This document specifies a method for the measurement of the local thickness of metallic coatings, oxide layers, and porcelain or vitreous enamel coatings, by the microscopical examination of cross-sections using an optical microscope.

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This document specifies methods for the determination of —   the presence of colourless chromate conversion coatings, —   the presence of hexavalent chromium in colourless and coloured coatings on zinc or cadmium or aluminium-zinc (mass fraction of aluminium: 55 %, within a range of 54 % to 56 % mass fraction) and zinc-aluminium (mass fraction of aluminium: 5 %) alloys, —   the total chromium content per unit area on zinc and cadmium, —   the mass per unit area of both colourless and coloured coatings, —   the satisfactory adhesion of chromate conversion coatings, and —   the quality of chromate coatings. These methods are applicable to —   colourless and coloured chromate conversion coatings containing trivalent and hexavalent chromium in varying proportions and produced by either chemical or electrochemical processes, and —   chromate coatings that are free from any supplementary coatings, such as oil, water or solvent-based polymers or wax.

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This document specifies spectroscopic ellipsometry for the determination of optical properties (refractive index n and extinction coefficient k) and the optical classification of different types of amorphous carbon films within the n-k plane. It is applicable to amorphous carbon films deposited by ionized evaporation, sputtering, arc deposition, plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition, hot filament techniques and others. It does not apply to carbon films modified with metals or silicon, amorphous carbon films that have a gradient of composition/property in the thickness, paints and varnishes.

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This document specifies a method for determining optical and dielectric constants in the UV-VIS-NIR spectral range as well as layer thicknesses in the field of at-line production control, quality assurance and material development through accredited test laboratories. It is applicable to stand-alone measuring systems. The presentation of the uncertainty of results conforms to ISO/IEC Guide 98-3.

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This document specifies a method for measuring the in-plane Young’s modulus of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) formed on substrates, from room temperature up to 1 000 °C.

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This document specifies a method for the measurement of metal coating thickness by first forming a step between the surface of the coating and the surface of its substrate and then measuring the step height using a profile recording instrument. It covers the instrumentation characteristics and the procedure appropriate to this specific application of profilometric methods. The method is applicable to the measurement of thicknesses of metal coatings from 0,01 µm to 1 000 µm on flat surfaces and, if appropriate precautions are taken, on cylindrical surfaces. It is highly suitable for the measurement of minute thicknesses but, for thicknesses of less than 0,01 µm, surface flatness and surface smoothness are very critical and, accordingly, the method is not suitable for use down to the lowest level of measurement usual for electronic stylus instruments. The method is suitable for measuring coating thicknesses when preparing coating thickness reference standards.

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This document specifies how the symbolic representation of thermally sprayed coatings is indicated on drawings.

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This document specifies a method for non-destructive measurements of the thickness of conductive coatings on non-conductive base materials. This method is based on the principle of the sheet resistivity measurement and is applicable to any conductive coatings and layers of metal and semiconductor materials. In general, the probe has to be adjusted to the conductivity and the thickness of the respective application. However, this document focuses on metallic coatings on non-conductive base materials (e.g. copper on plastic substrates, printed circuit boards). This method is also applicable to thickness measurements of conductive coatings on conductive base materials, if the resistivity of the coating and the base material is significantly different. However, this case is not considered in this document.

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This document specifies a method for measuring the thickness of the individual nickel layers in electroplated multilayer nickel coatings and measuring the potential differences between the individual nickel layers in electroplated multilayer nickel coatings. The measurement of coatings or layer systems other than electroplated multilayer nickel coatings is outside the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a method of determining the mass per unit area of hot dip galvanized coatings on ferrous materials. Since an exact knowledge of the area of the surface is essential, this document is mainly applicable to shapes whose areas are easy to determine. If, with heavy samples, the specifications of Clause 7 cannot be met, then the hot dip galvanized coating mass is determined by another method.

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This document specifies the requirements and recommendations for electroless Ni-P-ceramic composite coatings applied from aqueous solutions onto metallic and non-metallic substrates. This document does not apply to ternary nickel alloys and nickel-boron ceramic composite coatings.

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This document specifies a test method to measure the friction coefficient of chemical conversion coating sheet products and coiled products. This document is applicable to measure or compare the friction properties of hot-dip galvanized, lubricated and resin coated steel sheet, when tested under the same conditions.

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This document specifies a method for measuring the reproducible linear thermal expansion coefficient of ceramic top coats (TCs) for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) up to 1 300 °C.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamel coatings to abrasion by rubbing, grinding or other mechanical effects.

