Information and documentation -- RFID in libraries -- Part 4: Encoding of data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned memory

This part of ISO 28560 defines rules for ISO 28560-1 data elements to be encoded in radio frequency
identification (RFID) tags with a memory structure that is partitioned into four memory banks. This
primarily applies to ISO/IEC 18000-63 (previously known as ISO/IEC 18000-6 Type C) operating in the
UHF frequency, but not necessarily restricted to this technology.
The rules for encoding a subset of data elements taken from the total set of data elements defined in
ISO 28560-1 are based on ISO/IEC 15962, which uses an object identifier structure to identify data
elements. This part of ISO 28560 defines the rules for encoding a unique item identifier in a specific
memory bank, known as MB 01, taking into account different requirements for privacy. It also defines
the rules for encoding other relevant data in a separate memory bank, known as MB 11. Each of these
memory banks is addressable using different command set of the appropriate RFID technology.
As with other parts of ISO 28560, this part of ISO 28560 is appropriate for the needs of all types of
libraries (including academic, public, corporate, special, and school libraries).
This part of ISO 28560 provides essential standards-based information about RFID in libraries. A source
of additional information about implementation issues is provided in Annex A.

Information et documentation -- RFID dans les bibliothèques -- Partie 4: Encodage des éléments de données RFID fondé sur les règles de l'ISO/CEI 15962 dans une étiquette de RFID avec la mémoire divisée

Informatika in dokumentacija - RFID v knjižnicah - 4. del: Kodiranje podatkovnih elementov po pravilih iz ISO/IEC 15962 v oznako RFID s porazdeljenim spominom

Ta del standarda ISO 28560 določa pravila za podatkovne elemente iz standarda ISO 28560-1, ki se kodirajo z oznakami za
radiofrekvenčno identifikacijo (RFID) s strukturo pomnilnika, razdeljeno v štiri pomnilniške banke. To predvsem velja za standard ISO/IEC 18000-63 (predhodno poznan kot ISO/IEC 18000-6 tipa C), ki deluje v frekvenčnem pasu UHF, vendar ni nujno omejen na to tehnologijo.
Pravila za šifriranje podniza podatkovnih elementov, izvzetih iz celotnega niza podatkovnih elementov iz standarda ISO 28560-1, temeljijo na standardu ISO/IEC 15962, ki uporablja strukturo identifikatorja objekta za določitev podatkovnih elementov. Ta del standarda ISO 28560 določa pravila za kodiranje enoličnih identifikatorjev v določeni pomnilniški banki, poznani kot MB 01, pri tem pa se upoštevajo različne zahteve glede zasebnosti. Določa tudi pravila za kodiranje drugih pomembnih podatkov v ločeni pomnilniški banki, poznani kot MB 11. Vsaka od teh pomnilniških bank je naslovljiva z drugačnim naborom ukazov ustrezne tehnologije RFID.
Ta del standarda ISO 28560 je poleg ostalih delov tega standarda ustrezen za potrebe vseh vrst knjižnic (vključno z akademskimi, javnimi, poslovnimi, posebnimi in šolskimi).
Ta del standarda ISO 28560 podaja osnovne informacije na osnovi standardov o radiofrekvenčni identifikaciji v knjižnicah. Vir dodatnih informacij o vprašanjih glede izvajanja je podan v dodatku A.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
28-Nov-2016
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
03-Nov-2016
Due Date
08-Jan-2017
Completion Date
29-Nov-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
01-februar-2017
Informatika in dokumentacija - RFID v knjižnicah - 4. del: Kodiranje podatkovnih
elementov po pravilih iz ISO/IEC 15962 v oznako RFID s porazdeljenim spominom

Information and documentation -- RFID in libraries -- Part 4: Encoding of data elements

based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned memory

Information et documentation -- RFID dans les bibliothèques -- Partie 4: Encodage des

éléments de données RFID fondé sur les règles de l'ISO/CEI 15962 dans une étiquette

de RFID avec la mémoire divisée
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TS 28560-4:2014
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
35.040.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kodiranjem informacij information coding
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 28560-4
First edition
2014-12-15
Information and documentation —
RFID in libraries —
Part 4:
Encoding of data elements based on
rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID
tag with partitioned memory
Information et documentation — RFID dans les bibliothèques —
Partie 4: Encodage des éléments de données RFID fondé sur les règles
de l’ISO/CEI 15962 dans une étiquette de RFID avec la mémoire divisée
Reference number
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Applicability and relationship with other systems .......................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Independent standards-based components .................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Integrated encoding/decoding software .......................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Legacy-based architecture ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 RFID air interface: ISO/IEC 18000-63 for UHF ........................................................................................................... 9

5.3 RFID air interface: Other air interface protocols ....................................................................................................10

5.4 Data protocol .........................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 RFID interrogators (RFID readers) ....................................................................................................................................10

6 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2 Unique item identifier (UII) ......................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Primary item identifier .................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4 Content parameter ............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5 Owner institution (ISIL) ...............................................................................................................................................................16

