact environnemental marin -- Spécifications relatives aux sédiments marins dans les zones de fonds marins -- Étude du biote interstitiel

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Status
Published
Publication Date
09-Dec-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
26-Oct-2021
Completion Date
26-Oct-2021
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ISO 23040:2021 - Marine environment impact assessment (MEIA) -- Specification for marine sediments in seabed areas -- Survey of interstitial biota
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 23040
First edition
2021-12
Marine environment impact
assessment (MEIA) — Specification for
marine sediments in seabed areas —
Survey of interstitial biota
Évaluation de l'impact environnemental marin — Spécifications
relatives aux sédiments marins dans les zones de fonds marins —
Étude du biote interstitiel
Reference number
ISO 23040:2021(E)
© ISO 2021
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ISO 23040:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

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Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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ISO 23040:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ix

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.1 Technical design .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Basic recommendations for the surveys ......................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.1 Survey object ......................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2.2 Auxiliary parameters ..................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.3 Recommendations for the sampling equipment .................................................................................... 3

4.2.4 Auxiliary equipment on board ship ................................................................................................................... 3

4.2.5 Sampling method and scope of application ................................................................................................ 3

4.3 Sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.1 Sediment sampling ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.2 Trawl sampling..................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3.3 Water sampling .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3.4 Records ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Sample analysis ........................................................................................................................................... ........................................... 4

4.4.1 Sample treatment .............................................................................................................................................................. 4

4.4.2 Sample measurement ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.4.3 Sample treatment and storage ............................................................................................................................... 4

4.4.4 Sample identification and enumeration ........................................................................................................ 4

4.4.5 Sample data analysis ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.5 Basic recommendations of data organization ............................................................................................................ 5

4.5.1 Organization of data ........................................................................................................................................... ............. 5

4.5.2 Data archiving, acceptance and achievements appraisal .............................................................. 5

4.6 Survey results .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.6.1 Original records .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.6.2 Maps or drawings .............................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.6.3 Investigation report ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

4.7 Data archiving ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.8 Program and quality control ..................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Survey of the sediment .................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.1 Principle ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.2 General provisions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3 Collection and preservation of the samples ................................................................................................................. 7

5.4 Measurement of environmental factors .......................................................................................................................... 7

5.5 Measurement of the age of the sediments ...................................................................................................................... 7

5.6 Measurement of the contents of heavy metals, organic pollutants and oils in the

sediments .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.7 Measurement of the grain size of the sediments ..................................................................................................... 7

5.8 Analysis of the mineral compositions in the sediments .................................................................................... 8

5.9 Classification of the substrate type in offshore sediments ............................................................................ 8

5.10 Classification of the deep-sea sediments ........................................................................................................................ 8

5.11 Survey of the biological components in the sediments ...................................................................................... 8

5.11.1 Summary of the methods............................................................................................................................................ 8

5.11.2 Technical recommendations .................................................................................................................................... 8

5.11.3 Collection and preservation of the samples ............................................................................................... 9

5.12 Organization of data .......................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6 Survey of foraminifera ...................................................................................................................................................................................9

6.1 Principle ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

iii
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ISO 23040:2021(E)

6.2 General provisions .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Collection and preservation of the samples ................................................................................................................. 9

6.3.1 Sampling and sample processing ......................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Collection and preservation of the sedimentary tests .................................................................. 10

6.3.3 Collection and preservation of living foraminifera .......................................................................... 10

6.4 Tools and reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.5 Processing and analysis of the samples ........................................................................................................................ 10

6.5.1 Numbering and weighing the crystallizing dish or beaker ....................................................... 10

6.5.2 Drying and weighing the sediment sample ............................................................................................. 11

6.5.3 Sample soaking ................................................................................................................................................................. 11

6.5.4 Washing and drying ..................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.5.5 Suspension and concentration ............................................................................................................................ 11

6.5.6 Bottling and sealing ...................................................................................................................................................... 11

6.5.7 Specimen preparation and analysis ............................................................................................................... 11

7 Survey of ostracoda .......................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12

7.2 General provisions ...........................................................................................................................................................................12

7.3 Collection and preservation of the samples ..............................................................................................................12

7.3.1 Sampling and sample processing ......................................................................................................................12

7.3.2 Collection and preservation of dead ostracod tests ........................................................................13

7.3.3 Collection and preservation of living ostracods .................................................................................13

7.4 Tools and reagents ...........................................................................................................................................................................13

7.5 Processing and analysis of the samples ........................................................................................................................ 13

7.5.1 Numbering and weighing the crystallizing dish or beaker .......................................................13

7.5.2 Drying and weighing.................................................................................................................................................... 13

7.5.3 Sample soaking ................................................................................................................................................................. 14

7.5.4 Washing and drying ..................................................................................................................................................... 14

7.5.5 Suspension and concentration ............................................................................................................................ 14

7.5.6 Bottling and sealing ...................................................................................................................................................... 14

7.5.7 Microscopic examination and enumeration ............................................................................................ 14