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This document specifies two low voltage tests for detecting and locating defects that extend to the basis metal in vitreous and porcelain enamel coatings. Method A (electrical) is applicable to the rapid detection and determination of the general location of defects. Method B (optical), based on colour effects, is applicable to the more precise detection of defects and their exact locations. Both methods are commonly applied to flat surfaces. For more intricate shapes, such as undulated and/or corrugated surfaces, ISO 8289-2 is applicable. NOTE 1 Selection of the correct test method is critical to distinguish the areas of increased conductivity detected by method B from actual pores that extend to the basis metal, which can be detected by both methods. NOTE 2 The low voltage test is a non-destructive method of detecting defects and, therefore, is completely different from the high voltage test specified in ISO 2746. The results of the high and low voltage tests are not comparable and will differ.

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This document gives guidelines and recommendations for the general principles of design appropriate to articles to be hot dip galvanized after fabrication (e.g. in accordance with ISO 1461) for the corrosion protection of, for example, articles that have been manufactured in accordance with EN 1090-2. This document does not apply to hot dip galvanized coatings applied to continuous wire or sheet (e.g. to EN 10346).

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This document specifies the evaluation standard of the composition, structure and properties of multi-layer hard coatings by common physical vapor deposition (PVD), indicating a vacuum deposition method that produces a material source by evaporation, sputtering or related non-chemical ways.

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This document specifies a method for using phase-sensitive eddy-current instruments for non-destructive measurements of the thickness of non-magnetic metallic coatings on metallic and non-metallic basis materials such as: a) zinc, cadmium, copper, tin or chromium on steel; b) copper or silver on composite materials. The phase-sensitive method can be applied without thickness errors to smaller surface areas and to stronger surface curvatures than the amplitude-sensitive eddy-current method specified in ISO 2360, and is less affected by the magnetic properties of the basis material. However, the phase-sensitive method is more affected by the electrical properties of the coating materials. In this document, the term "coating" is used for materials such as, for example, paints and varnishes, electroplated coatings, enamel coatings, plastic coatings, claddings and powder coatings. This method is particularly applicable to measurements of the thickness of metallic coatings. These coatings can be non-magnetic metallic coatings on non-conductive, conductive or magnetic base materials, but also magnetic coatings on non-conductive or conductive base materials. The measurement of metallic coatings on metallic basis material works only when the product of conductivity and permeability (σ, μ) of one of the materials is at least a factor of two times the product of conductivity and permeability for the other material. Non-ferromagnetic materials have a relative permeability of one.

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This document specifies the quality requirements for apparatus, components, appliances and accessories of glass-lined steel (including semi-crystallized enamel coatings) and glass-lined steel castings used for process plants. It specifies the quality requirements and the tests to be carried out by the manufacturer as well as the actions to be taken to repair defects. It is also applicable to glass-lined pumps, pump components and fittings. It does not apply to glass-lined flanged steel pipes or glass-lined flanged steel fittings. NOTE 1 Provisions for glass-lined flanged steel pipes and glass-lined flanged steel fittings are given in ISO 28721-4. The test methods specified cover checking the enamel, the dimensional accuracy and the performance of apparatus and components. This document is applicable to new apparatus and components as well as used items that have been re-enamelled. It does not contain requirements regarding the chemical or physical properties of vitreous and porcelain enamels. NOTE 2 Examples of test reports are given in Annex A.

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This document specifies the minimum requirements and the functional characteristics of enamel coatings applied by any process, such as wet dipping, wet flow-coating, wet spraying, wet electrostatic spraying, wet electrodeposition or dry-powder electrostatic spraying, to profiled steel heat exchanger panels in regenerative heat exchangers, before and after packing in baskets. For very severe service conditions, or to obtain extended operational life, more stringent limits can be agreed between customer and supplier.

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This document specifies a low-voltage test method for detecting and locating defects (pores, cracks or pop-offs) that occur in enamel coatings of corrugated and/or undulated profiles and that extend down to the metal base. The method is based on colour effects (optical method) and is applicable to the precise detection of defects and their exact position. It can be used for non-flat, more profiled shapes such as corrugated or undulated surfaces. NOTE The low-voltage test is a non-destructive test for detecting defects extending down to the metal base and is, therefore, completely different in comparison to the high-voltage test in accordance with ISO 2746.

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This document specifies the requirements for product quality and product testing of enamelled valves and pressure pipe fittings for untreated and potable water supply. It does not apply to chemical service glass-enamel and apparatus enamel.