6.6 Set information ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.7 Type of usage .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8 Shelf location .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.9 ONIX media format ...........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.10 MARC media format .........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.11 Supplier identifier .............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.12 Order number .......................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.13 ILL borrowing institute ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.14 ILL transaction number ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.15 GS1 product identifier ...................................................................................................................................................................17

6.16 Alternative unique item identifier .......................................................................................................................................18

6.17 Local data ..................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.18 Title ................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.19 Product identifier (local) .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.20 Media format (other) ......................................................................................................................................................................19

6.21 Supply chain stage.............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.22 Supplier invoice number .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.23 Alternative item number .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.24 Alternative owner institution ..................................................................................................................................................20

6.25 Subsidiary of an owner library ..............................................................................................................................................20

6.26 Alternative ILL borrowing institution..............................................................................................................................20

6.27 Other reserved data elements.................................................................................................................................................20

7 Data encoding .......................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.1 Data protocol overview ................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2 ISO/IEC 15961-1 commands and responses .............................................................................................................22

7.3 ISO/IEC 15962 encoding rules for this part of ISO 28560 .............................................................................22

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)

8 RFID tag requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................34

8.1 Air interface protocol .....................................................................................................................................................................34

8.2 Required air interface commands .......................................................................................................................................35

8.3 Air interface conformance..........................................................................................................................................................36

8.4 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................36

9 Data integrity, security, and privacy issues ............................................................................................................................36

9.1 Data integrity .........................................................................................................................................................................................36

9.2 Item security ..........................................................................................................................................................................................36

9.3 Privacy issues ........................................................................................................................................................................................40

10 Implementation and migration ..........................................................................................................................................................40

Annex A (informative) Information about ISO 28560 RFID in libraries .......................................................................41

Annex B (normative) Relevant ISO/IEC 15961-1 application commands ..................................................................42

Annex C (normative) Locking procedure for MB 01 with encoding in MB 11 ........................................................45

Annex D (normative) Monomorphic-UII and URN Code 40 encoding .............................................................................46

Annex E (informative) Encoding examples .................................................................................................................................................50

Annex F (informative) Implementation and migration .................................................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee

SC 4, Technical interoperability.

ISO 28560 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information and documentation — RFID

in libraries:
— Part 1: Data elements and general guidelines for implementation
— Part 2: Encoding of RFID data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962
— Part 3: Fixed length encoding

— Part 4: Encoding of data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned

memory
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Introduction

Libraries are implementing radio frequency identification (RFID) as item identification to replace bar

codes. RFID streamlines applications like user self-service, security, and materials handling. A standard

data model for encoding information on RFID tags could increase the cost-effectiveness of the technology

within libraries particularly through greater interoperability of RFID tags and equipment, and enhance

support for resource sharing between libraries.

A standard data model, taking into account the lessons learned from the national schemes and vendor

solutions was developed with ISO 28560-1, which defines the set of mandatory and optional data

elements. ISO 28560-2 and ISO 28560-3 define encoding rules for those libraries that choose to use High

Frequency RFID technology operating at 13,56 MHz.

This part of ISO 28560 defines encoding rules for those libraries that choose to use UHF RFID technology

operating at 860 MHz to 960 MHz, with the interrogators (readers) set to conform to local radio

regulations that specify only part of this spectrum. The UHF tags can function efficiently in any of the

radio regulated regions. This part of ISO 28560 uses encoding rules that are specified in ISO/IEC 15962,

as does ISO 28560-2. Some of the encoding rules are different because of the nature of the different RFID

technology, but a number of rules are similar if not identical.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Information and documentation — RFID in libraries —
Part 4:
Encoding of data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC
15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned memory
1 Scope

This part of ISO 28560 defines rules for ISO 28560-1 data elements to be encoded in radio frequency

identification (RFID) tags with a memory structure that is partitioned into four memory banks. This

primarily applies to ISO/IEC 18000-63 (previously known as ISO/IEC 18000-6 Type C) operating in the

UHF frequency, but not necessarily restricted to this technology.

The rules for encoding a subset of data elements taken from the total set of data elements defined in

ISO 28560-1 are based on ISO/IEC 15962, which uses an object identifier structure to identify data

elements. This part of ISO 28560 defines the rules for encoding a unique item identifier in a specific

memory bank, known as MB 01, taking into account different requirements for privacy. It also defines

the rules for encoding other relevant data in a separate memory bank, known as MB 11. Each of these

memory banks is addressable using different command set of the appropriate RFID technology.

As with other parts of ISO 28560, this part of ISO 28560 is appropriate for the needs of all types of

libraries (including academic, public, corporate, special, and school libraries).