8 Survey of radiolaria .......................................................................................................................................................................................15

8.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.2 General provisions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.3 Collection and preservation of the samples .............................................................................................................. 15

8.3.1 Sample processing ......................................................................................................................................................... 15

8.3.2 Collection and conservation of deposited empty shells ............................................................... 16

8.4 Tools and reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.5 Processing and analysis of the samples ........................................................................................................................ 16

8.5.1 Sample pretreatment................................................................................................................................................... 16

8.5.2 Preparation of microscope slide specimens ........................................................................................... 16

9 Survey of sedimentary diatom ...........................................................................................................................................................17

9.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 17

9.2 General provisions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 17

9.3 Collection and preservation of the samples .............................................................................................................. 17

9.3.1 Sampling and treatment ........................................................................................................................................... 17

9.3.2 Collection and preservation of sedimentary remains ................................................................... 18

9.4 Tools and reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................... 18

9.5 Processing and analysis of the samples ........................................................................................................................ 18

9.5.1 Sample pretreatment................................................................................................................................................... 18

9.5.2 Preparation of microscope slide specimens ........................................................................................... 19

9.6 Organization of data ....................................................................................................................................................................... 19

10 Survey of coccoliths .......................................................................................................................................................................................19

10.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

10.2 General provisions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 19

10.3 Collection and preservation of the samples .............................................................................................................. 20

10.4 Tools and reagents ...........................................................................................................................................................................20

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ISO 23040:2021(E)

10.5 Processing and analysis of the samples ........................................................................................................................ 20

10.5.1 Pre-preparation of the equipment and the samples ........................................................................ 20

10.5.2 Method of preparing simple smear slides ................................................................................................. 21

10.5.3 Pre-concentration of coccolith samples ..................................................................................................... 21

10.6 Organization of data ....................................................................................................................................................................... 21

11 Survey of sporopollen ..................................................................................................................................................................................22

11.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22

11.2 General provisions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 22

11.3 Collection and preservation of the samples .............................................................................................................. 23

11.4 Tools and reagents ...........................................................................................................................................................................23

11.5 Processing and analysis of the samples ........................................................................................................................ 23

11.5.1 Sample disaggregation ............................................................................................................................................... 23

11.5.2 Alkali-soluble digestion ........................................................................................................................................... .. 24

11.5.3 Sieving ...................................................................... ................................................................................................................. 24

11.5.4 Carbonate digestion ..................................................................................................................................................... 24

11.5.5 Silicate digestion ............................................................................................................................................................. 24

11.5.6 Ultrasonic cleaning and sieving ......................................................................................................................... 24

11.5.7 Acetolysis ............................................................................................................................................................................... 25

11.5.8 Storage of processed sample................................................................................................................................. 25

11.5.9 Mounting sporopollen specimens .................................................................................................................... 25

11.5.10 ...........................................................................................................................................................

Glycerine jelly preparation ..................................................................................................................................... 25

11.5.11 ...........................................................................................................................................................

Precautions .......................................................................................................................................................................... 25

11.6 Organization of data ....................................................................................................................................................................... 26

12 Survey of benthic viruses ........................................................................................................................................................................26

12.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26

12.2 General provisions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 26

12.3 Collection and preservation of the samples .............................................................................................................. 26

12.3.1 Samples for epifluorescence microscopy .................................................................................................. 26

12.3.2 Samples for flow cytometry .................................................................................................................................. 27

12.3.3 Samples for environmental measurements and molecular diversity of

viruses ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 27

12.4 Tools and reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................... 27

12.4.1 Equipment and reagents for epifluorescence microscopy ......................................................... 27

12.4.2 Equipment and reagents for flow cytometry .........................................................................................28

12.4.3 Equipment and tools for molecular diversity of viruses .............................................................28

12.5 Processing and analysis of samples ..................................................................................................................................28

12.5.1 Enumeration of viruses by epifluorescence microscopy .............................................................28

12.5.2 Procedure for flow cytometry ............................................................................................................................30

12.5.3 Estimation of the molecular diversity of viruses ...............................................................................30

13 Survey of benthic microbes ...................................................................................................................................................................32

13.1 Principle .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32

13.2 General provisions ........................................................................................................................................................................... 32

13.3 Collection and preservation of the samples .............................................................................................................. 33

13.3.1 Sampling stations and sample collection .................................................................................................. 33

13.3.2 On-site sample process .............................................................................................................................................. 33

13.3.3 Sample storage .................................................................................................................................................................. 33

13.4 Tools and reagents ...........................................................................................................................................................................34

13.4.1 Equipment .............................................................................................................................................................................34

13.4.2 Reagents ..................................................................................................................................................................................34

13.5 Processing and analysis of the samples ........................................................................................................................ 36

13.5.1 Assessment of molecular diversities of benthic microbes .........................................................36

13.5.2 Benthic microbial abundance .............................................................................................................................. 41

14 Survey of benthic microalgae .........
...

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