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This document specifies requirements for the protection of iron and steel surfaces against corrosion by applying thermal-sprayed metallic coatings of zinc, aluminium or their alloys. In this document, requirements for the planning of the corrosion protection system and for the constructive design of the component to be protected are specified, where thermal spraying is intended to be the process for the deposition of the metallic corrosion protection. Some field-related basic terms are defined and instructions for corrosion behaviour of the zinc and aluminium materials under different environment conditions are provided. Characteristic properties of the coating, e.g. coating thickness, minimum adhesive strength and surface appearance, are specified and test procedures for thermal-sprayed corrosion protection coatings of zinc, aluminium or their alloys are determined. This document is valid for applying thermal-sprayed zinc and aluminium protection coatings against corrosion in the temperature range between −50 °C to +200 °C, taking into consideration the service conditions of any sealants used. Heat-resistant protective coatings of aluminium are covered by ISO 17834 and are not in the scope of this document. Other corrosion protection processes, e.g. hot-dip galvanizing (galvanic coating), sherardizing, electroplating or selection and deposition of organic coatings/paints are not in the scope of this document. Requirements for the manufacturing of thermal-sprayed coatings are specified in ISO 2063-2.

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This document gives guidelines for determining the average surface density over a measured area of anodic oxide or of a coating deposited autocatalytically, mechanically, by chemical conversion, by electrodeposition, by hot dip galvanizing and by chemical or physical vapour deposition using gravimetric and other chemical analysis procedures that have attained some degree of national or international standardization. A variety of procedures are described and include: — gravimetric procedures for chemical or electrochemical dissolution of the coating or the substrate to determine the coating surface density; — gravimetric procedures for weighing the uncoated substrate and the coated (finished) specimen to determine the coating surface density; — analytical procedures that utilize dissolution of the coating for determination of the coating surface density by instrumental chemical analysis methods. With the exception of the gravimetric method as described in ISO 3892, this document does not give the measurement uncertainties of the methods cited.

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This document specifies requirements for electroplated coatings of metallic chromium, with or without undercoats, on ferrous and non-ferrous metals for engineering purposes. The coating designation provides a means of specifying the thickness of chromium appropriate for typical engineering applications.

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This document specifies a simulating method of test for determination of the release of metal-ions from enamelled articles, which are intended to come into contact with food. It also specifies limits for the release of metal-ions from enamelled articles, which are intended to come into contact with food. It is applicable to enamelled articles, including tanks and vessels, which are intended to be used for the preparation, cooking, serving and storage of food.

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This document specifies the test methods for coating adhesion of sputtered silver layer coating for electrical, electronic, optical and other engineering applications. Engineering applications are defined as those in which the coating essentially serves a non-decorative purpose. Although the appearance and serviceability of the sputtered silver coating depends on the condition of the basis material, this document does not specify the condition, finish or surface roughness of the basis material prior to the deposition. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the purchaser to specify the surface finish and roughness of the basis material in order to conform to the product requirements. This document specifies the test methods of coatings on sheets and the flat objects. However, it does not apply to coatings on screw threads, strip or wire in the non-fabricated form.

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ISO 14918:2018 specifies procedural instructions for qualification testing of thermal sprayers. It defines requirements, ranges of qualification, test conditions, acceptance requirements and certification for qualification testing of thermal spray performance. ISO 14918:2018 is applicable when the thermal sprayer's qualification is required by this document, the purchaser, by inspection authorities or by other organizations. The thermal spraying processes referred to in this document include those spraying processes which are designated as manual or mechanized. The test for mechanised application includes the use of automatically controlled thermal spraying, e.g. robotics, scan units.

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ISO 2081:2018 specifies requirements for electroplated coatings of zinc with supplementary treatments on iron or steel. It includes information to be supplied by the purchaser to the electroplater, and the requirements for heat treatment before and after electroplating. ISO 2081:2018 is not applicable to zinc coatings applied - to sheet, strip or wire in the non-fabricated form, - to close-coiled springs, or - for purposes other than protective or decorative. ISO 2081:2018 does not specify requirements for the surface condition of the basis metal prior to electroplating with zinc. However, defects in the surface of the basis metal can adversely affect the appearance and performance of the coating. The coating thickness that can be applied to threaded components can be limited by dimensional requirements, including class or fit.