This part of ISO 28560 provides essential standards-based information about RFID in libraries. A source

of additional information about implementation issues is provided in Annex A.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 15961-1, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management:

Data protocol — Part 1: Application interface

ISO/IEC 15962, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management —

Data protocol: data encoding rules and logical memory functions

ISO/IEC 18000-63, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

ISO/IEC 18046-1, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 1: Test methods for system performance

ISO/IEC 18046-2, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 2: Test methods for interrogator performance

ISO/IEC 18046-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 3: Test methods for tag performance

ISO/IEC 18047-6, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device conformance test

methods — Part 6: Test methods for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)

ISO 28560-1, Information and documentation — RFID in libraries — Part 1: Data elements and general

guidelines for implementation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
access method

component of the DSFID (3.8) that is responsible for declaring the ISO/IEC 15962 compaction and

encoding rules on an RFID tag

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 11, containing optional

data elements.
3.2
air interface protocol

rules of communication between an RFID interrogator and the RFID tag of a particular type, covering

frequency, modulation, bit encoding, and command sets
3.3
application command

instruction issued from the application to the ISO/IEC 15962 data protocol processor in order to initiate

an action or operation with the RFID tag(s) through the interrogator
3.4
application family identifier
AFI

mechanism used in the data protocol and the air interface protocol (3.2) to select a class of RFID tags

relevant to an application or aspect of an application, and to ignore further communications with other

classes of RFID tags with different identifiers

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 01, containing the data

elements comprising the UII.
3.5
arc

specific branch of an object identifier tree, with new arcs added as required to define a particular object

Note 1 to entry: The top three arcs of all object identifiers are compliant with ISO/IEC 9834-1 ensuring uniqueness.

3.6
data format

component of the DSFID (3.8) that is a mechanism used in the data protocol to identify how object

identifiers (3.12) are encoded on the RFID tag, and (where possible) identify a particular data dictionary

for the set of relevant object identifiers for that application

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 11, containing optional data

elements. The data format declares the Root-OID (3.14) in an efficient manner, so that a complete object identifier

can be reconstructed for external communications.
3.7
data protocol processor

implementation of the processes defined in ISO/IEC 15962, including data compaction, formatting,

support of the command/response unit, and an interface to the tag driver
2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
3.8
data storage format identifier
DSFID
code that consists of, at least, the access method (3.1) and data format (3.6)

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 11, containing optional

data elements.
3.9
digital vandalism

unauthorized modification of data on an RFID tag that either renders it unusable or falsely represents

another identifier
3.10
Memory Bank
designated name of a segmented memory structure (3.15)

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the Memory Banks 00, 01, 10, and 11 are using binary notation.

3.11
metadata
type of data or information about data

Note 1 to entry: In the context of this part of ISO 28560, metadata can be the Relative-OID (3.13) in relation to the data,

the precursor in relation to the compacted and encoded bytes, or the AFI (3.4) and DSFID (3.8) in relation to the data.

3.12
object identifier

value (distinguishable from all other such values), which is associated with an object

3.13
Relative-OID

particular object identifier (3.12) that constitutes the remaining arcs (3.5) after the Root-OID (3.14)

3.14
Root-OID

particular object identifier (3.12) that constitutes the first, second, and subsequent common arcs (3.5) of

a set of object identifiers (hence, the common root)
3.15
segmented memory structure

memory storage that is separated into separate elements and requires multiple addressing elements for

access

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, this has the same meaning as partitioned memory.

3.16
tag driver

implementation of the process to transfer data between the data protocol processor and the RFID tag

3.17
unique item identifier
UII

encodable data that when combined with an object identifier prefix renders the combination unique

within the rules of the application domain
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
4 Applicability and relationship with other systems
4.1 General

The use of the ISO/IEC 18000-63 air interface protocol brings with it a set of different standards which

can be deployed to support RFID in libraries. Three different device architectures are discussed below

from the library application to the RFID tag. It should be noted that with the development in UHF RFID,

the LMS/ILS is not the only end point (or start point for encoding) in an RFID system. Therefore, under

the heading of “library application”, the following also needs to be considered:
— the library management system/integrated library system;
— software linked to encoding devices used by book suppliers;

— portable devices, with on-board processing, which exchange data (as necessary) with the LMS/ILS

on a transaction or even batch mode basis;
— sortation systems that can operate somewhat autonomously from the LMS/ILS;
— software to support quality control devices;
— mobile phones and other user-centric portable devices.

Some of the architectures described below offer different perspectives on how to achieve interoperability.

The one described in 4.2 offers more opportunities for using generic modules, while the one described in

4.3 can be called the “traditional model” replicating structures used by libraries that have implemented

RFID using 13,56 MHz technology, while the one described in 4.4 can be considered a compromise

between the other two architectures. There is no requirement to adopt one of these architectures; in

fact, some might be more suited to some type of device (e.g. portable devices, RFID tunnel readers) or

some type of operator (e.g. a book supplier compared with a circulation library). Some of the choices

might depend on the interfaces supported by hardware devices and software components.