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ISO 2819:2017 specifies methods of checking the adhesion of electrodeposited and chemically deposited coatings. It is limited to tests of a qualitative nature. ISO 2819:2017 does not describe certain tests that have been developed at various times to give a quantitative measure of adhesion of metallic coating to a substrate, since such tests require special apparatus and considerable skill in their performance which renders them unsuitable as quality control tests for production parts. Some of these quantitative tests can, however, be useful in research and development work.

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ISO 28706-3:2017 describes a test method for the determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamelled articles to attack by alkaline liquids at temperatures between 25 °C and 95 °C. The apparatus used is a hexagonal vessel in which six enamelled specimens or a tetragonal glass bottle in which four enamelled specimens are simultaneously tested. NOTE 1 The resistance to any alkaline liquid can be determined. However, the test method was originally used for the determination of the resistance to hot detergent solutions, within the neutral and alkaline range, used for washing textiles. NOTE 2 Since detergents are continually subject to alterations in their composition, a standard test solution is specified which, in respect to its alkalinity, wetting properties and complexing behaviour, can be considered as a typical composition for the detergents present on the market. The pH value and alkalinity of the standard test solution depend on the proportions of sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium carbonate and sodium perborate present; sodium tripolyphosphate acts simultaneously as a complexing agent. The wetting properties of the standard test solution are obtained by the addition of alkylsulfonate. A higher sodium perborate content is not considered necessary since the effect of oxygen on enamel is unimportant and an increase in the perborate content does not cause any significant alteration in the alkalinity of the standard test solution. The testing of different enamels using this standard test solution and other test solutions (including 5 % sodium pyrophosphate solution) has justified the use of this standard test solution for determining the resistance of enamels to hot detergent solutions.

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ISO 27830:2017 specifies the technical requirements of metallic and other inorganic coatings in order to develop consistent technical standards and establishes a standard format for designating the coatings. It applies to International Standards for electrodeposited, autocatalytic and vapour-deposited coatings. Detailed technical requirements for individual coatings are not given in this document, but can be found in the International Standards listed in the Bibliography. ISO 27830:2017 does not apply to thermally sprayed and porcelain enamel coatings.

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ISO 17836:2017 specifies a test procedure to determine the deposition efficiency for thermal spraying. It provides a reliable comparison method between different spray processes and different feed stock. It is applicable for all thermal spray processes (see ISO 14917) and all wire, rod, cord and powder spray materials. It is applicable when data concerning the deposition efficiency of a spray process in connection with a defined spray material are required.

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ISO 9717:2017 specifies a process for the confirmation of requirements for phosphate coatings which are usually destined for application on ferrous materials, zinc, cadmium and their alloys (see Annex B).

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ISO 2063-2:2017 specifies requirements for corrosion protection of steel structures, components or parts, which are coated by thermal spraying of zinc, aluminium or their alloys. ISO 2063-2:2017 specifies requirements for coating manufacturers of surface preparation, thermal spraying, testing and post treatments, e.g. sealing of the coating. ISO 2063-2:2017 applies to metallic corrosion protection coatings in the case of new fabrication in the workshop, as well as on-site and for repair on-site after assembly. Requirements for coating thickness, minimum adhesive strength and surface conditions, specified in a coating specification, are given. Recommendations are given for suitable process steps and quality assurance measures for new production and maintenance and for supervising of corrosion protection works. ISO 2063-2:2017 covers the application of thermal-sprayed zinc, aluminium and their alloys for protection against corrosion in the temperature range between ?50 °C to +200 °C. Heat-resistant protective coatings of aluminium are covered by ISO 17834 and are not in the scope of ISO 2063-2:2017. ISO 2063-2:2017 specifies requirements for the equipment, the working place and the qualification of the spray and testing personnel. NOTE ISO 2063‑1:2017 is addressed to the designer and to the planning engineer of corrosion protection system.

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ISO 20523:2017 specifies classification, designations and short names for carbon based films. These are films in which carbon is the predominant constituent part and which are deposited by physical vapour deposition (PVD) or chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process. This includes amorphous carbon-based films, also called diamond-like carbon films (DLC), as well as CVD diamond films, graphite and polymer-like films. ISO 20523:2017 is applicable to those films which are produced on an industrial scale. Additional carbon based films are under development. ISO 20523:2017 refers to the material of carbon based films. It does not refer to the entire coating that can consist of a main functional layer with additional layers below or on top. A layer can change in composition and/or material property over its thickness. Such layers are called gradient layers. The definitions in this document refer to non-gradient layers. A carbon based film can include other elements like hydrogen, metal elements or others. Metal constituents can be included as metal carbides. Films with additional elements are only covered by this document if carbon is the predominant constituent part. Carbon incorporated as carbide, as can be present in metal-containing amorphous carbon films (a-C:Me, a-C:H:Me), does not count to this amount. ISO 20523:2017 does not apply to the class of carbon materials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene.