4.2 Independent standards-based components

Figure 1 shows an architecture where individual hardware and/or software modules communicate

between different layers.
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Figure 1 — Architecture using all standard components
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)

Using the example of reading data from the tag (i.e. bottom up in the figure, the inverse applies for

encoding data).

a) The ISO/IEC 18000-63 air interface protocol is used between the tag and the interrogator to transfer

encoded bits within commands and responses.

b) The interrogator supports the device interface standard (ISO/IEC 24791-5) and communicates to

upper layers using this protocol, typically to a stand-alone ISO/IEC 15962 software implementation.

c) In turn, after decoding the data on the tag, the ISO/IEC 15962 software simply communicates to an

ISO/TS 28560-4 software implementation:

— object identifiers and the de-compacted data, where these are encoded using standard

ISO/IEC 15962 compaction rules;
— object identifiers and the still compacted data bytes for data element
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
01-februar-2017
Informatika in dokumentacija - RFID v knjižnicah - 4. del: Kodiranje podatkovnih
elementov po pravilih iz ISO/IEC 15962 v oznako RFID s porazdeljenim spominom

Information and documentation -- RFID in libraries -- Part 4: Encoding of data elements

based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned memory

Information et documentation -- RFID dans les bibliothèques -- Partie 4: Encodage des

éléments de données RFID fondé sur les règles de l'ISO/CEI 15962 dans une étiquette

de RFID avec la mémoire divisée
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TS 28560-4:2014
ICS:
01.140.20 Informacijske vede Information sciences
35.040.50 Tehnike za samodejno Automatic identification and
razpoznavanje in zajem data capture techniques
podatkov
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 28560-4
First edition
2014-12-15
Information and documentation —
RFID in libraries —
Part 4:
Encoding of data elements based on
rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID
tag with partitioned memory
Information et documentation — RFID dans les bibliothèques —
Partie 4: Encodage des éléments de données RFID fondé sur les règles
de l’ISO/CEI 15962 dans une étiquette de RFID avec la mémoire divisée
Reference number
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Applicability and relationship with other systems .......................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Independent standards-based components .................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Integrated encoding/decoding software .......................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Legacy-based architecture ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 RFID air interface: ISO/IEC 18000-63 for UHF ........................................................................................................... 9

5.3 RFID air interface: Other air interface protocols ....................................................................................................10

5.4 Data protocol .........................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 RFID interrogators (RFID readers) ....................................................................................................................................10

6 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2 Unique item identifier (UII) ......................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Primary item identifier .................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4 Content parameter ............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5 Owner institution (ISIL) ...............................................................................................................................................................16

6.6 Set information ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.7 Type of usage .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8 Shelf location .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.9 ONIX media format ...........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.10 MARC media format .........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.11 Supplier identifier .............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.12 Order number .......................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.13 ILL borrowing institute ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.14 ILL transaction number ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.15 GS1 product identifier ...................................................................................................................................................................17

6.16 Alternative unique item identifier .......................................................................................................................................18

6.17 Local data ..................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.18 Title ................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.19 Product identifier (local) .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.20 Media format (other) ......................................................................................................................................................................19

6.21 Supply chain stage.............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.22 Supplier invoice number .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.23 Alternative item number .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.24 Alternative owner institution ..................................................................................................................................................20

6.25 Subsidiary of an owner library ..............................................................................................................................................20

6.26 Alternative ILL borrowing institution..............................................................................................................................20

6.27 Other reserved data elements.................................................................................................................................................20

7 Data encoding .......................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.1 Data protocol overview ................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2 ISO/IEC 15961-1 commands and responses .............................................................................................................22

7.3 ISO/IEC 15962 encoding rules for this part of ISO 28560 .............................................................................22

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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8 RFID tag requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................34

8.1 Air interface protocol .....................................................................................................................................................................34

8.2 Required air interface commands .......................................................................................................................................35

8.3 Air interface conformance..........................................................................................................................................................36

8.4 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................36

9 Data integrity, security, and privacy issues ............................................................................................................................36

9.1 Data integrity .........................................................................................................................................................................................36

9.2 Item security ..........................................................................................................................................................................................36

9.3 Privacy issues ........................................................................................................................................................................................40

10 Implementation and migration ..........................................................................................................................................................40

Annex A (informative) Information about ISO 28560 RFID in libraries .......................................................................41

Annex B (normative) Relevant ISO/IEC 15961-1 application commands ..................................................................42

Annex C (normative) Locking procedure for MB 01 with encoding in MB 11 ........................................................45

Annex D (normative) Monomorphic-UII and URN Code 40 encoding .............................................................................46

Annex E (informative) Encoding examples .................................................................................................................................................50

Annex F (informative) Implementation and migration .................................................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee

SC 4, Technical interoperability.

ISO 28560 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information and documentation — RFID

in libraries:
— Part 1: Data elements and general guidelines for implementation
— Part 2: Encoding of RFID data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962
— Part 3: Fixed length encoding

— Part 4: Encoding of data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned

memory
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Introduction

Libraries are implementing radio frequency identification (RFID) as item identification to replace bar

codes. RFID streamlines applications like user self-service, security, and materials handling. A standard

data model for encoding information on RFID tags could increase the cost-effectiveness of the technology

within libraries particularly through greater interoperability of RFID tags and equipment, and enhance

support for resource sharing between libraries.

A standard data model, taking into account the lessons learned from the national schemes and vendor

solutions was developed with ISO 28560-1, which defines the set of mandatory and optional data

elements. ISO 28560-2 and ISO 28560-3 define encoding rules for those libraries that choose to use High

Frequency RFID technology operating at 13,56 MHz.

This part of ISO 28560 defines encoding rules for those libraries that choose to use UHF RFID technology

operating at 860 MHz to 960 MHz, with the interrogators (readers) set to conform to local radio

regulations that specify only part of this spectrum. The UHF tags can function efficiently in any of the

radio regulated regions. This part of ISO 28560 uses encoding rules that are specified in ISO/IEC 15962,

as does ISO 28560-2. Some of the encoding rules are different because of the nature of the different RFID

technology, but a number of rules are similar if not identical.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Information and documentation — RFID in libraries —
Part 4:
Encoding of data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC
15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned memory
1 Scope

This part of ISO 28560 defines rules for ISO 28560-1 data elements to be encoded in radio frequency

identification (RFID) tags with a memory structure that is partitioned into four memory banks. This

primarily applies to ISO/IEC 18000-63 (previously known as ISO/IEC 18000-6 Type C) operating in the

UHF frequency, but not necessarily restricted to this technology.

The rules for encoding a subset of data elements taken from the total set of data elements defined in

ISO 28560-1 are based on ISO/IEC 15962, which uses an object identifier structure to identify data

elements. This part of ISO 28560 defines the rules for encoding a unique item identifier in a specific

memory bank, known as MB 01, taking into account different requirements for privacy. It also defines

the rules for encoding other relevant data in a separate memory bank, known as MB 11. Each of these

memory banks is addressable using different command set of the appropriate RFID technology.

As with other parts of ISO 28560, this part of ISO 28560 is appropriate for the needs of all types of

libraries (including academic, public, corporate, special, and school libraries).

This part of ISO 28560 provides essential standards-based information about RFID in libraries. A source

of additional information about implementation issues is provided in Annex A.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 15961-1, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management:

Data protocol — Part 1: Application interface

ISO/IEC 15962, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management —

Data protocol: data encoding rules and logical memory functions

ISO/IEC 18000-63, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

ISO/IEC 18046-1, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 1: Test methods for system performance

ISO/IEC 18046-2, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 2: Test methods for interrogator performance

ISO/IEC 18046-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 3: Test methods for tag performance

ISO/IEC 18047-6, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device conformance test

methods — Part 6: Test methods for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)

ISO 28560-1, Information and documentation — RFID in libraries — Part 1: Data elements and general

guidelines for implementation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
access method

component of the DSFID (3.8) that is responsible for declaring the ISO/IEC 15962 compaction and

encoding rules on an RFID tag

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 11, containing optional

data elements.
3.2
air interface protocol

rules of communication between an RFID interrogator and the RFID tag of a particular type, covering

frequency, modulation, bit encoding, and command sets
3.3
application command

instruction issued from the application to the ISO/IEC 15962 data protocol processor in order to initiate

an action or operation with the RFID tag(s) through the interrogator
3.4
application family identifier
AFI

mechanism used in the data protocol and the air interface protocol (3.2) to select a class of RFID tags

relevant to an application or aspect of an application, and to ignore further communications with other

classes of RFID tags with different identifiers

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 01, containing the data

elements comprising the UII.
3.5
arc

specific branch of an object identifier tree, with new arcs added as required to define a particular object

Note 1 to entry: The top three arcs of all object identifiers are compliant with ISO/IEC 9834-1 ensuring uniqueness.

3.6
data format

component of the DSFID (3.8) that is a mechanism used in the data protocol to identify how object

identifiers (3.12) are encoded on the RFID tag, and (where possible) identify a particular data dictionary

for the set of relevant object identifiers for that application

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 11, containing optional data

elements. The data format declares the Root-OID (3.14) in an efficient manner, so that a complete object identifier

can be reconstructed for external communications.
3.7
data protocol processor

implementation of the processes defined in ISO/IEC 15962, including data compaction, formatting,

support of the command/response unit, and an interface to the tag driver
2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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3.8
data storage format identifier
DSFID
code that consists of, at least, the access method (3.1) and data format (3.6)

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 11, containing optional

data elements.
3.9
digital vandalism

unauthorized modification of data on an RFID tag that either renders it unusable or falsely represents

another identifier
3.10
Memory Bank
designated name of a segmented memory structure (3.15)

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the Memory Banks 00, 01, 10, and 11 are using binary notation.

3.11
metadata
type of data or information about data

Note 1 to entry: In the context of this part of ISO 28560, metadata can be the Relative-OID (3.13) in relation to the data,

the precursor in relation to the compacted and encoded bytes, or the AFI (3.4) and DSFID (3.8) in relation to the data.

3.12
object identifier

value (distinguishable from all other such values), which is associated with an object

3.13
Relative-OID

particular object identifier (3.12) that constitutes the remaining arcs (3.5) after the Root-OID (3.14)

3.14
Root-OID

particular object identifier (3.12) that constitutes the first, second, and subsequent common arcs (3.5) of

a set of object identifiers (hence, the common root)
3.15
segmented memory structure

memory storage that is separated into separate elements and requires multiple addressing elements for

access

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, this has the same meaning as partitioned memory.