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ISO 2082:2017 specifies the requirements of electroplated coatings of cadmium with supplementary treatments on iron and steel. It includes information that is to be supplied by the purchaser to the electroplater, and describes coating requirements, including those for heat treatment before and after electroplating. It is not applicable to coatings applied - to sheet, strip or wire in the non-fabricated form, - to close-coiled springs, or - for purposes other than protective, intrinsic lubricity, ductility, electrical conductivity and low contact resistance use. ISO 2082:2017 does not specify requirements for the surface condition of the basis metal prior to electrodeposition with cadmium. The coating thickness that can be applied to threaded components can be limited by dimensional requirements, including class or fit. Additional information on corrosion resistance, rinsing and drying, processing parts in bulk and dyeing of chromate conversion coatings is given in Annex C.

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ISO 2360:2017 specifies a method for non-destructive measurements of the thickness of non-conductive coatings on non-magnetic electrically conductive base metals, using amplitude-sensitive eddy-current instruments. In ISO 2360:2017, the term "coating" is used for materials such as, for example, paints and varnishes, electroplated coatings, enamel coatings, plastic coatings, claddings and powder coatings. This method is particularly applicable to measurements of the thickness of most oxide coatings produced by anodizing, but is not applicable to all conversion coatings, some of which are too thin to be measured by this method (see Clause 6). This method can also be used to measure non-magnetic metallic coatings on non-conductive base materials. However, the phase-sensitive eddy-current method specified in ISO 21968 is particularly usable to this application and can provide thickness results with a higher accuracy (see Annex A). This method is not applicable to measure non-magnetic metallic coatings on conductive base metals. The phase-sensitive eddy-current method specified in ISO 21968 is particularly useful for this application. However, in the special case of very thin coatings with a very small conductivity, the amplitude-sensitive eddy-current method can also be used for this application (see Annex A). Although the method can be used for measurements of the thickness of coatings on magnetic base metals, its use for this application is not recommended. In such cases, the magnetic method specified in ISO 2178 can be used. Only in case of very thick coatings above approximately 1 mm, the amplitude-sensitive eddy-current method can also be used for this application (see Annex A).

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ISO 20274:2017 specifies the procedures for the preparation of enamel samples for measurement of the thermal length change and calculation of the thermal expansion coefficient.

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ISO/TR 14232-2:2017 gives guidelines for selecting the powder chemistry or composition for obtaining an objective coating performance. It provides comparisons of coating performance for wear resistance (Table 1) and corrosion resistance (Table 2) to spray powder chemistry/composition. The wear types shown in Table 1 are abrasive, adhesive, chemical, erosion, fretting, impact, rolling and sliding. The corrosion types shown in Table 2 are acid/alkaline/salt, atmospheric, biochemical, biological, chemical agent, chemicals in food, combustion gas, sea water, fresh water, molten metal, molten salt, non-aqueous solution, soil, steam and miscellaneous. The tables give the coating chemistries and describe the composition of spray powder of metals/alloys, ceramics and cermets. The guidelines have been produced on the basis of academic literature, in particular the Journal of Thermal Spray Technology and the Proceedings of the International Thermal Spray Conference.

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ISO 20267:2017 specifies a method for measuring the interfacial toughness of thermal spray ceramic coatings at room temperature based on an indentation method. The interfacial toughness is calculated from the mean length of cracks emanating from the corners of the impression induced by a Vickers hardness tester, and it is intended for use with ceramic coatings with a single layer or multilayers. The test procedures proposed in this document are intended for use in an ambient environment. ISO 20267:2017 is recommended for thermal spray ceramic coatings such as thermal barrier coatings, wear resistant coatings and electrical insulating coatings.

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ISO 14708-3:2017 provides guidelines and recommendations regarding the general principles of design that are appropriate for articles to be sherardized for corrosion protection. The protection afforded by the sherardized coating to the article will depend upon the method of application of the coating, the design of the article and the specific environment to which the article is exposed. The sherardized article can be further protected by application of additional coatings (outside the scope of this document), such as organic coatings (wet paints or powder coatings). When applied to sherardized articles, this combination of coatings is often known as a "duplex system". General guidance on this subject can be found in ISO 12944‑5 and EN 13438. The maintenance of corrosion protection in service for steel with sherardized coatings is outside the scope of this document. Specific product-related requirements (e.g. for sherardized coatings on fasteners or tubes, etc.) will take precedence over these general recommendations.