3.16
tag driver

implementation of the process to transfer data between the data protocol processor and the RFID tag

3.17
unique item identifier
UII

encodable data that when combined with an object identifier prefix renders the combination unique

within the rules of the application domain
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
4 Applicability and relationship with other systems
4.1 General

The use of the ISO/IEC 18000-63 air interface protocol brings with it a set of different standards which

can be deployed to support RFID in libraries. Three different device architectures are discussed below

from the library application to the RFID tag. It should be noted that with the development in UHF RFID,

the LMS/ILS is not the only end point (or start point for encoding) in an RFID system. Therefore, under

the heading of “library application”, the following also needs to be considered:
— the library management system/integrated library system;
— software linked to encoding devices used by book suppliers;

— portable devices, with on-board processing, which exchange data (as necessary) with the LMS/ILS

on a transaction or even batch mode basis;
— sortation systems that can operate somewhat autonomously from the LMS/ILS;
— software to support quality control devices;
— mobile phones and other user-centric portable devices.

Some of the architectures described below offer different perspectives on how to achieve interoperability.

The one described in 4.2 offers more opportunities for using generic modules, while the one described in

4.3 can be called the “traditional model” replicating structures used by libraries that have implemented

RFID using 13,56 MHz technology, while the one described in 4.4 can be considered a compromise

between the other two architectures. There is no requirement to adopt one of these architectures; in

fact, some might be more suited to some type of device (e.g. portable devices, RFID tunnel readers) or

some type of operator (e.g. a book supplier compared with a circulation library). Some of the choices

might depend on the interfaces supported by hardware devices and software components.

4.2 Independent standards-based components

Figure 1 shows an architecture where individual hardware and/or software modules communicate

between different layers.
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Figure 1 — Architecture using all standard components
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 28560-4:2017
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)

Using the example of reading data from the tag (i.e. bottom up in the figure, the inverse applies for

encoding data).

a) The ISO/IEC 18000-63 air interface protocol is used between the tag and the interrogator to transfer

encoded bits within commands and responses.

b) The interrogator supports the device interface standard (ISO/IEC 24791-5) and communicates to

upper layers using this protocol, typically to a stand-alone ISO/IEC 15962 software implementation.

c) In turn, after decoding the data on the tag, the ISO/IEC 15962 software simply communicates to an

ISO/TS 28560-4 software implementation:

— object identifiers and the de-compacted data, where these are encoded using standard

ISO/IEC 15962 compaction rules;

— object identifiers and the still compacted data bytes for data elements defined as

...

TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 28560-4
First edition
2014-12-15
Information and documentation —
RFID in libraries —
Part 4:
Encoding of data elements based on
rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID
tag with partitioned memory
Information et documentation — RFID dans les bibliothèques —
Partie 4: Encodage des éléments de données RFID fondé sur les règles
de l’ISO/CEI 15962 dans une étiquette de RFID avec la mémoire divisée
Reference number
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Applicability and relationship with other systems .......................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Independent standards-based components .................................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Integrated encoding/decoding software .......................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Legacy-based architecture ............................................................................................................................................................ 8

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.1 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 RFID air interface: ISO/IEC 18000-63 for UHF ........................................................................................................... 9

5.3 RFID air interface: Other air interface protocols ....................................................................................................10

5.4 Data protocol .........................................................................................................................................................................................10

5.5 RFID interrogators (RFID readers) ....................................................................................................................................10

6 Data elements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.2 Unique item identifier (UII) ......................................................................................................................................................12

6.3 Primary item identifier .................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4 Content parameter ............................................................................................................................................................................15

6.5 Owner institution (ISIL) ...............................................................................................................................................................16

6.6 Set information ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.7 Type of usage .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.8 Shelf location .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.9 ONIX media format ...........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.10 MARC media format .........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.11 Supplier identifier .............................................................................................................................................................................17

6.12 Order number .......................................................................................................................................................................................17

6.13 ILL borrowing institute ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.14 ILL transaction number ................................................................................................................................................................17

6.15 GS1 product identifier ...................................................................................................................................................................17

6.16 Alternative unique item identifier .......................................................................................................................................18

6.17 Local data ..................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.18 Title ................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.19 Product identifier (local) .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.20 Media format (other) ......................................................................................................................................................................19

6.21 Supply chain stage.............................................................................................................................................................................19

6.22 Supplier invoice number .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.23 Alternative item number .............................................................................................................................................................19

6.24 Alternative owner institution ..................................................................................................................................................20

6.25 Subsidiary of an owner library ..............................................................................................................................................20

6.26 Alternative ILL borrowing institution..............................................................................................................................20

6.27 Other reserved data elements.................................................................................................................................................20

7 Data encoding .......................................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.1 Data protocol overview ................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2 ISO/IEC 15961-1 commands and responses .............................................................................................................22

7.3 ISO/IEC 15962 encoding rules for this part of ISO 28560 .............................................................................22

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)

8 RFID tag requirements ................................................................................................................................................................................34

8.1 Air interface protocol .....................................................................................................................................................................34

8.2 Required air interface commands .......................................................................................................................................35

8.3 Air interface conformance..........................................................................................................................................................36

8.4 Performance ...........................................................................................................................................................................................36

9 Data integrity, security, and privacy issues ............................................................................................................................36

9.1 Data integrity .........................................................................................................................................................................................36

9.2 Item security ..........................................................................................................................................................................................36

9.3 Privacy issues ........................................................................................................................................................................................40

10 Implementation and migration ..........................................................................................................................................................40

Annex A (informative) Information about ISO 28560 RFID in libraries .......................................................................41

Annex B (normative) Relevant ISO/IEC 15961-1 application commands ..................................................................42

Annex C (normative) Locking procedure for MB 01 with encoding in MB 11 ........................................................45

Annex D (normative) Monomorphic-UII and URN Code 40 encoding .............................................................................46

Annex E (informative) Encoding examples .................................................................................................................................................50

Annex F (informative) Implementation and migration .................................................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 46, Information and documentation, Subcommittee

SC 4, Technical interoperability.

ISO 28560 consists of the following parts, under the general title Information and documentation — RFID

in libraries:
— Part 1: Data elements and general guidelines for implementation
— Part 2: Encoding of RFID data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962
— Part 3: Fixed length encoding

— Part 4: Encoding of data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC 15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned

memory
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Introduction

Libraries are implementing radio frequency identification (RFID) as item identification to replace bar

codes. RFID streamlines applications like user self-service, security, and materials handling. A standard

data model for encoding information on RFID tags could increase the cost-effectiveness of the technology

within libraries particularly through greater interoperability of RFID tags and equipment, and enhance

support for resource sharing between libraries.

A standard data model, taking into account the lessons learned from the national schemes and vendor

solutions was developed with ISO 28560-1, which defines the set of mandatory and optional data

elements. ISO 28560-2 and ISO 28560-3 define encoding rules for those libraries that choose to use High

Frequency RFID technology operating at 13,56 MHz.

This part of ISO 28560 defines encoding rules for those libraries that choose to use UHF RFID technology

operating at 860 MHz to 960 MHz, with the interrogators (readers) set to conform to local radio

regulations that specify only part of this spectrum. The UHF tags can function efficiently in any of the

radio regulated regions. This part of ISO 28560 uses encoding rules that are specified in ISO/IEC 15962,

as does ISO 28560-2. Some of the encoding rules are different because of the nature of the different RFID

technology, but a number of rules are similar if not identical.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Information and documentation — RFID in libraries —
Part 4:
Encoding of data elements based on rules from ISO/IEC
15962 in an RFID tag with partitioned memory
1 Scope

This part of ISO 28560 defines rules for ISO 28560-1 data elements to be encoded in radio frequency

identification (RFID) tags with a memory structure that is partitioned into four memory banks. This

primarily applies to ISO/IEC 18000-63 (previously known as ISO/IEC 18000-6 Type C) operating in the

UHF frequency, but not necessarily restricted to this technology.

The rules for encoding a subset of data elements taken from the total set of data elements defined in

ISO 28560-1 are based on ISO/IEC 15962, which uses an object identifier structure to identify data

elements. This part of ISO 28560 defines the rules for encoding a unique item identifier in a specific

memory bank, known as MB 01, taking into account different requirements for privacy. It also defines

the rules for encoding other relevant data in a separate memory bank, known as MB 11. Each of these

memory banks is addressable using different command set of the appropriate RFID technology.

As with other parts of ISO 28560, this part of ISO 28560 is appropriate for the needs of all types of

libraries (including academic, public, corporate, special, and school libraries).

This part of ISO 28560 provides essential standards-based information about RFID in libraries. A source

of additional information about implementation issues is provided in Annex A.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/IEC 15961-1, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management:

Data protocol — Part 1: Application interface

ISO/IEC 15962, Information technology — Radio frequency identification (RFID) for item management —

Data protocol: data encoding rules and logical memory functions

ISO/IEC 18000-63, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management —

Part 63: Parameters for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz Type C

ISO/IEC 18046-1, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 1: Test methods for system performance

ISO/IEC 18046-2, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 2: Test methods for interrogator performance

ISO/IEC 18046-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device performance test

methods — Part 3: Test methods for tag performance

ISO/IEC 18047-6, Information technology — Radio frequency identification device conformance test

methods — Part 6: Test methods for air interface communications at 860 MHz to 960 MHz

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)

ISO 28560-1, Information and documentation — RFID in libraries — Part 1: Data elements and general

guidelines for implementation
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
access method

component of the DSFID (3.8) that is responsible for declaring the ISO/IEC 15962 compaction and

encoding rules on an RFID tag

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 11, containing optional

data elements.
3.2
air interface protocol

rules of communication between an RFID interrogator and the RFID tag of a particular type, covering

frequency, modulation, bit encoding, and command sets
3.3
application command

instruction issued from the application to the ISO/IEC 15962 data protocol processor in order to initiate

an action or operation with the RFID tag(s) through the interrogator
3.4
application family identifier
AFI

mechanism used in the data protocol and the air interface protocol (3.2) to select a class of RFID tags

relevant to an application or aspect of an application, and to ignore further communications with other

classes of RFID tags with different identifiers

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 01, containing the data

elements comprising the UII.
3.5
arc

specific branch of an object identifier tree, with new arcs added as required to define a particular object

Note 1 to entry: The top three arcs of all object identifiers are compliant with ISO/IEC 9834-1 ensuring uniqueness.