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ISO 14713-1:2017 provides guidelines and recommendations regarding the general principles of design which are appropriate for articles to be zinc coated for corrosion protection and the level of corrosion resistance provided by zinc coatings applied to iron or steel articles, exposed to a variety of environments. Initial protection is covered in relation to - available standard processes, - design considerations, and - environments for use. ISO 14713-1:2017 applies to zinc coatings applied by the following processes: a) hot dip galvanized coatings (applied after fabrication); b) hot dip galvanized coatings (applied onto continuous sheet); c) sherardized coatings; d) thermal sprayed coatings; e) mechanically plated coatings; f) electrodeposited coatings. These guidelines and recommendations do not deal with the maintenance of corrosion protection in service for steel with zinc coatings. Guidance on this subject can be found in ISO 12944‑5 and ISO 12944‑8.

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ISO 14232-1:2017 specifies measuring methods for the characterization of powders and their technical supply conditions. It is applicable to powders that are used in thermal spraying on the basis of their physical and chemical properties.

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ISO 19496-2:2017 establishes a system for the cataloguing of defects in sheet steel enamelling. It serves for a consistent language use concerning the designation and characterization of enamelling defects. This document is limited to detectable defects and does not purport to fully take into consideration all occurring types of defects. It does not evaluate enamelling defects; the classification carried out serves for the conveyance of practical knowledge.

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ISO 19496-1:2017 defines a number of terms relating to vitreous and porcelain enamels and their technology. This list is not complete and only comprises those terms for which the definition is considered necessary for correct and adequate understanding in order to clarify these processes. The interpretations given are those corresponding to the practical usage in this field and they do not necessarily coincide with those used in other fields. For purposes of clarification, the term "vitreous enamel", used throughout this document, is synonymous with "porcelain enamel", the term favoured in the United States and some other countries.

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ISO 14916:2017 specifies the procedure to determine the tensile adhesive strength of thermally sprayed coatings under tension in the direction normal to the surface of the coating by applying a tensile test. By using this procedure, comparability of the test results is ensured. The test is intended to determine the tensile adhesive strength between the thermally sprayed coating and the substrate material or between the bond and top coat and/or of the cohesive strength of the related coat of the coating system. In some cases, thermally sprayed coatings might have more than two layers. The method specified in this document applies also to determine the tensile adhesive strength between the interfaces of different layers in a coating system which consists of more than two layers. This test is sufficient to compare coatings manufactured using same or similar feedstock materials and thermal spray processes with each other. The tensile adhesive strength test is not intended to provide absolute values for evaluation of the durability of coatings under operational use. The test is used to assess the influence of substrate preparation, the spraying conditions and the process parameter on the tensile adhesive strength of thermally sprayed coatings. It can also be employed in order to monitor the consistency of the manufacturing and spraying processes. NOTE This tensile test can also be applied to very thin coatings. Moreover, the infiltration of bonding agent into the thermally sprayed coatings containing a required level of porosity can be minimized using an appropriate bonding agent (foil rather than liquid). For further instructions, please refer to 6.5.3. This tensile test is inappropriate for determining the adhesive strength of fused spray coatings deposited using self-fluxing alloys due to their inherent high adhesion strength values.

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ISO 28706-2:2017 specifies a test method for the determination of the resistance of flat surfaces of vitreous and porcelain enamels to boiling acids, boiling neutral liquids, alkaline liquids and/or their vapours. This method allows the determination of the resistance of vitreous and porcelain enamels to the liquid and vapour phases of the corrosive medium simultaneously.

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ISO 14917:2017 defines processes and general terms for thermal spraying. It classifies thermal spraying processes according to type of spray material, to type of operation and to type of energy carrier. It specifies abbreviations for spray processes, sprayed coatings, and manufacturing steps.

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ISO 8401:2017 specifies general methods for measuring the ductility of metallic coatings of thickness below 200 μm prepared by electroplating, autocatalytic deposition or other processes. It is applicable to the following methods: - tests on unsupported foils (separated from the substrate); - tests of coatings on substrates. It does not apply to International Standards that include specific methods of testing for individual coatings. In these cases, the methods specified are used in preference to the methods described in this document and are agreed upon beforehand by the supplier and the purchaser.

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