3.6
data format

component of the DSFID (3.8) that is a mechanism used in the data protocol to identify how object

identifiers (3.12) are encoded on the RFID tag, and (where possible) identify a particular data dictionary

for the set of relevant object identifiers for that application

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 11, containing optional data

elements. The data format declares the Root-OID (3.14) in an efficient manner, so that a complete object identifier

can be reconstructed for external communications.
3.7
data protocol processor

implementation of the processes defined in ISO/IEC 15962, including data compaction, formatting,

support of the command/response unit, and an interface to the tag driver
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3.8
data storage format identifier
DSFID
code that consists of, at least, the access method (3.1) and data format (3.6)

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the term is only relevant to Memory Bank 11, containing optional

data elements.
3.9
digital vandalism

unauthorized modification of data on an RFID tag that either renders it unusable or falsely represents

another identifier
3.10
Memory Bank
designated name of a segmented memory structure (3.15)

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, the Memory Banks 00, 01, 10, and 11 are using binary notation.

3.11
metadata
type of data or information about data

Note 1 to entry: In the context of this part of ISO 28560, metadata can be the Relative-OID (3.13) in relation to the data,

the precursor in relation to the compacted and encoded bytes, or the AFI (3.4) and DSFID (3.8) in relation to the data.

3.12
object identifier

value (distinguishable from all other such values), which is associated with an object

3.13
Relative-OID

particular object identifier (3.12) that constitutes the remaining arcs (3.5) after the Root-OID (3.14)

3.14
Root-OID

particular object identifier (3.12) that constitutes the first, second, and subsequent common arcs (3.5) of

a set of object identifiers (hence, the common root)
3.15
segmented memory structure

memory storage that is separated into separate elements and requires multiple addressing elements for

access

Note 1 to entry: For this part of ISO 28560, this has the same meaning as partitioned memory.

3.16
tag driver

implementation of the process to transfer data between the data protocol processor and the RFID tag

3.17
unique item identifier
UII

encodable data that when combined with an object identifier prefix renders the combination unique

within the rules of the application domain
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ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
4 Applicability and relationship with other systems
4.1 General

The use of the ISO/IEC 18000-63 air interface protocol brings with it a set of different standards which

can be deployed to support RFID in libraries. Three different device architectures are discussed below

from the library application to the RFID tag. It should be noted that with the development in UHF RFID,

the LMS/ILS is not the only end point (or start point for encoding) in an RFID system. Therefore, under

the heading of “library application”, the following also needs to be considered:
— the library management system/integrated library system;
— software linked to encoding devices used by book suppliers;

— portable devices, with on-board processing, which exchange data (as necessary) with the LMS/ILS

on a transaction or even batch mode basis;
— sortation systems that can operate somewhat autonomously from the LMS/ILS;
— software to support quality control devices;
— mobile phones and other user-centric portable devices.

Some of the architectures described below offer different perspectives on how to achieve interoperability.

The one described in 4.2 offers more opportunities for using generic modules, while the one described in

4.3 can be called the “traditional model” replicating structures used by libraries that have implemented

RFID using 13,56 MHz technology, while the one described in 4.4 can be considered a compromise

between the other two architectures. There is no requirement to adopt one of these architectures; in

fact, some might be more suited to some type of device (e.g. portable devices, RFID tunnel readers) or

some type of operator (e.g. a book supplier compared with a circulation library). Some of the choices

might depend on the interfaces supported by hardware devices and software components.

4.2 Independent standards-based components

Figure 1 shows an architecture where individual hardware and/or software modules communicate

between different layers.
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ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Figure 1 — Architecture using all standard components
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ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)

Using the example of reading data from the tag (i.e. bottom up in the figure, the inverse applies for

encoding data).

a) The ISO/IEC 18000-63 air interface protocol is used between the tag and the interrogator to transfer

encoded bits within commands and responses.

b) The interrogator supports the device interface standard (ISO/IEC 24791-5) and communicates to

upper layers using this protocol, typically to a stand-alone ISO/IEC 15962 software implementation.

c) In turn, after decoding the data on the tag, the ISO/IEC 15962 software simply communicates to an

ISO/TS 28560-4 software implementation:

— object identifiers and the de-compacted data, where these are encoded using standard

ISO/IEC 15962 compaction rules;

— object identifiers and the still compacted data bytes for data elements defined as application-

specific.

d) The device, shown in dotted lines, is capable of processing some front-line function. A typical

example is the self-check terminal, but could be any other device designed or configured for a

library application. The ISO 28560-4 software module can be integrated in the device or can directly

interface with it, based on the implementation and design requirements. This software decodes

the additional application-specific data elements and passes on all the data elements to specific

software in the library device (e.g. circulation control terminals, sortation systems, portable

devices) for processing.

e) The library device processes the data elements in a manner relevant to library applications, including

the LMS/ILS using a communication protocol implemented by the library, such as SIP 2.0.

4.3 Integrated encoding/decoding software

Figure 2 illustrates an architecture that has a more integrated software component but uses the standard

air interface protocol and the device interface protocol from the interrogator module.

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ISO/TS 28560-4:2014(E)
Figure 2 — Architecture with integrated data element software component

The software module that processes the data according to ISO/IEC 15962 rules is incorporated into

a software product that also deals with all the ISO/TS 28560-4 encoding rules. This means

...

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